Abdullah Yusuf Ali
Abdullah Yusuf Ali, CBE, MA, LL. M, FRSA, FRSL was a British-Indian barrister and scholar who wrote a number of books about Islam and whose translation of the Qur'an into English is one of the most known and used in the English-speaking world. A supporter of the British war effort during World War I, Ali received the CBE in 1917 for his services to that cause, he died in London in 1953. Ali was born in Bombay, British India, the son of Yusuf Ali Allahbuksh known as Khan Bahadur Yusuf Ali, a Shi'i in the Dawoodi Bohra tradition, who turned his back on the traditional business-based occupation of his community and instead became a Government Inspector of Police. On his retirement he gained the title Khan Bahadur for public service; as a child Abdullah Yusuf Ali attended the Anjuman Himayat-ul-Islam school and studied at the missionary school Wilson College, both in Bombay. He received a religious education and could recite the entire Qur'an from memory, he spoke both English fluently. He concentrated his efforts on the Qur'an and studied the Qur'anic commentaries beginning with those written in the early days of Islamic history.
Ali took a first class Bachelor of Arts degree in English Literature at the University of Bombay in January 1891 aged 19 and was awarded a Presidency of Bombay Scholarship to study at the University of Cambridge in England. Ali first went to Britain in 1891 to study Law at St John's College and after graduating BA and LL. B in 1895 he returned to India in the same year with a post in the Indian Civil Service being called to the Bar in Lincoln's Inn in 1896 in absentia, he received his MA and LL. M in 1901, he married Teresa Mary Shalders at St Peter's Church in Bournemouth in 1900, with her he had three sons and a daughter: Edris Yusuf Ali, Asghar Bloy Yusuf Ali, Alban Hyder Yusuf Ali, Leila Teresa Ali. His wife and children settled variously in Tunbridge Wells, St Albans and Norwich while Ali returned to his post in India, he returned to Britain in 1905 on a two-year leave from the ICS and during this period he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts and the Royal Society of Literature.
Ali first came to public attention in Britain after he gave a lecture at the Royal Society of Arts in London in 1906, organised by his mentor Sir George Birdwood. Another mentor was Lord James Meston Lieutenant Governor of the United Provinces, when he was made Finance Member of the Government of India appointed Ali to positions in various districts in India which involved two short periods as acting Under Secretary and Deputy Secretary in the Finance Department of the Government of India. Khizar Humayun Ansari, his biographer on the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, wrote of Ali: "Yusuf Ali belonged to the group of Indian Muslims from professional families who were concerned with rank and status. In pursuit of his aspiration for influence, deference, if not outright obsequiousness, became a central feature of his relationship with the British. During the formative phase of his life he mingled in upper-class circles, assiduously cultivating relations with members of the English élite.
He was impressed by the genteel behaviour and cordiality of those with whom he associated, and, as a result, became an incorrigible Anglophile. His marriage to Teresa Shalders according to the rites of the Church of England, his hosting of receptions for the good and the great, his taste for Hellenic artefacts and culture and fascination for its heroes, his admiration for freemasonry in India as a way of bridging the racial and social divide, his advocacy of the dissemination of rationalist and modernist thought through secular education were all genuine attempts to assimilate into British society." His constant travelling between India and Britain took its toll on his marriage and his wife Teresa Mary Shalders was unfaithful to him and gave birth to an illegitimate child in 1910, causing him to divorce her in 1912 and gaining custody of their four children, whom he left with a governess in England. However, his children rejected him and on future visits to London during the 1920s and 1930s he stayed at the National Liberal Club.
In 1914 Ali resigned from the ICS and settled in Britain where he became a Trustee of the Shah Jehan Mosque in Woking and in 1921 became a Trustee of the fund to build the East London Mosque. With the outbreak of World War I, unlike many Muslims in Britain who felt uncomfortable with supporting the British war effort against fellow Muslims of the Ottoman Empire, Ali was an enthusiastic supporter of the Indian contribution to the war effort, to that end writing articles, giving public speeches and undertaking a lecture tour of Scandinavia and was awarded a CBE in 1917 for his services to that cause. In the same year he joined the staff of the School of Oriental Studies as a lecturer in Hindustani, he married Gertrude Anne Mawbey in 1920, she having taken the Muslim name'Masuma' returned with him to India to escape the harassment the couple suffered from Ali's children from his first marriage, who resented him and his new wife. In his will Ali mentioned his second son Asghar Bloy Yusuf Ali who "has gone so far as to abuse, insult and persecute me from time to time."With Mawbey he had a son, but this marriage too ended in failure.
He was a respected intellectual in India and Sir Muhammad Iqbal recruited him to be the Principal of Islamia College in Lahore, serving from 1925 to 1927 and again from 1935 to 1937. He was a Fellow and syndic of the University of the Punjab and a member of the Punjab University
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Jinn Romanized as djinn or Anglicized as genies, are supernatural creatures in early pre-Islamic Arabian and Islamic mythology and theology. Jinn are not a Islamic concept. Since jinn are not evil, Islam was able to adapt spirits from other religions during its expansion. Besides the jinn, Islam acknowledges the existence of demons; the lines between demons and jinn are blurred, since malevolent jinn are called shayāṭīn. However both Islam and non-Islamic scholarship distinguishes between angels and demons as three different types of spiritual entities in Islamic traditions; the jinn are distinguished from demons in that they can be both evil or good, while genuine demons are evil. Some academic scholars assert that demons are related to monotheistic traditions and jinn to polytheistic traditions. In an Islamic context, the term jinn is used for both a collective designation for any supernatural creature and to refer to a specific type of supernatural creature. Jinn is an Arabic collective noun deriving from the Semitic root JNN, whose primary meaning is "to hide" or "to conceal".
Some authors interpret the word to mean "beings that are concealed from the senses". Cognates include the Arabic majnūn, janīn. Jinn is properly treated as a plural, with the singular being jinnī; the origin of the word Jinn remains uncertain. Some scholars relate the Arabic term jinn to the Latin genius, as a result of syncretism during the reign of the Roman empire under Tiberius Augustus, but this derivation is disputed. Another suggestion holds that jinn may be derived from Aramaic "ginnaya" with the meaning of "tutelary deity", or "garden". Others claim a Persian origin of the word, in the form of a wicked spirit. Jaini were among various creatures in the even pre-Zoroastrian mythology of peoples of Iran; the Anglicized form genie is a borrowing of the French génie, from the Latin genius, a guardian spirit of people and places in Roman religion. It first appeared in 18th-century translations of the Thousand and One Nights from the French, where it had been used owing to its rough similarity in sound and sense and further applies to benevolent intermediary spirits, in contrast to the malevolent spirits called demon and heavenly angels, in literature.
In Assyrian art, creatures ontologically between humans and divinities are called genie. Jinn were worshipped by many Arabs during the Pre-Islamic period, unlike gods, jinn were not regarded as immortal. In ancient Arabia, the term jinn applied to all kinds of supernatural entities among various religions and cults; the exact origins of belief in jinn are not clear. Some scholars of the Middle East hold that they originated as malevolent spirits residing in deserts and unclean places, who took the forms of animals. According to common Arabian belief, pre-Islamic philosophers, poets were inspired by the jinn. However, jinn were feared and thought to be responsible for causing various diseases and mental illnesses. Julius Wellhausen observed that such spirits were thought to inhabit desolate and dark places and that they were feared. One had to protect oneself from them. In the Islamic sense, the term jinn is used in two different ways: An invisible entity, who roamed the earth before Adam, created by God out of a "mixture of fire" or "smokeless fire".
They are believed to resemble humans in that they eat and drink, have children and die, are subject to judgment, so will either be sent to heaven or hell according to their deeds. But they were stronger than humans. Jinn are related to heavenly beings, a sub-category of angels or a tribe of angelic beings, able to sin and created from fire, unlike their light-created counterpart; however these jinn must be distinguished, from the pre-Adamite jinn-race, who share many characteristics with human, instead of angels. As the opposite of al-Ins referring to any object that cannot be detected by human sensory organs, including angels and the interior of human beings, thus every demon and every angel is a jinn, but not every jinn is an angel or a demon. Belief in jinn is not included among the six articles of Islamic faith, as belief in angels is, however at least some Muslims believe it essential to the Islamic faith. Jinn are mentioned 29 times in the Quran together with humans, the 72 surah named after them.
They are mentioned in collections of Ṣaḥīḥ ahadith. One hadith divides them with one type flying through the air. In Islamic tradition, Muhammad was sent as a prophet to both human and jinn communities, that prophets and messengers were sent to both communities. Traditionally Surah 72 is held to tell about the revelation to jinn and several stories mention one of Muhammad's followers accompanied him, witnessing the revelation to the jinn. Another Islamic prophet, related to interactions with jinn, is Solomon. In Quran, he is said to be a king in ancient Israel and was gifted by God to talk to animals and jin
Shayāṭīn, singular: Shayṭān are evil spirits, comparable to demons or devils, in Islamic theology and mythology. The shayatin are regarded as the offspring of Iblis, but other beings, such as evil jinn and fallen angels are referred to as shayatin. From an ontological perspective, the shayatin are all beings, which became a manifestation of evil and ugliness. Surah 6:112 collectively refers to the "shayatin" among Ins and jinn, whereupon some exegetes linked this expression to "evil among everything in shape" and "evil among everything invisible"; the word Šayṭān originates from the Hebrew שָׂטָן "accuser, adversary". However Arabic etymology relates the word to the root š-ṭ-n taking a theological connotation designating a creature distant from divine mercy. In pre-Islamic Arabia this term was used to designate an evil spirit. With the emergence of Islam the meaning of shayatin moved closer to the Christian concept of devils; the term shayatin appears in a similar way in the Book of Enoch. Taken from Islamic sources, "shaitan" may either be translated as "demon" or as "devil".
Like jinn, the shayatin share the characteristics of invisibility. Some scholars put them under one category of the supernatural; however the prevailing opinion among the mufassirs distinguish between the jinn and shayatin as following: While among the jinn, there are different types of believers, the shayatin are evil. The jinn die, while the shayatin only die, when their leader ceases to exist. Since the shayatin are limited to "evil", they lack free will and are inaccessible to the "good." A hadith emphasizes the impossibility for the shayatin to access salvation: "One kind of beings will dwell in Paradise, they are the malaikah. Some exegetes, such as Zakariya al-Qazwini elaborated a more extensive account on the shayatin, based on hadith traditions. Accordingly, the shayatin are hermaphrodite, unable to marry, reproduce by laying eggs. For their creation it was suggested that the shayatin were created from the smoke of fire, while the jinn from its blaze and angels from its light; the existence of shayatin is affirmed in Islam.
The shayatin are just tempters inciting the mind of humans with "whisperings". However the characteristics of the shayatin in folk Islam is far more extensive than in standard Islamic theology and although it is impossible to find unified depictions among local traditions, some characteristics given to the shayatin appear such as the cause of misfortune and saying basmala could ward off shayatin attacks. Witchcraft is traced back to the shayatin, since the Quran states in 2:102 that it was not Solomon who practiced witchcraft but rather the shayatin, who taught it to the people. According to Islam, it is recommended to recite a certain du'a, like "A'uzu Billahi Minesh shaitanir Rajiim" and the Suras "An-Naas" or "Al-Falaq" to protect oneself from the shayatin. Supported by hadiths from Sahih al-Bukhari and Jami` at-Tirmidhi, the shayatin can not harm the believers during the month of Ramadan, since they are chained in Jahannam; the shayatin are further featured in Islamic imagery of hell. The Quran 37:62-68 describes the tree of hell with fruits with heads of shayatin.
In the ʿKitāb al-ʿAẓama, which focuses extensively on cosmology, describes hell as inhabited by zabaniyya and shayatin. The latter dwell in the fourth layer of hell and rise from coffins to torture the sinners. In Al-Tha'alibis Qisas Al-Anbiya, the shayatin surround Iblis in the bottom of hell, from where they receive their commands; some Sufi writers link the works of shayatin to human psyche. Ghazali linked them to man's inner spiritual development. Accordingly, the shayatin do not lay their eggs into the heart of human. In this regard, Ghazali links the children of Iblis, mentioned by earlier scholars, such as Tabari, to humans misdeeds, caused by the corresponding shaitan, such as Daism and Zalambur
Muhammad Ali (writer)
Muhammad Ali was an Indian writer and leading figure of the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam. Ali was born in Murar, Kapurthala State in 1874, he obtained a Master of Arts in English and a Bachelor of Laws in 1899. He joined the Ahmadiyya Movement in 1897 and dedicated his life to the service of the movement as part of what he saw as a restored and pristine Islam, he died in Karachi on October 13, 1951, is buried in Lahore. Marmaduke Pickthall, famous British Muslim and translator of the Quran into English, wrote a review of Muhammad Ali's book The Religion of Islam when this book was published in 1936; the review was published in the journal Islamic Culture of Hyderabad Deccan, whose editor was Pickthall. In this review Pickthall wrote: Probably no man living has done longer or more valuable service for the cause of Islamic revival than Maulana Muhammad Ali of Lahore, his literary works, with those of the late Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din, have given fame and distinction to the Ahmadiyya Movement.
In our opinion the present volume is his finest work. … It is a description of Al-Islam by one well-versed in the Sunna who has on his mind the shame of the Muslim decadence of the past five centuries and in his heart the hope of the revival, of which signs can now be seen on every side. Such a book is needed at the present day when in many Muslim countries we see persons eager for the reformation and revival of Islam making mistakes through lack of just this knowledge. … We do not always agree with Muhammad Ali’s conclusions upon minor points — sometimes they appear to us eccentric — but his premises are always sound, we are always conscious of his deep sincerity. There are some, no doubt, who will disagree with his general findings, but they will not be those from whom Al-Islam has anything to hope in the future. Muhammad Ali. History and Doctrines of the Babi Movement. Lahore, India. Muhammad Ali; the Religion of Islam. Lahore, Pakistan. Muhammad Ali; the Holy Quran: Arabic text with English translation and Commentary.
Muhammad Ali. Bayan-ul-Quran: Urdu translation with extensive commentary. Muhammad Ali. A Manual of Hadith. Muhammad Ali. Muhammad, The Prophet. Muhammad Ali. True Conception of the Ahmadiyya Movement. Muhammad Ali; the Split in the Ahmadiyya Movement. Ahmadiyya A Mighty Striving, Detailed biography of Maulana Muhammad Ali Online Quran Project includes the Qur'an translation by Maulana Muhammad Ali. Selection of Maulana Muhammad Ali works available online List of Books by Maulana Muhammad Ali
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
A guardian angel is an angel, assigned to protect and guide a particular person, kingdom, or country. Belief in guardian angels can be traced throughout all antiquity; the concept of angels that guard over particular people and nationalities played a common role in Ancient Judaism, while a theory of tutelary angels and their hierarchy was extensively developed in Christianity in the 5th century by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. The theology of angels and tutelary spirits has undergone many refinements since the 5th century. Belief in both the East and the West is that guardian angels serve to protect whichever person God assigns them to, present prayer to God on that person's behalf; the guardian angel concept is present in the books of the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament, its development is well marked. These books described God's angels as his ministers who carried out his behests, who were at times given special commissions, regarding men and mundane affairs. In Genesis 18-19, angels not only acted as the executors of God's wrath against the cities of the plain, but they delivered Lot from danger.
At a much period, we have the story of Tobias, which might serve for a commentary on the words of Psalm 91:11: "For He will command His angels concerning you to guard you in all your ways. In this latter case, the "prince of the kingdom of Persia" contends with Gabriel; the same verse mentions "Michael, one of the chief princes". In Rabbinic literature, the Rabbis expressed the notion that there are indeed guardian angels appointed by God to watch over people. Rashi on Daniel 10:7 "Our Sages of blessed memory said that although a person does not see something of which he is terrified, his guardian angel, in heaven, does see it. Lailah is an angel of the night in charge of pregnancy. Lailah serves as a guardian angel throughout a person's life and at death, leads the soul into the afterlife. According to Rabbi Leo Trepp, in late Judaism, the belief developed that, "the people have a heavenly representative, a guardian angel; every human being has a guardian angel. The term `Malakh', angel meant messenger of God."Chabad believes that people might indeed have guardian angels.
For Chabad, God watches over people and makes decisions directly with their prayers and it is in this context that the guardian angels are sent back and forth as emissaries to aid in this task. Thus, they are not prayed to directly, but the angels are part of the workings of how the prayer and response comes about. In the view of Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz: The nature of the angel is to be, to a degree, as its name in Hebrew signifies, a messenger, to constitute a permanent contact between our world of action and the higher worlds. An angel's missions go in two directions: it may serve as an emissary of God downward… and it may serve as the one carries things upwards from below... The angel cannot reveal its true form to man, whose being and instruments of perception belong only to the world of action — it continues to belong to a different dimension when apprehended in one form or another... The angel, sent to us from another world does not always have a significance or impact beyond the normal laws of physical nature.
Indeed it happens that the angel reveals itself in nature, in the ordinary common-sense world of causality. In the New Testament the concept of guardian angel may be noted. Angels are everywhere the intermediaries between man. Other examples in the New Testament are the angel who succoured Christ in the garden, the angel who delivered St. Peter from prison. In Acts 12:12-15, after Peter had been escorted out of prison by an angel, he went to the home of "Mary the mother of John called Mark"; the servant girl, recognized his voice and ran back to tell the group that Peter was there. However, the group replied: "It must be his angel"'. With this scriptural sanction, Peter's angel was the most depicted guardian angel in art, was shown in images of the subject, most famously Raphael's fresco of the Deliverance of Saint Peter in the Vatican. Hebrews 1:14 says: "Are they not all ministering spirits, sent to minister for them, who shall receive the inheritance of salvation?" In this view, the function of the guardian angel is to lead people to the Kingdom of Heaven.
In the New Testament Epistle of Jude, Michael is described as an archangel. According to Saint Jerome, the concept of guardian angels is in the "mind of the Church", he stated: "how great the dignity of the soul, since each one has from his birth an angel commissioned to guard it". The first Christian theologian to outline a specific scheme for guardian angels was Honorius of Autun in the 12th century, he said. Scholastic theologians ordered the taxonomy of angelic guardians. Thomas Aquinas agreed with Honorius and believed that it was the lowest order of angels who served as guardians, his view was most successful in popular thought, but Duns Scotus said that any angel is bound by duty and obedience to the Divine Authority to accept the mission to which that angel is assigned. In the 15th century, the Feast of the Guardian Angels was added to the offi