Abu Kalijar Marzuban known as Samsam al-Dawla was the Buyid amir of Iraq, as well as Fars and Kerman. He was the second son of'Adud al-Dawla; the Abbasids conferred upon him the title Samsam al-Dawla. He lacked the qualities of his father'Adud al-Dawla and failed to have a grip upon his state affairs, his rule was marked by civil wars. Abu Kalijar Marzuban was born in 963, he was the son of Adud al-Dawla and Sayyida ibn Siyahgil, a daughter of Siyahgil, a Gilite ruler, thus making Abu Kalijar Marzuban distantly related to Ziyarid dynasty, who were descended from a sister of the Gilite ruler Harusindan, the father of Siyahgil. During'Adud al-Dawla's lifetime, Abu Kalijar Marzuban was assigned the governorships of Buyid Oman and Khuzestan. Despite Marzuban's status as second son, he was considered to be his father's heir; this issue was never clarified by'Adud al-Dawla before his death, resulting in a succession crisis. Marzuban, in Baghdad when his father died, at first kept his death secret in order to ensure his succession.
When he made the death of his father public, he took the title "Samsam al-Dawla". Shirdil laid his claims to the succession, from his province of Kerman invaded and captured Fars, he took the title "Sharaf al-Dawla". Sharaf al-Dawla's invasion of Fars provided two more of Samsam al-Dawla's brothers, Taj al-Dawla and Diya' al-Dawla, to set up their own rule in Basra and Khuzestan. In Diyar Bakr, a Kurd named Badh ibn Hasanwaih took power and forced Samsam al-Dawla to confirm him as its ruler. To the north, Samsam al-Dawla's uncle Fakhr al-Dawla ruled an extensive territory from Ray; the rulers of Basra and Khuzestan soon acknowledged Fakhr al-Dawla as senior amir, making the latter the most powerful of the Buyids and moving the senior amirate from Iraq to Jibal. Despite Fakhr al-Dawla's power, it was Sharaf al-Dawla who posed the largest threat to Samsam al-Dawla, he recovered Buyid Oman. In 983, the Turkic soldiers of Iraq betrayed Samsam al-Dawla, went towards to the court of Sharaf al-Dawla. However, his relative from his mother's side Ziyar ibn Shahrakawayh managed to make most of them change their mind and stay loyal to Samsam al-Dawla.
In 985, a Dailamite chief Saffar ibn Quddawiyah revolted against the authority of Samsam he joined with (Shirdil. Saffar lead a force against Samsam to Baghdad. Samsam sent a stronger force in retaliation Saffar was defeated. In early 986 Samsam captured Basra and Khuzestan, forcing the two brothers to flee to Fakhr al-Dawla's territory. During the same period, another Dailamite named Asfar ibn Kurdawayh rebelled against Samsam al-Dawla, changed his allegiance to Sharaf al-Dawla. However, Asfar changed his mind, declared allegiance to the latter's other brother Abu Nasr Firuz Kharshadh, shortly given the honorific epithet of "Baha' al-Dawla." However, Samsam al-Dawla, with the aid of Fuladh ibn Manadhar, suppressed the rebellion, imprisoned Baha al-Dawla, executed his supporters executed, including Bahram ibn Ardashir al-Majusi. Samsam al-Dawla made peace with Sharaf al-Dawla, agreed to release Baha al-Dawla. However, Sharaf betrayed Samsam, marched against him. Sharaf occupied Ahwaz sent his forces to Wasit which fell to him in 986 AD.
From there Samsam marched to Baghdad. Before any confrontation could take place, there was a revolt in the army of Samsam, he was therefore forced to surrender. There upon Baghdad fell to Samsam was put in prison. Sharaf al-Dawla's death in 988 or 989 provided Samsam al-Dawla with the opportunity to make a return to power. Despite having been blinded shortly before Sharaf al-Dawla's death, he managed to escape from prison and with the aid of Sharaf al-Dawla's former vizier Ala ibn Hasan, wrested control of Fars and Khuzestan from his brother Baha' al-Dawla, who had succeeded Sharaf al-Dawla. Both Baha' al-Dawla and his brother found; the latter invaded Khuzestan in an attempt to split the two brothers' territories. This act prompted the both of them to draw up an alliance. Samsam al-Dawla recognized Baha' al-Dawla as the ruler of Iraq and Khuzestan, while he himself kept Arrajan and Kerman. Both promised to consider each other as equals, took the title of "king". In 991 Baha' al-Dawla attempted to get rid of Samsam al-Dawla.
He invaded the latter's territory. His forces were defeated and Samsam al-Dawla regained Khuzestan, he gained control of the Buyid territories in Oman. In order to further strengthen his position, Samsam al-Dawla decided to recognise Fakhr al-Dawla as senior amir, submitting to his authority. Fakhr al-Dawla's death in 997, coupled with Samsam al-Dawla's increasing troubles within his realm, made Baha' al-Dawla the strongest of the Buyid princes, he prepared for the expedition. The invasion began in December of 998. Scarcely had the campaign begun, when Samsam al-Dawla was murdered by one of the sons of'Izz al-Dawla near Isfahan while fleeing from Shiraz. Baha' al-Dawla took Shiraz, defeated'Izz al-Dawla's sons, reunited Iraq and Kerman. Madelung, W.. "The Minor Dynasties of Northern Iran". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 198–249. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6. Bosworth, C. E.. "Iran under the Buyids". In Frye, R. N.
The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 250–305. ISBN 0-521-2009
Gorgan is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran. It lies 400 km to the north east of Tehran, some 30 km away from the Caspian Sea. In the 2006 census. There are several archaeological sites near Gorgan, including Tureng Tepe and Shah Tepe, in which there are remains dating from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic eras; some other important Neolithic sites in the area are Yarim Tepe and Sange Chaxmaq. The nearby Shahroud Plain has many such sites; the number of conﬁrmed Neolithic sites on the Gorgan Plain now totals more than fifty. According to the Greek historian Arrian, Zadracarta was the largest city of Hyrcania and site of the "royal palace"; the term means "the yellow city", it was given to it from the great number of oranges and other fruit trees which grew in the outskirts of that city. Hyrcania became part of the Achaemenid Empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great, its founder, or his successor Cambyses; the Great Wall of Gorgan, the second biggest defensive wall in the world, was built in the Parthian and Sassanian periods.
At the time of the Sassanids, "Gurgan" appeared as the name of a city, province capital, province. Gorgan maintained its independence as a Zoroastrian state after Persia was conquered by the invading Arab Muslims in 8th century. In 1210, the city was invaded and sacked by the army of Kingdom of Georgia under command of the brothers Mkhargrdzeli."Old Gorgan" was destroyed during the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, the center of the region was moved to what was called "Astarabad", called "Gorgan". Gorgan with its surrounding regions was sometimes considered as part of the Parthia or the Tabaristan regions. Astarabad was an important religious city during the Qajar dynasty; the wide Dasht-e Gorgan are located north of the city and geographically bounded by 37°00' - 37°30' north latitude and 54°00' - 54°30' east longitude, covering an area of about 170 square kilometres. Some 150 km east of Gorgan is the Golestan National Park, home to a large portion of the fauna of Iran. Gorgan has a mediterranean climate.
In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate." The effective factors behind such a climate are: Alborz mountain range, direction of the mountains, height of the area, neighborhood to the sea, vegetation surface, local winds and weather fronts. As a result of the above factors, three different climates exist in the region: plain moderate and semi-arid. Gorgan valley has a semi-arid climate; the average annual temperature is 17.7 °C and the annual rainfall is 601 millimetres. House of Karen, an aristocratic feudal family first attested in the Arsacid era, belonged to the region of Hyrcania. Fakhroddin Asaad Gorgani, Persian poet and the composer of Vis and Ramin. Abu Sa'id al-Darir al-Jurjani, 9th century astronomer and mathematician Al-Masihi, 10th century physician and teacher of Avicenna Abd al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī, 11th century grammarian and literary theorist Zayn al-Din al-Jurjani, 12th century royal physician Fazlallah Astarabadi, 14th century mystic and founder of Hurufism Rustam Gorgani, 16th century physician Mir Fendereski, philosopher and mysti Mir Damad, 17th century Islamic scholar and Neoplatonic philosopher Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi, 18th century chief minister to Nader Shah Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi, a notable writer and one of the pioneering figures of the women's movement of Iran Firishta, historian Sardar Rafie Yanehsari, Governor of Astarabad Mohammad Reza Lotfi, Traditional Persian musician Nader Ebrahimi, poet and researcher Maryam Zandi, photographer Gorgan has a world-famous carpet and rug industry, the Turkmen rug, made by Turkmen people.
The patterns of these carpets are derived from the ancient Persian city of Bukhara, now in modern-day Uzbekistan. Islamic Azad University of Gorgan Golestan University of Medical Sciences Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources Mirdamad Institute of Higher Education Lamei Gorgani Institute of Higher Education Hakeem Jorjani Institute of Higher Education There is an international airport near the city; the main sport in Gorgan is basketball. Shahrdari Gorgan competes in the Iranian Basketball Super League; the main football team of Gorgan is Etka Gorgan F. C. which competes in the Azadegan League. Aktau, Kazakhstan Samsun, Turkey Gorgan International Airport al-Jurjani Gorgan-rud River Gurganj
Tabaristan known as Tapuria, was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran. Although the natives of the region knew it as Mazandaran, the region was called Tabaristan from the Arab conquests to the Seljuk period; the Amardians are believed to have been the earliest inhabitants of the region where modern day Mazanderan and Gilan are located. The establishment of the early great kingdom dates back to about the first millennium BCE when the Hyrcanian kingdom was founded with Sadracarta as its capital, its extent was so large. The first known dynasty were the Faratatians. During the rise of the Parthians, many of the Amerdians were forced into exile to the southern slopes of the Alborz mountains known today as Varamin and Garmsar, the Tabaris replaced them in the region. During the indigenous Gushnaspian dynasty, many of the people adopted Christianity. In 418 CE, the Tapurian calendar was designed and its use implemented; the Gashnaspians ruled the region until 528 CE, after a long period of fighting, the Sasanian King Kavadh I defeated the last Gashnaspian king.
When the Sasanian Empire fell, Yazdegerd III ordered Adhar Valash to cede the dominion to spahbed Gil Gavbara in 645 CE, while western and Southern Gilan and other parts of Gil's domain merged under the name of Tapuria. He chose Amol as capital of United Tapuria in 647 CE; the dynasty of Gil was known as Gavbareh in Gilan, as the Dabuyids in eastern Tapuria. Mazandaranis and Gilaks were among the first groups of Iranians to fight against Islam. Tabaristan was one of the last parts of Persia to fall to the Muslim Conquest, maintaining resistance until 761, when local rulers became vassals of the Abassid Caliphate. After this, Tabaristan remained independent of direct control of the Caliphate, underwent numerous power struggles and rebellions. In the early 9th century, for example, a Zoroastrian by the name of Mazyar rebelled, taking control of Tabaristan and persecuting Muslims there before his ultimate execution in 839. After this rebellion, the territory was restored to the control of the Bavand dynasty, who ruled there as vassals of various successive empires, including the Seljuks and Mongols.
The area of Tabaristan gained a large Shi'ite element, by 900, a Zaydi Shi'ite kingdom was established under the Alavids. In 930, a Zoroastrian commander named Mardavij established the Ziyarid dynasty and conquered much of northern Persia before being betrayed and killed in 935 CE; the Ziyarid dynasty continued to rule over much of Tabaristan until its demise in 1090 CE. While the Dabuyids controlled the lowlands, the Sokhrayans governed the mountain regions. Vandad Hormozd ruled the region for about 50 years until 1034 CE. After 1125 CE, an increase in conversion to Islam was achieved, not by the Arab Caliphs, but by the Imam's ambassadors. Tapuria remained independent until 1596, when Shah Abbas I, Mazandarani on his mother's side, incorporated Mazandaran into his Safavid empire, forcing many Armenians, Georgians and Qajar Turks to settle in Mazandaran. Pietro della Valle, who visited a town near Pirouzcow in Mazandaran in 1618, noted that Mazandarani women never wore the veil and didn't hesitate to talk to foreigners.
He noted the large amount of Circassians and Georgians in the region, that he had never encountered people with as much civility as the Mazandaranis. Today, Persia proper, Mazanderan on the Caspian Sea and many other lands of this empire are all full of Georgian and Circassian inhabitants. Most of them remain Christian to this day, but in a crude manner, since they have neither priest nor minister to tend them. After the Safavid period, the Qajars began to campaign south from Mazandaran with Agha Mohammad Khan who incorporated Mazandaran into his empire in 1782. On 21 March 1782, Agha Mohammad Shah proclaimed Sari as his imperial capital. Sari was the site of local wars in those years, which led to the transfer of the capital from Sari to Tehran by Fath Ali Shah. Inostranzev, M. Iranian Influence on Moslem Literature – Appendix I: Independent Zoroastrian Princes of Tabaristan. Khalifa Uthman bin Ghani. Islamic Conquests Muhammad B. Al-Hasan B. Isfandiyár. History of Tabaristán. Leiden, The Netherlands: E.
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids known as Buwaihids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was a Shia Iranian dynasty of Daylamite origin. Coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, the approximate century of Buyid rule represents the period in Iranian history sometimes called the'Iranian Intermezzo' since, after the Muslim conquest of Persia, it was an interlude between the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Seljuk Empire; the Buyid dynasty was founded by'Ali ibn Buya, who in 934 conquered Fars and made Shiraz his capital. His younger brother Hasan ibn Buya conquered parts of Jibal in the late 930s, by 943 managed to capture Ray, which he made his capital. In 945, the youngest brother, Ahmad ibn Buya, made Baghdad his capital, he received the honorific title of Mu'izz al-Dawla. The eldest,'Ali, was given the title of'Imad al-Dawla, Hasan was given the title of Rukn al-Dawla; as Daylamite Iranians, the Buyids consciously revived symbols and practices of Iran's Sasanian Empire. Beginning with'Adud al-Dawla, they used the ancient Sasanian title Shahanshah "king of kings".
At its greatest extent, the Buyid dynasty encompassed territory of most of today's Iran, Iraq and Syria, along with parts of Oman, the UAE, Turkey and Pakistan. During the 10th and 11th centuries, just prior to the invasion of the Seljuq Turks, the Buyids were the most influential dynasty in the Middle East. Under king'Adud al-Dawla, it became the most powerful dynasty in the Middle East; the word Būya is a Middle Persian name ending in the diminutive ـویه. The Buyids were descendants of a Zoroastrian from Daylam, he had a son named Buya, a fisherman from Lahijan, left Zoroastrianism and converted to Islam. Buya had three sons, named Ahmad,'Ali, Hasan, who would carve the Buyid kingdom together. Most historians agree; the Buyids claimed royal lineage from 15th king of the Sasanian Empire. The founder of the dynasty,'Ali ibn Buya, was a soldier in the service of the Daylamite warlord Makan ibn Kaki, but changed his adherence to the Iranian ruler Mardavij, who had established the Ziyarid dynasty, was himself related to the ruling dynasty of Gilan, a region bordering Dailam.'Ali was joined by his two younger brothers, Hasan ibn Buya and Ahmad ibn Buya.
In 932,'Ali was given Karaj as his fief, thus was able to enlist other Daylamites into his own army. However,'Ali's independent actions made Mardavij plan to have him killed,'Ali was informed of Mardavij's plan by the latter's own vizier; the Buyids brother, with 400 of their Daylamite supporters fled to Fars, where they managed to take control of Arrajan. However, the Buyids and the Abbasid general Yaqut shortly came into a struggle for the control of Fars, which the Buyids emerged victorious in; this victory opened the way for the conquest of the capital of Fars, Shiraz.'Ali made an alliance with the landowners of Fars, which included the Fasanjas family, which would produce many prominent statesmen for the Buyids. Furthermore,'Ali to enlist more soldiers, which included the Turks, who were made part of cavalry.'Ali sent his brother Ahmad on an expedition to Kirman, but was forced to withdraw from them after opposition from the Baloch people and the Qafs. However, who sought to depose the Abbasid caliph of Baghdad and recreate a Zoroastrian Iranian Empire, shortly wrested Khuzestan from the Abbasids and forced'Ali to recognize him as his suzerain.
Luckily for the Buyids, Mardavij was shortly assassinated in 935, which caused chaos in the Ziyarid territories, a perfect situation for the Buyid brothers. In 945, Ahmad entered Iraq and made the Abbasid Caliph his vassal, at the same receiving the laqab Mu'izz ad-Dawla, while'Ali was given the laqab Imād al-Dawla, Hasan was given the laqab Rukn al-Dawla. In addition to the other territories the Buyids had conquered, Kirman was conquered in 967, the Jazira and Gorgan. After this, the Buyids went into a slow decline, with pieces of the confederation breaking off and local dynasties under their rule becoming de facto independent; the death of Adud al-Dawla is considered the starting point of the decline of the Buyid dynasty. When he made the death of his father public, he was given the title of "Samsam al-Dawla". However, Adud's other son, Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris, challenged the authority of Samsam al-Dawla, resulting in a civil war. Meanwhile, a Marwanid chieftain named Badh, seized Diyabakr and forced Samsam al-Dawla to recognize him as the vassal ruler of the region.
Furthermore, Mu'ayyad al-Dawla died during this period, he was succeeded by Fakhr al-Dawla, who with the aid of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla's vizier Sahib ibn'Abbad became the ruler of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla's possessions. Another son of Adud al-Dawla, Abu Tahir Firuzshah, established himself as the ruler of Basra and took the title of "Diya' al-Dawla", while another son, Abu'l-Husain Ahmad, established himself as the ruler of Khuzistan, taking the title of "Taj al-Dawla". Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris seize
Abu'l-Fadl ibn al-'Amid
Abu'l-Fadl Muhammad ibn Abi Abdallah al-Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Katib known after his father as Ibn al-'Amid was a Persian statesman who served as the vizier of the Buyid ruler Rukn al-Dawla for thirty years, from 940 until his death in 970. His son, Abu'l-Fath Ali ibn Muhammad called Ibn al-'Amid, succeeded him in his office. Abu'l-Fadl was the son of al-'Amid, a native of Qom from a low-class family, who served the various rulers of Tabaristan, but was taken captive by the Samanids. Abu'l-Fadl is first mentioned in 940, when the Buyid ruler Rukn al-Dawla, who favored him, appointed him as his vizier. In 948, Abu'l-Fadl served as the tutor of Rukn al-Dawla's son'Adud al-Dawla. In ca. 955, a son of Abu'l-Fadl's father's former overlord, Muhammad ibn Makan, marched towards the domains of Rukn al-Dawla, conquering the important cities Isfahan and Ray. During their invasion, Abu ` l-Fadl was defeated. However, in a second battle, with the aid of Adud al-Dawla, he managed to rout them, reconquer lost territory, capture their leader Muhammad.
Another Dailamite military officer named Ruzbahan shortly rebelled against Mu'izz al-Dawla, while his brother Bullaka rebelled against Adud al-Dawla at Shiraz. Abu'l-Fadl, managed to suppress the rebellion. In the 960s, the prominent official Ibn Miskawayh served Abu'l-Fadl as his chief librarian in an important library in Ray. In 966, Abu'l-Fadl was wounded during an invasion by ghazis from Khorasan, who plundered much of Jibal, marched towards the great library of Ray, which was, saved by Ibn Miskawayh. Rukn al-Dawla shortly managed to repel them; the next year, under the orders of Rukn al-Dawla, Abu'l-Fadl conquered Azerbaijan, restored the Sallarid Ibrahim I ibn Marzuban I as the ruler of the region, but shortly urged Rukn al-Dawla to depose Ibrahim and impose direct Buyid control on the region. Rukn al-Dawla, declined his advice. In 970, Abu'l-Fadl was sent on an expedition to the Kurdish ruler Hasanwayh, but died before he managed to deal with the latter, was shortly succeeded as vizier by his son Abu'l-Fath, who shortly managed to deal with Hasanwayh.
Abu ` became the centre of a literary circle. Amongst his outstanding contributions to science is his book entitled "Building Cities" in which he describes building methods and construction planning; the book exists as an original manuscript in one of the Arabic and Islamic libraries in Istanbul, Turkey. Zetterstéen, K. V.. "Ibn al-′Amīd". E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume III: E–I′timād al-Dawla. Leiden: BRILL. P. 360. ISBN 90-04-09789-9. Bosworth, C. E.. "Iran under the Buyids". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 250–305. ISBN 0-521-20093-8. Madelung, W.. "The Minor Dynasties of Northern Iran". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 198–249. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6. Kennedy, Hugh N.. The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education Ltd.
ISBN 0-582-40525-4. Donohue, John J.. The Buwayhid Dynasty in Iraq 334h. 945 to 403h. 1012: Shaping Institutions for the Future. ISBN 9789004128606. Retrieved 3 February 2014. Bosworth, C. Edmund. "MESKAVAYH, ABU ʿALI AḤMAD". Encyclopaedia Iranica. London et al.: C. Edmund Bosworth
Fars Province known as Pars or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country. It is in the south of the country, in Iran's Region 2, its administrative center is Shiraz, it has an area of 122,400 km². In 2011, this province had a population of 4.6 million people, of which 67.6% were registered as urban dwellers, 32.1% villagers, 0.3% nomad tribes. The etymology of the word Persian, found in many ancient names associated with Iran, is derived from the historical importance of this region. Fars Province is the original homeland of the Persian people; the Persian word Fârs is the Arabized form of the earlier form Pârs, in turn derived from Pârsâ, the Old Persian name for the Persis region. The ancient Persians were present in the region from about the 10th century BC, became the rulers of the largest empire the world had yet seen under the Achaemenid dynasty, established in the mid 6th century BC, at its peak stretching from Thrace-Macedonia, Bulgaria-Paeonia and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in its far east.
The ruins of Persepolis and Pasargadae, two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire, are located in Fars. The Achaemenid Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great in 333 BC, incorporating most of their vast empire. Shortly after this the Seleucid Empire was established; however it never extended its power in Fars beyond the main trade routes, by the reign of Antiochus I or later Persis emerged as an independent state that minted its own coins. The Seleucid Empire was subsequently defeated by the Parthians in 238 BC, but by 205 BC, the Seleucid king Antiochus III had extended his authority into Persis and it ceased to be an independent state. Babak was the ruler of a small town called Kheir. Babak's efforts in gaining local power at the time escaped the attention of Artabanus IV, the Parthian Arsacid Emperor of the time. Babak and his eldest son Shapur; the subsequent events are due to the sketchy nature of the sources. It is however certain that following the death of Babak around 220, Ardashir who at the time was the governor of Darabgird, got involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur.
The sources tell us. At this point, Ardashir moved his capital further to the south of Persis and founded a capital at Ardashir-Khwarrah. After establishing his rule over Persis, Ardashir I extended the territory of his Sassanid Persian Empire, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, gaining control over the neighboring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan and Mesene. Artabanus marched a second time against Ardashir I in 224, their armies clashed at Hormizdegan. Ardashir was crowned in 226 at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia, bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end, starting the equally long rule of the Sassanian Empire, over an larger territory, once again making Persia a leading power in the known world, only this time along with its arch-rival and successor to Persia's earlier opponents; the Sassanids ruled for 425 years. Afterwards, the Persians started to convert to Islam, this making it much easier for the new Muslim empire to continue the expansion of Islam. Persis passed hand to hand through numerous dynasties, leaving behind numerous historical and ancient monuments.
The ruins of Bishapur and Firouzabad are all reminders of this. Arab invaders brought about a decline of Zoroastrian rule and made Islam ascendant from the 7th century. Fars province is located in the south of Iran, it neighbours Bushehr Province to the west, Hormozgān Province to the south and Yazd provinces to the east, Isfahan province to the north and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province to the northwest. According to the latest divisions, the province contains the following counties: Abadeh, Jahrom, Rostam, Darab, Bavanat, Larestan and Karzin, Lamerd, Fasa, Zarrin Dasht, Shiraz, Sepidan, Pasargad, Khonj, Gerash, Mohr. There are three distinct climatic regions in the Fars Province. First, the mountainous area of the north and northwest with moderate cold winters and mild summers. Secondly, the central regions, with rainy mild winters, hot dry summers; the third region located in the south and southeast, has cold winters with hot summers. The average temperature of Shiraz is 16.8 °C, ranging between 4.7 °C and 29.2 °C.
The geographical and climatic variation of the province causes varieties of plants. Additional to the native animals of the province, many kinds of birds migrate to the province every year. Many kinds of ducks and swallows migrate to this province in an annual parade; the main native animals of the province are gazelle, mountain wild goat, ram and many kinds of birds. In the past, like in Khuzestan Plain, the Persian lion had occurred here; the province of Fars includes many protected wildlife zones. The most important protected zones are: Toot Siah Hunt Forbidden Zone, whi