|Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān|
Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān
|1st Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate|
|Predecessor||(Hasan ibn Ali)|
|Successor||Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya|
|Governor of the Levant|
|Predecessor||Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah|
|Successor||Al-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Fihri|
|Died||22 Rajab AH 60
26 April, 680 (aged 77–78)
|Issue||Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (son)|
|Father||Abu Sufyan ibn Harb|
Muawiyah I (Arabic: معاوية بن أبي سفيان, translit. Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan. During the first and second caliphates of Abu Bakr and Umar (Umar ibn al-Khattab), he fought with the Muslims against the Byzantines in Syria.
To stop the Byzantine harassment from the sea, Muawiyah developed a navy in the Levant and used it to confront the Byzantine Empire in the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara, the caliphate conquered several territories including Cyzicus which were subsequently used as naval bases.
- 1 Early life and family
- 2 Appearance
- 3 During the time of Muhammad
- 4 Muawiyah during the Rashidun Caliphate
- 5 First Fitna
- 6 Muawiyah as Caliph
- 7 Death
- 8 Legacy
- 9 Views on Muawiyah
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Sources
Early life and family
Muawiyah bin Abi-Sufyan was born in Mecca to Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and Hind bint Utbah (602 CE) into the Banu Umayya sub-clan of the Banu Abd-Shams clan of the Quraysh tribe. The Quraysh controlled the city of Mecca (in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia) and the Banu Abd-Shams were among the most influential of its citizens, his father Abu Sufyan struggled against Islam until Muhammad's army entered Mecca in 630.
Muawiyah, Muhammad and Ali shared the same great-great grandfather, ‘Abd Manaf bin Qusay, who had four sons: Hashim, Muttalib, Nawfal, and Abdu Shams. Hashim was the great grandfather of Ali and Muhammad. Umayyah bin Abdu Shams was the great grandfather of Muawiyah.
Muawiyah and remaining members of his family were opponents of the Muslims before the ascendancy of Muhammad. Along with his two older brothers Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan and Utbah, Muawiyah was one of the members of the hunting party of his maternal uncle Walid bin Utbah that pursued Muhammad during the hijra (migration), when Muhammad and Abu Bakr were hiding in Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull).
In 630, Muhammad and his followers entered Mecca, and most of the Meccans, including the Abd-Shams clan, formally submitted to Muhammad and accepted Islam. Similarly Muawiyah, along with his father Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, became Muslims at the conquest of Mecca,title=The History of al-Tabari |volume=IX, The Last Years of the Prophet |p=32 |publisher=SUNY Press}}</ref>
Ibn Kathir wrote in his book Al-Bidāya wa-n-nihāya: "In terms of his appearance, he was fair and tall, bald with a white head and he had a beard that he used to colour with henna", he was mild-tempered, dignified, dominant and noble amongst the people, generous, just and astute".
During the time of Muhammad
Muawiyah worked as a scribe for Muhammad. According to al-Baladhuri, Urwa ibn az-Zubayr, relating from his father, Aisha said "I went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who was in a room with Umm Habiba (Muawiyah's sister and Muhammad's wife) on her day. Muawiya knocked on the door and he gave him permission to enter, which he did, he had a pen behind his ear which he had not used. The Prophet said, 'What is this on your ear?' He said, 'A pen which I have made ready for Allah and His Messenger.' The Prophet said. 'May Allah repay you well on behalf of your Prophet! By Allah, I will only ask you to write down revelation from heaven." According to Ibn Kathir in his book Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, Ibn Abbas said that Abu Sufyan asked Muhammad if he could make his son Muawiyah a scribe which Muhammad granted. Therefore, Muawiyah became his scribe.
Muawiyah during the Rashidun Caliphate
Under Abu Bakr
During the time of Abu Bakr, Muawiyah used to serve under his brother Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan (Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan is not to be confused with Yazid ibn Muawiya who was the caliph during the period in which Hussain was martyred). Muawiyah was one of the first to be sent into Syria.
Battle of Yarmouk
In May 636, Emperor Heraclius launched a major expedition against the Muslims, but his army was defeated decisively at the Battle of Yarmouk in August 636; in the battle, Muawiyah's brother Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan served under Khalid ibn al-Walid and Abu Ubaydah and was in command of one of the wings and Muawiyah was his second in command. Muawiyah's mother Hind also took part in the battle.
Governor of Syria
In 639, Muawiyah was appointed as the governor of Syria by the second caliph Umar after his brother the previous governor Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan and the governor before him Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah died in a plague along with 25,000 other people. 'Amr ibn al-'As was sent to take on the Byzantine army in Egypt.
With limited resources Muawiyah's marriage to Maysum was politically motivated, as she was the daughter of the chief of the Kalb (dog) tribe, that was a large Jacobite Christian Arab tribe in Syria, the Kalb tribe had remained largely neutral when the Muslims first went into Syria. After the plague that killed much of the Muslim army in Syria, by marrying Maysum, Muawiyah started to use the Jacobite Christians, against the Romans. Muawiya's wife Maysum (Yazid's mother) was also a Jacobite Christian, with limited resources and the Byzantine just over the border, Muawiyah worked in cooperation with the local Christian population.
According to some books the town of Caesarea was taken by Muawiyah in 640, when the last Byzantine Roman garrison in Syria and Palestine surrendered, but according to Al-Imam Al-Waqidi, the author of the oldest history books on Islam it was Muawiyah's friend 'Amr ibn al-'As who expelled the Roman army from Caesarea. 'Amr ibn al-'As who along with Muawiyah's brother Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan who later became the governor of Syria, expelled the Roman armies from many Syrian cities and later 'Amr ibn al-'As also moved into Egypt.
Under Muawiyah's governance the Syrian army became a major military force, he picked out the best leaders from various tribes whereas elsewhere in the state the military units were still based along tribal lines. He personally saw to the comfort and the equipment of the troops, increased their pay and paid them on a regular basis when they were on duty, he kept the troops in training by an annual expedition against the Byzantines and therefore kept the Byzantines in a constant state of unease and therefore kept his northern border safe. He encouraged innovations in military technology. Muawiyah's armies used “Minjenique” machines to propel large stones onto enemy ramparts, he modernized the army, introducing specialized units for desert combat and snowy terrains. New forts were also built.
Muawiya left the Byzantine and Persian administrative structures intact, being sure not to give his largely non-Muslim subjects any incentive to revolt.
The postal system, which was created by Omar ibn al Khattab for military use, was now opened to the public by Muawiya. Uthman dismissed 'Amr ibn al-'As from governorship of Egypt so Muawiyah asked him to join him in Syria.
Battle of the Masts and expansion onto the Mediterranean
Muawiya was one of the first to realize the full importance of having a navy; as long as the Byzantine fleet could sail the Mediterranean unopposed, the coastline of Syria, Palestine and Egypt would never be safe. Muawiyah along with Adbullah ibn Sa'd the new governor of Egypt successfully persuaded Uthman to give them permission to construct a large fleet in the dockyards of Egypt and Syria. Therefore, to stop the Byzantine harassment from the sea during the Arab-Byzantine Wars, in 649 Muawiyah set up a navy; manned by Monophysite Christians, Copts and Jacobite Syrian Christian sailors and Muslim troops. During his naval expeditions in AH 28 he took Rhodes and later in AH 29 he took Cyprus. He was accompanied by one of his other wives, Katwa, who died in the course of the expedition. Muawiyah had asked Umar once and Uthman twice for permissions to undertake such naval expeditions.
The first real naval engagement between the Muslim and the Byzantine navy was the so-called Battle of the Masts (Dhat al-sawari) or Battle of Phoenix off the Lycian coast in 655.
As Uthman ibn al-Affan became very old, Marwan I a relative of Muawiyah slipped into the vacuum and became his secretary and slowly assumed more control and relaxed some of the restrictions on the governors.
After Caliph Uthman was assassinated in 656, his successor Ali failed to arrest and punish the perpetrators. Because of this, Mu‘awiyah saw Ali as an accomplice and did not want to acknowledge Ali's rule, their troops confronted each other in the Battle of Siffin in 657, which was finally resolved by negotiations. These negotiations made Ali's claim to the caliphate dubious and some of his supporters broke away into a group known as the Kharijites, the Kharijite rebellion against Ali culminated in his assassination in 661. At the time, Mu‘awiyah already controlled Syria and Egypt, and with the largest force in the Muslim realm, he laid the strongest claim on the caliphate.
Muawiyah as Caliph
He came to Madina and spoke to the people, saying, "I desired the way followed by Abu Bakr and 'Umar, but I was unable to follow it, and so I have followed a course with you which contains fortune and benefits for you despite some bias, so be pleased with what comes to you from me even if it is little. When good is continuous, even if it is little, it enriches. Discontent makes life grim."
He also said in an address which he delivered to the people, "O people! By Allah, it is easier to move the firm mountains than to follow Abu Bakr and 'Umar in their behaviour. But I have followed their way of conduct falling short of those before me, but none after me will equal me in it."
Ali's caliphate lasted for around 4 years, after the treaty with Hassan, Muawiyah ruled for nearly 20 years most of which were spent expanding the state.
After the peace treaty with Hasan, Muawiyah turned his attention back to the Romans; in 674, Umayyad naval and army forces under the command of Muawiyah's son, Yazid ibn Muawiyah, laid siege to the Byzantine capital of Constantinople, but were defeated when the Byzantines introduced Greek fire to the naval battlefield. This siege is even mentioned in the Chinese dynastic histories of the Old Book of Tang and New Book of Tang. They record that the large capital city of Fu lin (拂菻; i.e. the Byzantine Empire) was besieged by the Da shi (大食, i.e. Umayyad Arabs) and their commander "Mo-yi" (Chinese: 摩拽, Pinyin: Móyè), who Friedrich Hirth has identified as Muawiyah I. The Chinese histories then explain that the Arabs forced the Byzantines to pay tribute afterwards as part of a peace settlement.
Further west, the Umayyads were keenly aware of Sicily's strategic importance and Muawiya was the first caliph to begin raiding the island in 670, that same year, the Umayyad general Uqba ibn Nafi founded the garrison town Kairouan in Ifriqiya (modern Tunisia). It was used both as a base for military operations and as an administrative centre for north Africa, replacing Carthage. A few years later the Umayyads also crossed over into Spain and southern France under the command of Tariq ibn Ziyad and Musa bin Nusayr.
|External expedition||Internal issues|
|40||Kharijites at Shahrazur.|
|42||Defeat of Romans (Byzantines).
Raid on Caucasus.
|43||Campaign against the Romans by Busr ibn Abi Artah.
Campaign against Tukharistanis.
Kurdish issues (Fars).
|44||Sea raid by Busr ibn Abi Artah on Romans.
Winter campaign against the Romans
Abdu'r-Rahman b. Walid
|45||Winter campaign against the Romans.
Abdu'r-Rahman b. Walid.
Campaign in Tukharistan. Campaign against the Romans.
Abdu'allah b. Jafar.
Campaign in Tebessa Thevest ifriqiy
|46||Winter campaign against the Romans (Malik ibn Ubaydullah).|
|47||Winter campaign against the Romans (Malik ibn Ubaydullah).
Abdu'r-Rahman: Antioch, raid on Khorasan; raid on al-Ghur and Farawanda.
|48||Abdu'r-Rahman: Antioch raid (summer).
Abdullah ibn Qays sea raid of Malik ibn Hubayra; joint sea raid by Uqba with Madinans and Egyptians.
|49||Malik ibn Hubayra winter campaign against the Romans; Fadala captured Jabbara.
Summer: Abdullah ibn Kurz; Yazid ibn Shajara raid; Uqba sea raid; Yazid raid on Constantinople.
|50||Campaign against the Romans by Busr ibn Abi Artah and Sufyan.
Sea raid of Fadala; north Africa taken and Qayrawan founded.
Raid of al-Hakam ibn Amr (Khorasan) against Turks.
|Amr bin al-Hamiq killed in Mosul, Iraq by governor Ziyad. (Ziyad was formally [formerly?] Ali's commander.) Amr bin al-Hamiq had opposed Uthman.|
|51||Winter campaign against the Romans; Fadala raid.
Summer campaign of Busr ibn Abi Artah; Balkh and Quhistan taken by ar-Rabi.
|52||Sufyan ibn Awf raid.
Winter and summer campaign against the Romans.
|53||Winter campaign against the Romans.
|54||Winter campaign against the Romans (Muhammad ibn Malik).
Summer campaign against the Romans (Ma'n ibn Yazid).
Conquest of island of Arwad.
Ubaydullah conquers Ramithan and Baykland in Bukhara.
Campaign against Bukharans.
|55||Winter campaign against the Romans.||Hujr bin Adiyy killed. He had opposed Uthman.|
|56||Winter campaign against the Romans (sea and land).
Campaigns in Sugh at Samarqand and Tirmidh.
|57||Winter campaign against the Romans.|
|58||Campaign against the Romans (sea raid).||Kharijites.|
|59||Winter campaign against the Romans (sea raid).||Walid in central Asia.|
|60||Raid against Sawriyya and Rudas.||Peikund Balkh, Indus.|
During the time of Muhammad, the poor were fed in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina, the revenues of the land in Fadak near Madina were also used for the poor as ṣadaqa, and travelers in need. Later Umar formalized the welfare state Bayt al-mal. The Bayt al-mal or the welfare state was for the Muslim and non-Muslim poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled, the Bayt al-mal ran for hundreds of years under the Rashidun caliphate in the 7th century and continued through the Umayyad period and well into the Abbasid era. Umar also introduced child benefit and pensions for the children and the elderly.
Both Ali and Muawiyah continued the welfare state. Ali was extremely caring towards the poor and when he became caliph the revenue from the land of Fadak continued to go towards the poor.
Because of Muawiyah's families previous opposition to the Muslims, before they converted to Islam, there was still some level of resentment towards him, some of his relatives had been killed in battles fighting against the Muslims. But Muawiyah felt that after his conversion to Islam, for over 20 years, he had been the governor of Syria and expanded the state, confronted the Romans, built up a good administration, a good economy and therefore felt that people should not resent his past.
On one occasion, Mu'awiya ascended the minbar and praised Allah. When he wanted to speak, a lad of the Ansar interrupted him and said, "Mu'awiya! What makes you and the people of your house more entitled to this wealth than us! We have no wrong action against you that we know of other than our slaying of your uncle Walid, your grandfather 'Uqba, and your brother Hanzala." Mu'awiya said, "By Allah, nephew, you did not kill them. Rather Allah killed them with angels upon angels at the hands of the sons of their father, that was not a fault nor a loss." The Ansari said, "So where is the fault and loss then?" He said, "You spoke the truth. Do you need something?" He said, "Yes. I look after an old woman and sisters and things have been hard on us." Mu'awiya said, "Take what you can from the treasury." The boy took it and then Mu'awiya resumed his khutba.
Conduct towards non-Muslim subjects
Muawiyah governed the geographically and politically disparate caliphate, which now spread from north Africa in the west to Afghanistan in the east, by strengthening the power of his allies in the newly conquered territories. Prominent positions in the emerging governmental structures were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments, the employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious tolerance that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces, especially in Syria itself. This policy also boosted his popularity and solidified Syria as his power base.
Muawiya's wife Maysum (Yazid's mother) was also a Jacobite Christian from the Kalb tribe, his marriage to Maysum was also politically motivated, as she was the daughter of the chief of the Kalb tribe, that was a large Jacobite Christian Arab tribe in Syria. The Kalb tribe had remained largely neutral when the Muslims first went into Syria, after the plague that killed much of the Muslim army in Syria, by marrying Maysum, Muawiyah also used the Jacobite Christians, against the Romans.
Muawiyah is reported to have said: "I observed the Messenger of Allah perform Wudhoo (ablution) and when he finished, he looked at me and said; 'O Muawiyah! If you get to rule then fear Allah and be just to the people.' Due to that statement of the Prophet I was convinced that I would one day be held accountable for undertaking the task"
Tom Holland writes  Christians, Jews, Samaritans and Manichaeans were all treated well by Muawiyah. Muawiyah even restored Edessa's cathedral after it had been toppled by an earthquake. Savagely though Muawiyah prosecuted his wars against the Romans, yet his subjects, no longer trampled by rival armies, no longer divided by hostile watchtowers, knew only peace at last. Justice flourished in his time, and there was great peace in the regions under his control, he allowed everyone to live as they wanted."
In a manner similar to Byzantine administrative practices, Muawiyah instituted several bureaucracies, called divans, to aid him in the governance and the centralization of the caliphate and the empire. Early Arabic sources credit two diwans in particular to Muawiyah: the Diwan al-Khatam (chancellery) and the Barid (postal service), both of which greatly improved communications within the empire.
Mu'awiya could be seen speaking to the people on the minbar of Damascus wearing a patched garment. Yunus ibn Maysar al-Himyari said, "I saw Mu'awiya riding in the Damascus market wearing a shirt with a patched pocket, going along in the Damascus markets."
Muawiyah was very skilled at dealing with the Romans. Abdullah ibn Zubayr, who could see troubles ahead after the death of Muawiyah and was opposed to the appointment of Yazid, later said of Muawiyah: "Truly the son of Hind deployed a dexterity and mental resourcefulness as one will never see after him. When we tried to impose something on him, an irritated lion with claws unsheathed would not show more audacity than him, he knew when to give into us, to even allow himself to be tricked when we tried to do that to him. He was the most artful of men, more crafty than a thief. I wished that we would never lose him, just as a rock remaining on this summit" pointing to the mountain of Abu Qubays outside Mekka.
When his friends expressed surprise at the vastness of his gifts to his opponents, he told them "a war costs infinitely more".
Muawiya was welcome to his subjects at every hour of the day, including mealtimes. Therefore, he knew what people were thinking and saying.
Muawiya and his governors maintained an open table for people to come in and eat. Once an Arab seated at the end of the room did not hesitate to pull to himself a plate which had been placed in front of Muawiya. So Muawiyah said "You plunder very far!" The Arab replied, "After a year of drought, it is necessary to be well placed in order to find pasture!"
The deliberations between Muawiyah and the people took place in the community mosque, where the people were free and unconstrained towards the khalif.
Muawiya did not rely on the old aristocracy but looked for merit and loyalty. Most of his prominent governors were not even Qurayshi let alone Umayyad, he also had the faculty of winning over and retaining people he distrusted like Amr ibn al As. His most important early governor in Kufa was Mughira ibn Shuba, at Tabri recounted: "Al-Mughira liked things to run smoothly; he behaved well with the people and did not ask sectarians about their sect. All he would say was "Allah has decreed that you will continue to disagree and Allah will judge between His creatures concerning that about which they disagree." So people felt safe with him. Until the Kharijites resorted to violence then the Kufas agreed to expel them.
He also paid a lot of attention to the economy and agriculture; this allowed him to finance his expeditions.
According to al-Qasim bin Mukhaimirah, Abu Maryam al-Azdi said that he entered upon Muawiyah who said: "What blesses us with your presence, O Abu Fulan (Father of so and so a common Arab expression)? " I said: "A hadeeth I heard that I want to tell you. I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: 'Whoever Allah entrusts with authority over the affairs of the Muslims and he neglects the needs and wants of the poor amongst them, Allah will neglect him and his needs and wants." He added that Muawiyah appointed a man in charge of addressing the people's needs upon hearing the Hadith.
Appointment of Muawiyah's son as next Caliph
One of Muawiyah's most controversial and enduring legacies was his decision to designate his son Yazid as his successor. Yazid was experienced militarily, after taking part in various expeditions and the siege of Constantinople but politically inexperienced. Marwan also wanted Yazid to be the caliph so that he could run things behind the scenes, as he would become the senior member of the Umayyad clan after Muawiyah's death. Mohammad, Abu Bakr and Umar also mistrusted Marwan and he had lived in Taif during their rule, where he became friends with Hajjaj.
Tom Holland writes "Tempers in Medina were not helped by the fact that the governor in the oasis was none other than the fabulously venal and slippery Marwan. Rumours abounded that it was he, back in the last calamitous days of Uthman's rule who had double crossed the war band that had come to Uthman, the locals mistrust of their governor ran particularly deep. Nothing he had done had helped to improve his reputation for double dealing.
Ibn Kathir wrote in his book Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah that "in the year 56 AH Muawiyah called on the people including those within the outlying territories to pledge allegiance to his son, Yazeed, to be his heir to the Caliphate after him. Almost all the subjects offered their allegiance, with the exception of Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr (the son of Abu Bakr), Abdullah ibn Umar (the son of Umar), al-Husain bin Ali (the son of Ali), Abdullah bin Az-Zubair (The grandson of Abu Bakr) and Abdullah ibn Abbas (Ali's cousin), because of this Muawiyah passed through al-Madinah on his way back from Makkah upon completion of his Umrah Pilgrimage where he summoned each one of the five aforementioned individuals and threatened them. The speaker who addressed Muawiyah sharply with the greatest firmness amongst them was Abdurrahman bin Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq, while Abdullah bin Umar bin al-Khattab was the most soft spoken amongst them.
Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr and Abdullah ibn Umar were mid level Muslim commanders at the Battle of Yarmouk that took Syria. Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr's sister Asmā' bint Abu Bakr also fought in the Battle of Yarmouk and was opposed to Yazid.
Muawiyah then delivered a sermon, having stood these five men below the pulpit in full view of the people after which the people pledged allegiance to Yazeed as they stood in silence without displaying their disagreement or opposition for fear of being humiliated. Saeed bin Uthman bin Affan, the son of Uthman also criticized Muawiyah for putting forward Yazeed." They tolerated Muawiyah but did not like Yazeed.
The following year Muawiyah removed Marwan bin al Hakam from the position of governor in Madina and appointed al-Waleed bin Utbah bin Abi Sufyan.
Muawiyah warned his son Yazid that Husayn, the younger brother of Hasan ibn Ali, would potentially be a problem for the dynasty. However, according to some sources, Muawiyah advised his son to act towards Husayn "gently". According to a claim by a sunni source, Muawiyah warned Yazid against mistreating Husayn ibn Ali, his final warning to Yazid was: "As for Husayn what can I tell you concerning him? Be careful not to confront him except in a good way. Extend to him a free hand [literally, a long rope], and let him roam the earth as he pleases. Do not harm him, yet show him the thunder and lightening [of your anger]. Never confront him with the weapons of war but rather bestow on him generous gifts. Give him a place of honor near you and treat him with due reverence. Be careful O my son, that you do not meet God with his blood, lest you be among those that will perish"
This section contains too many or too-lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. (August 2016)
Muhammad bin Uqbah said that when death approached Muawiyah he said: "I wish I were an ordinary man from the Quraish living in Dhu Tuwa and that I had never been invested with authority as caliph"
Muhammad bin Seereen said: "When Muawiyah was on the brink of death, he began to mark out the floor. Then he turned his face and marked out another spot on the floor, after which he started to cry and say: "O Allah! Indeed, You said in Your Book "Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives everything else to whom He wills" [an-Nisa 4:48] Therefore, O Allah, make me amongst those You will forgive".
Al-Utbi narrated from his father that when Muawiya was dying he quoted the following verses to those present (in at-Taweel poetry) "Death is inevitable because of what we are; consciousness of what lies after death is much more awful and lurid" Then he said: "O Allah! Reduce my lapses, pardon the shortcomings and overlook my ignorance, for You are All Forgiving. My mistakes are all my own and not attributable to You; only You can forgive me and grant me refuge"
It is reported that he passed out and once he regained consciousness, he said to his family: "Fear Allah, for verily He safeguards whoever shows regard for something for His sake and He does not safeguard whoever shows a disregard for something for His sake" and upon uttering this he died.
Robert Payne quotes Muawiyah in History of Islam as telling his son Yazid to defeat Hussein, who was surely preparing an army against him, but to deal with him gently thereafter as Hussein was a descendent of Muhammad; but to deal with Abdullah al-Zubair swiftly, as Muawiyah feared him the most.
Muawiyah died on 26 April 680.
Muawiya used to bring water to Muhammad and it was in the course of this service that he received the shirt in which he was buried, he said, "I used to bring wudu water to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He said "Shall I not clothe you in a shirt? I said, "Yes indeed, by my father and mother! So he removed the shirt he had on and clothed me in it." He kept that shirt for his burial.
By his creation of a fleet, Muawiyah was the driving force of the Muslim effort against Byzantium, his navy challenged the Byzantine navy and raided the Byzantine islands and coasts at will. The shocking defeat of the imperial fleet by the young Muslim navy at the Battle of the Masts in 655 was a critical turning point, it opened up the Mediterranean, considered a "Roman lake", and began a centuries-long series of naval conflicts over the control of the Mediterranean. This also allowed the expansion of the state into north Africa and Spain. Trade between the Muslim eastern and southern shores and the Christian northern shores almost ceased during this period, isolating western Europe from developments in the Muslim world: "In antiquity, and again in the high Middle Ages, the voyage from Italy to Alexandria was a commonplace; in early Islamic times the two countries were so remote that even the most basic information was unknown" Muawiyah also initiated the first large-scale raids into Anatolia from 641 on.
Muawiyah greatly beautified Damascus, and developed a court to rival that of Constantinople, he expanded the frontiers of the empire, reaching the very gates of Constantinople at one point, though the Byzantines drove him back and he was unable to hold any territory in Anatolia.
Muawiyah had a personal library collection (bayt al-hikmah) that was enlarged by his successors "throughout the Umayyad period.… This first major library outside of a mosque was known to include works on astrology, medicine, chemistry, military science, and various practical arts and applied sciences in addition to religion."
Muawiyah had a few rare virtues, he was politically adept in dealing with the eastern Roman Empire and was therefore made into a secretary by Muhammad. Once peace was established, Muawiya reconciled many of the people who had been fighting each other by his generosity and fairness. Even the most stubborn of opponents would often melt under his generosity and diplomacy, he also managed through fine diplomacy to balance out the tribal rivalries.
During Mu'awiya's rule he put into practice the advice that Muhammad had given him, "When you rule, do it well." He was scrupulous about justice and was generous and fair to people of all classes, he honoured people who possessed ability and talent and helped them to advance their talents, regardless of their tribe. He displayed great forbearance towards the rashness of ignorant men and great generosity towards the grasping, he made the judgements of the Shari'a binding on everyone with resolution, compassion and diligence. He led them in their prayers and directed them in their gatherings, he led them in their wars. In short, he proved to be a balanced and model ruler. 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas stated that he did not see a man more suited to rule than Mu'awiya.
It must be said, however, that the rise of Mu'awiyah came partly through his family connections to the Umayyad tribe, during the later part of Uthman bin Affan's rule, Ali advised Uthman to keep a check on Mu'awiyah's growing power saying:
I will tell you that everyone appointed by 'Umar bin al Khattab was kept under close scrutiny by him. If (Umar) heard a single word concerning him he would flog him, then punish him with the utmost severity, but you do not do [that]. You have been weak and easygoing with your relatives.
"Do you know that Umar kept Mu'awiyah in office throughout his entire caliphate, and I have only done the same." 'Ali answered, "I adjure you by God, do you know that Mu'awiyah was more afraid of Umar than was Umar's own slave Yarfa?" "Yes," said (Uthman). 'Ali went on, "In fact Mu'awiyah makes decisions on issues without [consulting] you, and you know it. Thus, he says to the people. 'This is Uthman's command.' You hear of this, but do not censure him."
Views on Muawiyah
Early non-Muslim literature
The Greek historian Theophanus does not call Muawiyah a king or an emperor, but rather a 'primus inter pares', or in Greek, a protosymboulos, "a first among equals", in the midst of his 'symboulioi'. Theophanus also referred to Umar ibn al-Khattab as "Primus inter pares".
After the peace treaty with Hassan, in the book The Great Arab Conquests Hugh Kennedy writes that "The Nestorian Christian John bar Penkaye writing in the 690s, has nothing but praise for the first Umayyad caliph, Muawiya, of whose reign he says 'the peace throughout the world was such that we have never heard, either from our fathers or from our grandparents, or seen that there had ever been any like it'".
The traditional medieval Sunni perception of Caliph Muawiyah I has a wide spectrum, it is based on when it was written and who wrote it and where.
Early Medinan literature
In the early literature like Musnad Ahmed 4/216 there are hadith like this one:
A narration tells that Muhammad prayed to God in favor of Muawiyah: "Allahumma (O Allah) guide him and guide people by him." This narration is in many hadith (narration) books. Al-Dhahabi says that this narration has a strong predication (reference). Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani (a modern narrations critic) also said: all the men of the predication (reference) are trustworthy and then he explained how the predication is strong.
Even the earliest pro-Shia accounts of al-Masudi are more balanced. al-Masudi in Ibn Hisham is the earliest Shia account of Muawiyah and he recounts that Muawiyah spent a great deal of time in prayer, in spite of the burden of managing a large empire.
Az-Zuhri stated that Muawiya led the Hajj Pilgrimage with the people twice during his era as caliph.
Early Abbasid literature from Iraq
Books written in the early Abbasid period like al-baladhuri "The Origins of the Islamic State" provide a more accurate and balanced history.[according to whom?][not specific enough to verify] Ibn Hisham also wrote about these events.[vague][clarification needed]
Later Abbasid literature
After killing off most of the Umayyads and destroying the graves of the Umayyad rulers apart from Muawiyah and Umar Ibn Adbul Aziz, the history books written during the later Abbasid period are more anti Umayyad.
Later Abbasid literature from Iran
The books written later in the Abbasid period in Iran are even more anti Umayyad. Iran was Sunni at the time. There was much anti Arab feeling in Iran after the fall of the Persian empire, this anti Arab feeling also influenced the books on Islamic history. Al-Tabri was also written in Iran during that period. Al-Tabri was a huge collection including all the text that he could find, from all the sources, it was a collection preserving everything for future generations to codify and for future generations to judge if it was true or false. It contains text like this:
To the following narration (reported by two different Sahabah):
Abdullah ibn Umar narrates that he heard Rasulallah (Muhammad) say:
“Mu′awiyah shall not die on the path of Islam.” 
Narrated by Jabir bin Abdullah who testified that he heard Rasulallah (Muhammad) say:
“At the time of his death, Mu’awiyah shall not be counted as member of my Muslim Ummah.”
Some of the classical literature by eminent (Sunni) Islamic figures in the Abbasid period records:
- I asked my father about Ali and Muawiyah. He (Ahmad Ibn Hanbal)
- answered: "Know that Ali had a lot of enemies who tried hard to find a
- fault in him, but they found it not. As such, they joined a man
- who verily fought him, battled
- him, and they praised him extravagantly setting a snare for
- themselves for him. -Abdullah bin Ahmad Ibn Hanbal
Muawiyah's opposition to Ali manifested itself in the following practice instituted during his caliphate, which was the verbal abuse and insult of Ali Ibn Abi Talib during the sermons in the mosques, this was even done on the pulpit of the Mosque of Muhammad in Medinah. (This practice lasted for 65 years and was ended by Umayyad caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz.) For example, Tabari recorded:
- When Muawiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan put Mughairah Ibn Shubah in charge of
- Kufah in Jumada AH 41 (2 September - 30 October 661 CE), he summoned him.
- After praising and glorifying God, he said:
- "I would continue to advise you about a quality of yours – do not refrain from
- abusing Ali and criticizing him, (but) not from asking God's mercy upon
- Uthman and His forgiveness for him. Continue to shame the companions
- of Ali, keep at a distance, and don't listen to them. Praise the
- faction of Uthman, bring them near, and listen to them."
Saad Ibn Abi Al-Waqqas narrated-
- Muawiyah, the son of Abu Sufyan, gave order to Saad, and told him:
- "What prevents you that you are refraining from cursing Abu Turab
- (nickname of Ali Ibn Abi Talib)?" Saad replied: "Don't you remember that the Prophet
- said three things about (the virtues of) Ali? So I will never curse Ali."[non-primary source needed][third-party source needed]
Nisa'i and Muslim narrate a Sahih hadith, wherein Muhammad summoned Muawiyah who snubbed him and continued eating his meal – Muhammad then cursed Muawiyah with the words: "May Allah never fill his belly!" Nisa'i was not the only Sunni scholar who accepted this hadith – there were many others, the foremost being Bukhari and Muslim who compiled the Sahih Muslim, it has been argued that in the Arabic culture and language the expression is a colloquialism which means a wish that the person's belly be so full of blessings of God (in the form of food) that his belly cannot take any more, or that he wishes the person's blessings to be without an end. However, the two pre-eminent masters of Sunni hadith, Bukhari and Muslim, have rejected absolutely the latter apology for Muawiyah. Further, Nisa'i was murdered when he recited this hadith in the presence of pro-Muawiya Arab-speaking Syrians as it was perceived as a curse of Muawiyah, which debases the unreferenced suggestion that the term was a form of praise and not condemnation.
Later Abbasid literature from Syria
Ibn Taymiyyah (1263 to 1328) said: "Muawiyah did not call himself to be a khaleefah and was not given the oath of allegiance to it when he fought Ali. He fought not because he considered himself to be the khaleef or deserving of the khilaafah, this they all agreed upon and he himself would affirm this to whomever asked him. He and his companions did not consider it permissible that they initiate the fight against Ali and his companions, but Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) and his companions believed that Muawiyah and his companions must pledge allegiance and show obedience to Ali, due to his authority such that there be only one khaleefah for the Muslims. Considering them defecting from this obligation he decided that Muawiyah and his companions should be fought until they fulfilled it. All this so that obedience and unity occur. Muawiyah and his companions did not see that it was obligatory upon them and if they were fought against they would consider themselves oppressed because Uthman was killed oppressively as was agreed by all the Muslims at the time and his killers were in Ali's camp, he having authority over them"
Ibn Kathir (1301-1373) said: "Uthmaan was killed oppressively, may Allah be pleased with him. Muawiyah was demanding that Ali hand over Uthman's killers so that he may take vengeance from them, as he was also an Umayyid. Ali was asking Muawiyah for respite until he had established himself and then he would hand them over, at the same time he was requesting Muawiyah to surrender Shaam to him. However Muaawiyah refused that until Ali surrendered those who killed Uthman."
According to Ibn Katheer in his book Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, Imam Ahmed was asked about what had happened between Muawiyah and Ali, he recited the Verse "That was a nation who has passed away, they shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earned. And you will not be asked of what they used to do" Al-Baqarah 2:134.
Modern Sunni literature
This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. (June 2017)
Despite his endeavours in the expansion of the caliphate and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty, the persona of Caliph Muawiyah I evokes a controversial figure in standard Islamic history whose legacy has never quite been able to shed the taint of his opposition to the Rashidun Caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib.
The late (Sunni) theologian Mawdudi (founder of Jamaat-E-Islami) wrote that the establishment of the caliphate as (essentially) a monarchy began with the caliphate of Muawiyah I, it wasn't the kind where Muawiyah was appointed by the Muslims. Mawdudi elaborated that Muawiyah wanted to be caliph and fought in order to attain the caliphate, not really depending upon the acceptance of the Muslim community, the people did not appoint Muawiyah as a caliph, he became one by force, and consequently the people had no choice but to give him their pledge of allegiance (bay'ah). Had the people not given Muawiyah their allegiance at that time, it wouldn't have meant so much as losing their rank or position, as much as it would have meant bloodshed and conflict, this certainly couldn't have been given preference over peace and order. Following Hasan ibn Ali's abdication of the caliphate, all the Muslims (including the Sahabah and Tabi'een) gave their pledge of allegiance to Muawiyah I, bringing an end to civil war, that year was called the Aam Al Jamaat (Year of Unification). As Mawdudi pointed out, Muawiyah's own speech during the initial days of his caliphate expressed his own awareness of this:
By Allah, while taking charge of your government I was not unaware of the fact that you are unhappy over my taking over of government and you people don’t like it. I am well aware of whatever is there in your hearts regarding this matter but still I have taken it from you on the basis of my sword… Now if you see that I am not fulfilling your rights, then you should be happy with me with whatever is there.
Muawiyah I is a reviled figure in Shia Islam for several reasons. Firstly, because of his involvement in the Battle of Siffin against Ali ibn Abi Talib, whom the Shia Muslims believe was Muhammad's true successor; secondly, for the breaking of the treaty he made with Hasan ibn Ali, after the death of Hasan ibn Ali, one of broken terms being appointing his son Yazid as his successor; thirdly, because they believe that he is responsible for the killing of Hasan ibn Ali by bribing his wife Ja'dah binte Ash'as to poison him whereas the Sunni texts do not say that his wife killed him; and fourthly because some Shia think that he distorted their interpretation of Islam to match his rule; whereas the Sunnis do not say that he distorted Islam, as he was a political leader at a certain time in history to whom Hassan and Hussein also gave their allegiance, whereas they say that Islam is based on the Quran and the teaching of Muhammad and its main center of learning was in Madina not in Syria and they say that Islam was completed at the time of Muhammad and use the verses "This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion" Quran 5:5. "Indeed, it is I who sent down the Qur'an and indeed, I will be its guardian." The Holy Qur'an, Chapter 15, Verse 9. Fifthly, for the deaths of various Companions of Muhammad who fought alongside Ali in the Battle of Siffin.
According to Shia view, Muawiyah opposed Ali, out of sheer greed for power and wealth, his reign opened the door to the persecution of Ali's supporters, slaughtering of his followers, and unlawful imprisonment of his supporters, which only worsened when Yazid came into power and the Battle of Karbala ensued. Muawiyah is alleged to have killed many of Muhammad's companions (Sahabah), either in battle or by poison, due to his lust for power. Muawiyah killed several historical figures, including the Sahabah, Amr bin al-Hamiq, Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, Malik al-Ashtar, Hujr ibn Adi (to which the families of Abu Bakr and Umar condemned Muawiyah for, and the Sahaba deemed his killer to be cursed) and Abd al-Rahman bin Hasaan (buried alive for his support of Ali). According to the Shia Muawiyah was also responsible for instigating the Battle of Siffin, the bloodiest battle in Islam's history, whereas many early history books state that Ali went north to Syria, to make the Syrians give him allegiance; in the Battle of Siffin over 70,000 people (among them many of the last surviving companions of Muhammad) were killed. Notable among the Companions who were killed by Muawiyah's forces in the battle of Siffin was Ammar ibn Yasir, an old man of 95 at the time of his death. Shia Muslims see his being killed at the hands of Muawiyah's army as significant because of a well-known hadith, present in both the Shia and Sunni books of hadith, narrated by Abu Hurairah and others, in which Muhammad is recorded to have said: "The transgressing party shall kill you", Sahih Muslim and Sahih al-Bukhari.
[...] Then he [i.e. Muawiyah] was informed that Ubaidullah had two infant sons. So he set out to reach them, and when he found them - they had two (tender) forelocks like pearls - [and] he ordered to kill them.
- Encyclopedia Britannica: Muawiyah I.
- Akbar Shāh K̲h̲ān Najībābādī, "The History Of Islam", Volume 2, Page 47, February 2001.
- Sowerwine, James (2010). Caliph and Caliphate Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide. Oxford. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-19-980382-8.
- The Umayyad Dynasty Archived June 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. at the University of Calgary.
- Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jabir al-Tabari (trans. Michael G Morony) (1987). The History of the Prophets and Kings (Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk), Vol. 18 Between Civil Wars: The Caliphate of Mu'awiyah A.H. 40, A.D. 661-A.H. 60, A.D. 680. Albany, New York. ISBN 0-87395-933-7.
- A Chronology Of Islamic History 570-1000 CE, By H.U. Rahman 1999, Page 48 and Pages 52-53.
- Ibn Manzur. Mukhtaṣar tārīkh madīnat Dimashq l-Ibn ‘Asākir [Summary of the history of Damascus] (in Arabic). 7. p. 356.[edition needed]
- Bewley 2002, p. 81.
- Al-Mada'ini. Tarikh Al-Khulafah: *Mu'awiya bin Abu Sufyan.[full citation needed]
- Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jabir al-Tabari (trans. Ismail K Poonawala) (1990). The History of the Prophets and Kings (Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk), Vol. 9 The Last Years of the Prophet. Albany, New York. ISBN 0-88706-691-7.
- Ibn Hisham. As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah [Life of Muhammad] (in Urdu). 2. p. 597.
- Ibn Kathir 2012, p. 113.
- Bewley 2002, p. 4.
- Ahmad Bin Yaḥyâ Bin Jabir Al Biladuri (trans. Philip Khuri Hitti) (2011). The Origins of the Islamic State Being a Translation from the Arabic Accompanied With Annotations, Geographic and Historic Notes of the Kitâb Futûḥ Al-buldân of Al-Imâm Abu-l-Abbâs Aḥmad Ibn-Jâbir Al-Balâdhuri. Cosimo, Inc. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-61640-534-2.
- Bosworth (ed.). "Muʿāwiyah I". Encyclopædia of Islam. VII (2nd ed.). Brill. pp. 263–268.
- Al-Tabari, I, 2085 and 2090.
- Al-Baladhuri. Futuh al-Buldan. pp. 108, 117, 119, 126.
- Bewley 2002, p. 6.
- al-Baladhuri 892 Archived October 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- Madelung, Wilferd (1998). The Succession to Muhammad A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-64696-3.
- A Chronology Of Islamic History 570-1000 CE, By H.U. Rahman 1999 Page 40.
- Encyclopedia of Islam Volume VII, page 265, By Bosworth.
- A Chronology Of Islamic History 570-1000 CE, By H.U. Rahman 1999 Page 72.
- Holland 2013, p. 395.
- al-Waqidi 1423, p. 575.
- Bewley 2002, p. 10.
- Sowell, Kirk H. (2004). The Arab World An Illustrated History. Hippocrene Books. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7818-0990-0.
- Bewley 2002, p. 40.
- A Chronology Of Islamic History 570-1000 CE, By H.U. Rahman, 1999, Pages 48-49.
- The Great Arab Conquests By Hugh Kennedy, page 326.
- The Great Arab Conquests By Hugh Kennedy, page 327.
- Lewis, Archibald Ross (1985). European Naval and Maritime History, 300-1500. Indiana University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-253-32082-7.
- Kroll, Leonard Michael (2005). History of the Jihad Islam Versus Civilization. AuthorHouse. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-4634-5730-3.
- Gregory, Timothy E. (2011). A History of Byzantium. John Wiley & Sons. p. 183. ISBN 978-1-4443-5997-8.
- Weston, Mark (2008). Prophets and Princes Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-470-18257-4.
- Bradbury, Jim (1992). The Medieval Siege. Boydell & Brewer. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-85115-357-5.
- A Chronology Of Islamic History 570-1000 CE, By H.U. Rahman, 1999, Page 54.
- Little, Donald P. "Muʿāwiyah I". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Avi-Yonah, Michael (2001). History of Israel and the Holy Land By Michael Avi-Yonah, Shimon Peres. Continuum International Publishing Group, Limited. ISBN 978-0-8264-1526-4. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- Bewley 2002, p. 33.
- Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa her life and works by Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi translated by Syed Athar Husain and published by Darul Ishaat Page 47.
- Ibn Kathir 2012, p. 135.
- Holland 2013, p. 400: "Muawiya looked to keep the Muslims busy, duly renewed the onslaught against the Roman Empire with a vengeance. In 674, he even sponsored a siege of Constantinople itself; in the event, after a blockade of four years, the effort to capture the New Rome had to be abandoned; yet what was striking, perhaps, was not its failure but how close it had come to success."
- Treadgold (1997), pp. 325–327.
- Paul Halsall (2000) . Jerome S. Arkenberg, ed. "East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. - 1643 C.E.". Fordham University. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- Donner, Fred M (1999). "Muhammad and the Caliphate; Political History of the Islamic Empire up to the Mongol Conquest" in The Oxford History of Islam, John Esposito, ed. Oxford. p. 35. ISBN 0-19-510799-3.
- Bewley 2002, pp. 50-51.
- Ibn Kathir 2012, p. 21.
- Ibn Kathir 2012, pp. 55–56.
- Ahmad, Abdul Basit (2001). Umar bin Al Khattab - The Second Caliph of Islam. Darussalam. p. 44. ISBN 978-9960-861-08-1.
- Khālid, Khālid Muḥammad; Khalid, Muhammad Khalid (2005). Men Around the Messenger. The Other Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-983-9154-73-3.
- Ali, Maulana Muhammad (2011). The Living Thoughts of the Prophet Muhammad. Dublin, Ohio. p. 132. ISBN 978-1-934271-22-3.
- Al-Buraey, Muhammad (1985). Administrative Development An Islamic Perspective. KPI. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-7103-0333-2.
- The challenge of Islamic renaissance By Syed Abdul Quddus.
- Al-Buraey, Muhammad (1985). Administrative Development An Islamic Perspective. KPI. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-7103-0059-1.
- Akgündüz, Ahmed; Öztürk, Said (2011). Ottoman History Misperceptions and Truths. IUR Press. p. 539. ISBN 978-90-902610-8-9.
- Muawiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley Page 35 Archived September 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- Marshall Cavendish (2006). World and Its Peoples. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2.
- Haag, Michael (2012). The Tragedy of the Templars The Rise and Fall of the Crusader States. Profile. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-84765-854-8.
- Ibn Kathir 2012, p. 118.
- Holland 2013, p. 402.
- Holland 2013, p. 406.
- John bar Penkaye page 61.
- Hitti, Philip Khuri (1996). The Arabs A Short History. Washington DC. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-89526-706-1.
- Fatah, Tarek (2008). Chasing a mirage the tragic illusion of an Islamic state. Wiley. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-470-84116-7.
- Arab Science: Discoveries and Contributions By Edwin Palmer Hoyt - Page 27.
- Bewley 2002, p. 9.
- Bewley 2002, p. 37.
- Bewley 2002, p. 39.
- Bewley 2002, p. 53.
- Bewley 2002, p. 54.
- Bewley 2002, p. 55-56.
- Holland 2013, p. 409.
- Ibn Kathir 2012, p. 82.
- al-Waqidi 1423, p. 352-353.
- Ibn Kathir 2012, p. 83.
- Korom, Frank J. (2003). Hosay Trinidad Muharram Performances in an Indo-Caribbean Diaspora. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-8122-1825-1.
- Ayoub, Mahmoud M. (1978). Redemptive Suffering in Islam A Study of the Devotional Aspects of Ashura in Twelver Shi'ism. Walter de Gruyter. p. 95. ISBN 978-3-11-080331-0.
- Ibn Kathir 2012, p. 123.
- Ibn Kathir 2012, p. 124.
- Dunn, John (1996). The Spread of Islam. Greenhaven Press, Incorporated. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-56006-285-1.
- Najībābādī, Akbar Shāh K̲h̲ān (2001). History of Islam (Vol 2). Darussalam. p. 47. ISBN 9789960892887.
- Bewley 2002, p. 5.
- Pryor & Jeffreys (2006), p. 25.
- Treadgold (1997), pp. 313–314.
- Hugh N Kennedy, The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century, Harlow, Essex, 2004, pp 120, 122. isbn=978-0-582-40525-7
- Kaegi (1995), pp. 246–247.
- El-Cheikh (2004), pp. 83–84.
- M. Lesley Wilkins (1994), "Islamic Libraries to 1920", Encyclopedia of Library History, New York: Garland Pub., ISBN 978-0-8240-5787-9
- Sahih Muslim, The book of (Virtues of the companions), narration no. :168-(2501) numbered by mohammad fo'ad abdul-baqi.
- Jacobsen, Christian (2008). AD 2036 Is the End The Truth about the Second Coming of Christ and the Meaning of Life. iUniverse. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-595-88128-4.
- Bewley 2002, p. 31.
- Bewley 2002, p. 8.
- Bewley 2002, p. 8-9.
- History of al-Tabari Vol. 15, The Crisis of the Early Caliphate.
- The Great Arab Conquests By Hugh Kennedy, page 349.
- The Great History vol. 5, 791: "عبد الرحمن بن أبي عميرة المزني يعد في الشاميين قال أبو مسهر حدثنا سعيد بن عبد العزيز عن ربيعة بن يزيد عن بن أبي عميرة قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لمعاوية اللهم اجعله هاديا مهديا واهده واهد به وقال عبد الله عن مروان عن سعيد عن ربيعة سمع عبد الرحمن سمع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مثله"
- Musnad Ahmed 4/216.
- Sunan at-Tirmidee 3842.
- Tabaqaat al-Kubraa of Ibn Sa'd 7/292.
- Shaykh Abdur Razzaq Ibn Abdul-Muhsin Al-Abbaad's book Fiqh Al-Ad'iyyah wal Ad'iyyah wal Adhkaar Vol 2 page 252.
- Book: Mu'aawiyah Ibn Abee Sufyaan By Abdul-Muhsin Ibn Hamad Al-Abbaad Publisher Dar as-Sahaba Publications Page 9.
- Talkhis al-ilal al-mutanahiya, narration no. 225.
- Selselat al-ahadith al-sahiha (the collection of accepted narrations), vol. 4, p. 615, narration no. 1969.
- Al-Albaani in his saheeh 1969.
- Bewley 2002, p. 41.
- Ibn Kathir 2012, p. 39.
- McAuliffe, Jane Dammen (2006). The Cambridge Companion to the Qur'an. Cambridge University Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-521-53934-0.
- Badiozamani, Badi; Badiozamani, Ghazal (2005). Iran and America Rekindling a Love Lost. East West Understanding Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-9742172-0-8.
- Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir. Ta'rikh Al-Rusul Wa'l-Muluk. (Vol. 8, Pg. 186). Dar Al-Ma'arif Publications, Cairo, Egypt.
- Al-Suyuti, Jalaluddin. Tarikh al-Khulafa/History of the Caliphs. (Pg. 202).
- Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami, Ahmad ibn Muhammad. Al-Sawa'iq Al-Muhriqah (Ch. 9, Sec. 4, Pg. 197).
- Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jabir. The History of Al-Tabari (Vol. 4, Pg. 188).
- Ibn Kathir, Ismail bin Umar. Al-Bidayah Wa Al-Nihayah (Vol. 8, Pg. 259; Vol. 9, Pg. 80).
- Ibn Kathir, Ismail bin Umar. Tarikh Ibne Katheer (Vol. 3, Pg. 234; Vol. 4, Pg. 154).
- Ali, Ameer. History of the Saracens (Ch. 10, Pgs. 126-127). https://www.scribd.com/doc/16916393/Short-History-of-Saracens-ISLAMIC-HISTORY (Pgs. 151-152). Archived March 24, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jabir al-Tabari (trans. Michael G Morony) (1987). The History of the Prophets and Kings (Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk), Vol. 18 Between Civil Wars: The Caliphate of Mu'awiyah A.H. 40, A.D. 661-A.H. 60, A.D. 680. Albany, New York. pp. 122–123. ISBN 0-87395-933-7.
- Ibn Al-Hajjaj, Muslim. Sahih Muslim-(Chapter) Virtues of the Companions; (Section) Virtues of Ali [Arabic Edit.] (Vol. 4, Pg. 1871, Hadith #32); [English Edit.] (Ch. CMXCVI, Pg. 1284, Hadith #5916).
- Shia Pen (2012). "Chapter Eleven: The ‘true’ merits of Mu’awiya bin Hind: Appraisal of Mu’awiya by Rasulullah [which cited Sahih Muslim hadith number 6298]". Retrieved 7 October 2017.
- Sahih Muslim, The Book of Virtue, Good Manners and Joining of the Ties of Relationship.
- Sahih al-Bukhari, Book #32, Hadith #6298.
- Ibn Khallikan, Al Wafat Al Ayan Imam, under the biography of Nisa'i, section dealing with his murder.
- Book: Mu'aawiyah Ibn Abee Sufyaan By Abdul-Muhsin Ibn Hamad Al-Abbaad Publisher Dar as-Sahaba Publications Page 48.
- Book: Mu'aawiyah Ibn Abee Sufyaan By Abdul-Muhsin Ibn Hamad Al-Abbaad Publisher Dar as-Sahaba Publications Page 42.
- Ibn Kathir 2012, p. 121.
- Mawdudi, Sayyid Abul Ala. Khilafat Wa Mulukiyyat (Caliphate and the Monarchy). (Ch. V, Pgs. 158-159) Idara Tarjumanul Quran Publishers.
- Surat Al-Ma'idah [5:3] - The Noble Qur'an - القرآن الكريم Archived September 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- Surat Al-Hijr [15:9] - The Noble Qur'an - القرآن الكريم Archived September 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- Al-Masudi, vol. 2, p. 47.
- Tārikh (Concise History of Humanity) - Abu'l-Fida, vol. 1, p. 182.
- Iqdul Farid - Ibn Abd Rabbāh, vol. 2, p. 11.
- Rawzatul Manazir - Ibne Shahnah, vol. 2, p. 133.
- Tārikhul Khamis, Husayn Dayarbakri, vol. 2, p. 238.
- Akbarut Tiwal - Dinawari, p. 400.
- Mawātilat Talibeyeen - Abul Faraj Isfahāni
- Isti'ab - Ibne Abdul Birr.
- Tarikh Tabri vol. 18, p. 201; al Istiab, vol. 1, p. 49, Chapter: Busar; al Isaba, vol. 1, p. 289, Translation no. 642, Busar bin Irtat; Asadul Ghaba, vol. 1 p. 113, Topic: Busar bin Irtat; Tarikh Ibn Asakir, vol. 3, p. 225; Tarikh Asim Kufi, p. 308.
- al Bidaya wa al Nihaya, vol. 8, p. 52; Asad'ul Ghaba vol. 1, p. 846, Dhikr Umro bin Hamiq; Tarikh Yaqubi, vol. 2, p. 200, 50 H; Al Bidayah wal Nihayah, vol. 8, p. 52, death of Amro bin al-Hamiq al-Khazai.
- al Bidaya wa al Nihaya, vol. 8, p. 48, Dhikr 50 Hijri; al Istiab, vol. 1, p. 363; al Isaba, vol. 4, p. 623, Translation no. 5822; Asadul Ghaba, vol. 1, p. 846, Amr bin al-Hamiq al-Khazai; Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 6, p. 25; Tarikh Kamil, vol. 3, p. 240 Dhikr 51 Hijri; Risala Abu Bakr Khawarzmi, p. 122; Tarikh ibn Khaldun, vol. 3, p. 12; al Maarif, p. 127; History of Tabari, vol. 18, p. 137.
- Tadhirathul Khawwas, p. 64; Muruj al Dhahab, vol. 3, p. 420; Tarikh ibn Khaldun, vol. 2, p. 191; Tarikh Kamil, vol. 3, p. 179; Tarikh Tabari, English trans., vol. 18, pp. 144-146; Habib al Sayyar, vol. 1, pp. 72; Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 6, pp. 213.
- al Bidaya wa al Nihaya, vol. 8, p. 53, Dhikr 51 Hijri; Tarikh Kamil, vol. 3, p. 249, Dhikr 51 Hijri; Tarikh ibn Asakir, vol. 12, p. 227, Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Tarikh ibn Khaldun, vol. 3, p. 13, Dhikr 51 Hijri; al Isaba, vol. 1, p. 313, Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Asad'ul Ghaba, vol. 1, p. 244, Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Shadharat ul Dhahab, vol. 1, p. 57, Dhikr 51 Hijri; Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 6, p. 217, Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Mustadrak al Hakim, vol. 3, pp. 468-470, Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Akhbar al Tawaal, p. 186, Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Tarikh Abu'l Fida, p. 166, Dhikr 51 Hijri; Muruj al Dhahab, vol. 3, p. 12, Dhikr 53 Hijri; Tarikh Yaqubi, vol. 2, p. 219.
- al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, vol. 8, p. 55; Kanz al Ummal, vol. 3, p. 88; Tarikh al Islam by Dhahabi, vol. 2, p. 217; Tarikh ibn Khaldun, vol. 3, p. 12; al Isaba, p. 355 Dhikr Hujr; al-Istiab, vol. 1, p. 97.
- Qadhi Abi Bakar al-Arabi. 'Awasim min al Qawasim', p. 341; Allamah Muhibuddin al-Khateeb.
- Bidayah wal Nihayah, vol. 8, p. 52; Tarikh Kamil, vol. 3, p. 245; History of Tabari, vol. 18, p. 151.
- Jami` at-Tirmidhi. Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3800.
Narrated Abu Hurairah: that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Rejoice, 'Ammar, the transgressing party shall kill you."
- Sunni: Tarikh Kamil, vol. 3, p. 194, Dhikr 40 Hijri; Shadharath al Dhahab, p. 64, Dhikr 58 Hijri; Tarikh Taabari, English trans., vol. 18, pp. 207-208; Murujh al Dhahab, vol. 3, p. 30; al Istiab, vol. 1, p. 49, Chapter: Busar; Tarikh ibn Asakir, vol. 10, p. 146; Asad'ul Ghaba, vol. 1, p. 213, Dhikr Busar; Tarikh Islam by Dhahabi, vol. 2, p. 187. Shia: 21:6 Secrets of Muawiyah from Al-Amali: The Dictations of Sheikh al-Mufid.
- Shia: 21:6 Secrets of Muawiyah from Al-Amali: The Dictations of Sheikh al-Mufid.
- Bewley, Aisha Abdurrahman (2002). Mu‘awiya: Restorer of the Muslim Faith. Dar Al Taqwa. ISBN 978-1-870582-56-8.
- Byzantium and the early Islamic conquests. ISBN 978-0-521-48455-8.
- El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria, Nadia Maria (2004). Byzantium viewed (2004 ed.). Harvard CMES. ISBN 978-0-932885-30-2. - Total pages: 271
- Holland, Tom (2012). In the Shadow of the Sword: The Battle for Global Empire and the End of the Ancient World. London. ISBN 978-0-74811-951-6.
- Ismā‘īl ibn ‘Umar Ibn Kathīr (2012). The Caliphate of Banu Umayyah The First Phase Taken from Al-Bidayah Wan-nihayah. ISBN 9786035000802.
- Kennedy, Hugh N (2016). The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the sixth to the eleventh century. London. ISBN 978-1-138-78760-5.
- Pryor, John H.; Jeffreys, Elizabeth M.; Shboul, Ahmad M.H. (2006). The Age of the ΔΡΟΜΩΝ The Byzantine Navy ca. 500–1204. Leiden, The Netherlands and Boston, Massachusetts: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-15197-0.
- Doi, A.R. (1981). Non-Muslims Under Shari'Ah. Kazi Publications. ISBN 978-1-56744-170-3.
- Treadgold, Warren T. (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-2630-6.
- al-Waqidi (1423). Fatuhusham [Islamic Conquest of Syria]. Translated by Sulayman al-Kindi. Ta-Ha Publishers. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013.
Muawiyah IBorn: 602 Died: 26 April 680
|Sunni Islam titles|
Hasan ibn Ali
|Caliph of Islam
661 — 680
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya ibn Abī Sufyān