Muawiyah I

Muawiyah I was the founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, serving from 661 until his death. He became caliph less than 30 years following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and shortly after the reign of the four "rightly guided" caliphs. Although considered to be lacking in the justice and piety of the Rashidun, Muawiyah was the first caliph whose name appeared on coins, inscriptions, or documents of the nascent Islamic empire. Muawiyah and his father Abu Sufyan had opposed Muhammad, their distant Qurayshite kinsman, until the latter captured Mecca in 630, after which Muawiyah became one of Muhammad's scribes, he was appointed by Caliph Abu Bakr the commander of the vanguard of his brother Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan's army during the conquest of Syria and he moved up the ranks until becoming governor of Syria during the reign of Caliph Uthman. He allied with the province's powerful Banu Kalb tribe, developed the defenses of its coastal cities and directed the war efforts against the Byzantine Empire, including the first Muslim naval campaigns.

After Uthman's assassination in 656, Muawiyah took up the cause of avenging the caliph and opposed his successor, Ali. During the First Muslim Civil War, the two led their armies to a stalemate at the Battle of Siffin in 657, prompting an abortive series of arbitration talks to settle the war. Afterward, Muawiyah gained recognition as caliph by his Syrian supporters and his ally Amr ibn al-As, who conquered Egypt from Ali's governor in 658. After the assassination of Ali in 661, Muawiyah compelled his son and successor Hasan to abdicate in Kufa and Muawiyah's suzerainty was acknowledged throughout the Caliphate. Domestically, Muawiyah relied on Syria's Christian-dominated bureaucracy, he is credited with establishing government departments responsible for the postal route and chancellery. Externally, he engaged his troops in yearly land and sea raids against the Byzantines, including a failed siege of Constantinople, though the tide turned against the Arabs toward the end of his reign and he sued for a truce.

In the provinces of Iraq and the eastern Caliphate, he delegated authority to the powerful governors al-Mughira and Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan, the latter of whom he controversially adopted as his brother. Ziyad restarted the eastward Arab conquests in Khurasan and Sijistan and reformed Iraq's army and tax administrations. Under Muawiyah's direction, the Muslim conquest of Ifriqiya was launched by the commander Uqba ibn Nafi in 670. Although Muawiyah confined the influence of his Umayyad clan to the governorship of Medina, he nominated his own son, Yazid I, as his successor, it was an unprecedented move in Islamic politics and opposition to it by prominent Muslim leaders, including Ali's son Husayn and Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, persisted after Muawiyah's death, culminating with the outbreak of the Second Muslim Civil War. Mu'awiya's year of birth is uncertain with 603 or 605 cited by the Muslim traditional sources, his father Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was a prominent Meccan merchant who led trade caravans to Syria.

He emerged as the preeminent leader of the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraysh, the dominant tribe of Mecca, during the early stages of its conflict with the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The latter too hailed from the Quraysh and was distantly related to Mu'awiya via their common paternal ancestor, Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy. Mu'awiya's mother, Hind bint Utba, was a member of the Banu Abd Shams. In 624, Muhammad and his followers attempted to intercept a Meccan caravan led by Mu'awiya's father on its return from Syria, prompting Abu Sufyan to call for reinforcements; the Qurayshite relief army was routed in the ensuing Battle of Badr, in which Mu'awiya's elder brother Hanzala and their maternal grandfather, Utba ibn Rabi'a, were killed. Abu Sufyan replaced the slain leader of the Meccan army, Abu Jahl, led the Meccans to victory against the Muslims at the Battle of Uhud in 625. After his abortive siege of Muhammad in Medina at the Battle of the Trench in 627, he lost his leadership position among the Quraysh.

Mu'awiya and his father may have reached an understanding with Muhammad during the truce negotiations at Hudaybiyya in 628 and Mu'awiya's widowed sister, Umm Habiba, was wed to Muhammad in 629. When Muhammad captured Mecca in 630, Mu'awiya, his father and his elder brother Yazid embraced Islam; as part of Muhammad's efforts to reconcile with his tribesmen, Mu'awiya was made one of his kātibs, being one of seventeen literate members of the Quraysh at that time. The family moved to Medina to maintain their new-found influence in the nascent Muslim community. After Muhammad died in 632, Abu Bakr became caliph. Having to contend with challenges to his leadership from the Ansar, the natives of Medina who had provided Muhammad safe haven from his erstwhile Meccan opponents, the mass defections of several Arab tribes, Abu Bakr reached out to the Quraysh its two strongest clans, the Banu Makhzum and Banu Abd Shams, to shore up support for the Caliphate. Among those Qurayshites whom he appointed to suppress the rebel Arab tribes during the Ridda wars was Mu'awiya's brother Yazid, whom he dispatched as one of four commanders in charge of the Muslim conquest of Byzantine Syria in c. 634.

The caliph appointed Mu'awiya commander of Yazid's vanguard. Through these appointments Abu Bakr gave the family of Abu Sufyan a stake in the conquest of Syria, where Abu Sufyan owned property in the vicinity of Damascus, in return for the loyalty of the Banu Abd Shams. Abu Bakr's successor Umar appointed Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah as the

Stony Brook University

The State University of New York at Stony Brook referred to as Stony Brook University, SBU, or SUNY Stony Brook, is a public sea-grant and space-grant research university in Stony Brook, New York. It is one of four university centers of the State University of New York system; the institution was founded 63 years ago in 1957 in Oyster Bay as State University College on Long Island, moved to Stony Brook in 1962. In 2001, Stony Brook was elected to the Association of American Universities, it is a member of the larger Universities Research Association. It is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity."Stony Brook University, in partnership with Battelle, manages Brookhaven National Laboratory – a national laboratory of the United States Department of Energy. The university acquired land for a Research & Development Park adjacent to its main campus in 2004, has four business incubators across the region; the university's impact on the Long Island economy amounts to $7.23 billion in increased output, research expenditures have surpassed the $230 million mark annually.

Stony Brook is the largest single-site employer on Long Island. Stony Brook's intercollegiate athletic teams are the Seawolves. Since 1999, they have competed in Division I of the NCAA, are members of the America East Conference, Colonial Athletic Association, Missouri Valley Conference; the State University of New York at Stony Brook referred to as SUNY Stony Brook, was established in Oyster Bay in 1957 as the State University College on Long Island, by the governor and state of New York. Established a decade after the creation of New York's public higher education system, the institution was envisioned as a college for the preparation of secondary school teachers. Leonard K. Olson was appointed as the first dean of the institution and was instrumental in the recruitment of faculty staff and planning of the Stony Brook campus. SUCOLI opened with an inaugural class of 148 students, on the grounds of the William Robertson Coe Planting Fields estate; these first students were admitted on a tuition-free basis.

1961 was a year of firsts as thirty students were conferred degrees in the first commencement and the University was appointed its first president, John Francis Lee. Lee left that year due to political and bureaucratic matters regarding the future of the University and the central administration at Albany. Lee fulfilled his primary task of reshaping the university from a technical science and engineering college of limited degree options to a full-scale university featuring liberal arts programs. In 1960 the Heald Report, commissioned by Governor Nelson Rockefeller, recommended a major new public university be built on Long Island to "stand with the finest in the country", a report that would shape most of the University's growth for years to come. Ward Melville, a philanthropist and businessman from the Three Village area in western Suffolk County donated over 400 acres of land to the state for the development of a state university and in 1962 the institution relocated to Stony Brook and renamed as the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

However, the longer name has fallen out of favor. The campus had 782 students enrolled in 1962, but enrollment had increased more than tenfold by 1969, surpassing the 8,000 mark, fueled by the large funding of public higher education in the Sputnik era. In 1963, only three years after the release of the Heald Report, the Governor commissioned the "Education of Health Professions" report; the report outlined the need for expansion of the university system to prepare medical professionals for the future needs of the state. The report was important for Stony Brook as it recommended creation of a Health Science Center and academic hospital at the campus to serve the need of the fastest-growing counties in New York at the time. In 1965, the State University appointed John S. Toll, a renowned physicist from the University of Maryland as the second president of Stony Brook. In 1966, the University set forth initial timetables for the development of the Health Science Center, which would house the University's health programs and hospital.

Despite the budgetary concerns and challenges from Albany, the University released a formalized plan early in 1968 and funding for recruitment of faculty was provided. At the same time, residential housing was expanded to 3,000, the Stony Brook Union opened in 1970, in 1971, the massive expansion project for the campus library was completed. Despite the fast-paced growth, campus infrastructure struggled to keep pace: overcrowding, landscaping and safety were persistent problems at the University, which led to multiple protests and growing tension between the student body and the administration. In January 1968, the infamous "Operation Stony Brook" drug raid resulted in the arrest of twenty nine students and in the fall of 1968, tension climaxed as the administration and students decided on a three-day moratorium to bring together the entire university with the goal of improving communication between the students and administration. Despite the initiatives of the "Three Days" in improving the campus, in February 1973, a tragedy occurred when a freshman student fell to his death into one of the many uncovered steam pipe manholes at the University.

The 1970s witnessed the growth of the University and its transformation as a major research institution within New York's public scho

Geraldine Norman

Geraldine Lucia Norman is a mathematician and writer, instrumental in identifying a collection of forged paintings. Born Geraldine Lucia Keen to Harold Hugh Keen and Catherine Eleanor Lyle Cummins, she was educated in Oxford. She graduated in 1961 with a Masters of Arts in Mathematics which she followed up by attending the University of California, Los Angeles from 1961 to 62. Norman got a job as a statistician for The Times Newspaper in 1962. In 1967 she was the statistician who launched the Times-Sotheby index of art prices which ran from the 1967-71, she progressed in 1969 to become the Sale Room Correspondent of The Times. Norman gained a name during that time, she asked awkward questions about secret practices within the industry. She continued her inquisitive nature when she uncovered that 13 drawings by the 19th-century artist Samuel Palmer were forgeries. On July 16, 1976, she published a sensational article in The Times claiming they were modern forgeries and identified that they had been created by an artist called Tom Keating.

She has investigated authenticity of Van Goghs. In 1987 she left The Times. Norman joined The Independent newspaper as Art Market Correspondent leaving in 1995 to focus on writing. Roles which she took on after leaving the Independent were as director of The Hermitage Development Trust, editor of the Magazine and chief executive of the Hermitage Foundation UK, she married playwright and novelist John Frank Norman on 16 July 1971. They co-wrote'The Fake's Progress', he died in 1980. The Sale of Works of Art Nineteenth Century Painters and Painting, A Dictionary The Fake's Progress Mrs. Harper’ Niece Biedermeier Painting Top Collectors of the World The Hermitage: The Biography of a Great Museum Bob Hecht by Bob Hecht Dynastic Rule: Mikhail Piotrovsky and the Hermitage