Lee Bong-Ju is a South Korean marathoner. He competed for South Korea in the 1996 Summer Olympics held in Atlanta, United States in the Marathon where he won the silver medal, he set the current South Korean men's national marathon record at 2:07:20 in Tokyo on February 13, 2000, half marathon at 1:01:04 in Tokyo on January 26, 1992. He finished 41 marathons during his 19 years career with twice national records, he retired following his victory at the Korean National Sports Festival in October 2009. All results regarding marathon, unless stated otherwise Lee Bong-Ju at IAAF
Ōtsu is the capital city of Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Ōtsu is known as the main port of the largest lake in Japan. It served as the capital of Japan from 667 to 672 AD during the Asuka period; the city is home to numerous sites of historical importance, notably the temples of Mii-dera, Ishiyama-dera, Enryaku-ji and the Hiyoshi Taisha shrine. Enryaku-ji is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto". Ōtsu was incorporated as a town on April 1, 1889. In October 1, 1898, Ōtsu-town was changed to Ōtsu-city; as of October 1, 2017, the city has an estimated population of 341,187 and a population density of 730 persons per km2. The total area is 464.51 km2. Ōtsu, meaning "big port", was a center of inland water transportation since ancient times. The city was an important port on Lake Biwa, a center of trade by water and land to other areas of Japan. Ōtsu was part of an old province of Japan until the modern period. The port is referred to in the Man ` yōshū as Shiga no Shigatsu.
In the years 667 to 672, the Ōmi Ōtsu Palace was founded by Emperor Tenji. The Jinshin War devastated the Ōmi Ōtsu Palace, Ōtsu was renamed Furutsu. A new capital, Heian-kyō, was established in the immediate neighborhood in 794, Ōtsu was revived as an important traffic point and satellite town of the capital. With the establishment of the new capital, the name of the city was restored to "Ōtsu". Ōtsu prospered during the Edo period because of the port on Lake Biwa and for its role as a shukuba, or post town. The city was under direct administration of the Tokugawa shogunate, both for its strategic location and for its role as a center of travel and trade. Two of the Gokaidō, or five routes that connected the capitol at Edo with other parts of Japan, converged in Ōtsu: the great Tōkaidō connecting Edo with Kyoto, the Nakasendō connecting Edo with Kyoto via an inland route. Additionally, the ancient Hokurikudō, which connected Kyoto to the provinces of northern Honshu, ran through Otsu; the Tokugawa shogunate established several han domains in the Ōtsu area.
The Zeze Domain was based in Zeze, a neighboring castle town of Ōtsu-juku, the smaller Katada Domain occupied the northern area of the present-day city. The Meiji Restoration of 1868 saw the establishment of a new central government in Tokyo and the abolition of the han system. Numerous prefectures under control of the Meiji government were created, part of the old province of Ōmi was designated as Ōtsu Prefecture in 1868. Several smaller prefectures were merged into Ōtsu Prefecture in 1871, which became part of present-day Shiga Prefecture on January 1, 1872. Ōtsu a town, was named the prefectural capital of Shiga. The Ōtsu incident, a failed assassination attempt on Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich of Russia, occurred on 11 May 1891. Nicholas, returning to Kyoto after a day trip to Lake Biwa, was attacked with a saber by Tsuda Sanzō, an escort policeman. Nicholas survived the assassination attempt, but the incident caused national outcry against Tsuda and was seen as a crisis in Japanese-Russian relations.
The Lake Biwa Canal was constructed in the 1890s between Kyoto. The canal, expanded during the Taishō period, played an important role in connecting the cities, facilitating water and passenger transportation, providing electrical energy to power Japan's first streetcar railroad services; the canal was designated a Historic Site in 1996.Ōtsu was incorporated as a city on October 1, 1898. On March 20, 2006, the town of Shiga ceased to exist after merging into Ōtsu. Ōtsu is located at the southwest of Shiga Prefecture. The city stretches along the southwest shore of Lake Biwa, Japan's largest lake. Ōtsu ranges from the densely populated alluvium depressions near the shore of Lake Biwa to sparsely populated hilly and mountainous areas to the west and south of the city. Lake Biwa, the largest freshwater lake in Japan, covers 673.9 square kilometres and is located at the center of the Shiga Prefecture. The north part of the lake reaches a depth of 50 metres, the south part of the lake near Ōtsu is much shallower and reaches a depth of 5 metres.
Lake Biwa provides water for the industrial areas of the Kansai Region and drinking water in the Shiga area. The lake has been a travel destination since ancient times, continues to support the tourism industry of the prefecture; the lake is protected as part of Biwako Quasi-National Park. Lake Biwa is home to the Lake Biwa Marathon, which started in Osaka in 1946, moved to Lake Biwa in 1962, it is considered to be the oldest marathon in Japan. The Yodo River emerges from the south of Lake Biwa; the portion of the river that emerges from the lake is called the Seta River. The Setagawa Dam was constructed in 1961 to regulate the level of Lake Biwa, is located in the Nangō district of Ōtsu; the Yodo River is noted for having the largest number of tributaries of any river in Japan, for supplying water for the Hanshin Industrial Region. Ōtsu was noted for the production of several products, including Ōtsu-e, a form of folk drawing purchased by travelers in the Edo period.
A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. The outright winner receives the third place a bronze medal. More silver is traditionally a metal sometimes used for all types of high-quality medals, including artistic ones. In 1896, winners' medals were in fact silver; the custom of gold-silver-bronze for the first three places dates from the 1904 games and has been copied for many other sporting events. Minting the medals is the responsibility of the host city. From 1928 to 1968 the design was always the same: the obverse showed a generic design by Florentine artist Giuseppe Cassioli with text giving the host city. From 1972–2000, Cassioli's design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassioli's design showed a Roman amphitheatre for what was a Greek games, a new obverse design was commissioned for the Athens 2004 Games.
Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design. In The Open Championship golf tournament, the Silver Medal is an award presented to the lowest scoring amateur player at the tournament. In many sports with an elimination tournament, including those with a third place playoff, silver is the only medal given to a team that loses, whereas gold and bronze are earned by teams winning their final matches. Notable athletes such as Jocelyne Larocque removed their runners-up/silver medals right after receiving them; some countries present civilian decorations known as Silver Medals. These include: Austria′s Silver Medal for Services to the Republic of Austria Italy′s Silver Medal of Military Valor South Africa′s Silver Medal for Merit The Civil Air Patrol′s Silver Medal of Valor in the United States; the Zoological Society of London awards a Silver Medal "to a Fellow of the Society or any other person for contributions to the understanding and appreciation of zoology, including such activities as public education in natural history, wildlife conservation."
The Royal Academy of Engineering awards a Silver Medal "for an outstanding and demonstrated personal contribution to UK engineering, which results in successful market exploitation, by an engineer with less than 22 years in full-time employment or equivalent." Runner-up Medal Designs for all Olympic Games
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and the largest component of the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Japan and among the largest in the world with over 19 million inhabitants. Osaka will host Expo 2025; the current mayor of Osaka is Ichiro Matsui. Some of the earliest signs of human habitation in the Osaka area at the Morinomiya ruins comprise shell mounds, sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 6th–5th centuries BC, it is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsular land with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew. By the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan; the large numbers of larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state. The Kojiki records that during 390–430 AD there was an imperial palace located at Osumi, in what is present day Higashiyodogawa ward, but it may have been a secondary imperial residence rather than a capital.
In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making it the capital of Japan. The city now known as Osaka was at this time referred to as Naniwa, this name and derivations of it are still in use for districts in central Osaka such as Naniwa and Namba. Although the capital was moved to Asuka in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato and China. Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu, remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō. By the end of the Nara period, Naniwa's seaport roles had been taken over by neighboring areas, but it remained a lively center of river and land transportation between Heian-kyō and other destinations. In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists established their headquarters in the fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace. Oda Nobunaga began a decade-long siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which resulted in the surrender of the monks and subsequent razing of the temple.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle in its place in 1583. Osaka was long considered Japan's primary economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class. Over the course of the Edo period, Osaka grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port, its popular culture was related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780, Osaka had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki and Bunraku theaters. In 1837, Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. One-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself. Osaka was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu at the same time as Hyōgo on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration. Osaka residents were stereotyped in Edo literature from at least the 18th century.
Jippensha Ikku in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy beyond belief. In 1809, the derogatory term "Kamigata zeeroku" was used by Edo residents to characterize inhabitants of the Osaka region in terms of calculation, lack of civic spirit, the vulgarity of Osaka dialect. Edo writers aspired to samurai culture, saw themselves as poor but generous and public spirited. Edo writers by contrast saw "zeeroku" as obsequious apprentices, greedy and lewd. To some degree, Osaka residents are still stigmatized by Tokyo observers in the same way today in terms of gluttony, evidenced in the phrase, "Residents of Osaka devour their food until they collapse"; the modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance, with an initial area of 15 square kilometres, overlapping today's Chūō and Nishi wards. The city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 223 square kilometres. Osaka was the industrial center most defined in the development of capitalism in Japan, it became known as the "Manchester of the Orient."The rapid industrialization attracted many Korean immigrants, who set up a life apart for themselves.
The political system was pluralistic, with a strong emphasis on promoting industrialization and modernization. Literacy was high and the educational system expanded producing a middle class with a taste for literature and a willingness to support the arts. In 1927, General Motors operated a factory called Osaka Assembly until 1941, manufacturing Chevrolet, Pontiac and Buick vehicles and staffed by Japanese workers and managers. In the nearby city of Ikeda in Osaka Prefecture is the headquarters office of Daihatsu, one of Japan's oldest automobile manufacturers. Like its European and American counterparts, Osaka displayed slums and poverty. In Japan it was here that municipal government first introduced a comprehensive system of poverty relief, copied in part from British models. Osaka policymakers stressed the importance of family formation and mutual assistance as the best way to combat poverty; this minimized
Patrick Mukutu Ivuti is a Kenyan long distance athlete, who resides in Nairobi, Kenya. A two-time silver medallist at the IAAF World Cross Country Championships, he made his marathon debut in 2005 and had his first major victory at the Chicago Marathon in 2007, he had back-to-back wins at the Honolulu Marathon in 2008–2009 and was the 2009 winner of the Prague Marathon. Ivuti has competed several times at the IAAF World Cross Country Championships, finishing second in 1999 behind Paul Tergat and runner-up again in 2003 when the race was won by Kenenisa Bekele, he won the IAAF's Belfast International Cross Country meeting in 2000. However, he was plagued by injuries during much of the early part of this decade, he competed at the 2000 Summer Olympics and finished fourth in the 10,000 metres. He was a two-time winner of the Almond Blossom Cross Country during this period. Ivuti made his debut over the marathon distance at the 2005 Chicago Marathon, he has broken the hour mark several times since running a time of 59:31 in Lisbon 2000.
He set his new half marathon personal record of 59:27 at the Rotterdam Half Marathon on September 9, 2007. He won the Prague International Half Marathon with a course record 1:01 on March 24, 2007 in Prague, Czech Republic, he won the Chicago Marathon held on October 2007 with a time of 2:11:11 hours. The race was the closest Chicago Marathon and a photo finish culmination of a shoulder to shoulder final 300 meter stretch run with Jaouad Gharib down Columbus Drive on a day of record-setting 88 °F temperatures, he could not defend Chicago marathon title in 2008 due to injury. In December 2008 Ivuti won the Honolulu Marathon. In May 2009 he set a new race record, he repeated the Honolulu Marathon victory. He had a disappointing run in Prague in 2010, coming nineteenth, but he rebounded at the 2011 Vienna City Marathon by recording his third career sub-2:10 time to take second place behind John Kiprotich, he returned to Honolulu but was beaten to the title by Nicholas Chelimo by a margin of three seconds.
Ivuti is married and his wife Marietta is sister of Jimmy Muindi a Kenyan marathon runner. Patrick Ivuti at IAAF Marathoninfo profile Rosa & Associati profile