The Paiwan are an indigenous people of Taiwan. They speak the Paiwan language. In 2014, the Paiwan numbered 96,334; this was 17.8% of Taiwan's total indigenous population, making them the second-largest indigenous group. The majority of Paiwan people live in the southern chain of the Central Mountain Range, from Damumu Mountain and the upper Wuluo River in the north of the southern chain to the Hengchun Peninsula in the south of it, in the hills and coastal plains of southeastern Taiwan. There are two subgroups under the Paiwan people: the Butsul; the unique ceremonies in Paiwan are Maleveq. The Masaru is a ceremony that celebrates the harvest of rice, whereas the Maleveq commemorates their ancestors or gods; the name "Paiwan" may have originated from a myth. According to the myth, Paiwan ancestors lived in a location on Dawu mountain, called "Paiwan", where heaven is said to exist. Paiwan people have spread out from this location, so the name of the original place was assumed as their group name.
According to some group members, "Paiwan" means "human being". One of the most important figures in Paiwan history was supreme chief Tok-a-Tok, who united 18 tribes of Paiwan under his rule, after defeating American Marines during the Formosa Expedition in 1867 he concluded a formal agreement with Chinese and Western leaders to ensure the safety of foreign ships landing on their coastal territories in return for amnesty for Paiwan tribesmen who had killed the crew of the barque Rover in March 1867. In the past the Paiwan had a fearsome reputation as head-hunters; when Paiwan warriors returned home from a headhunting foray, "the women would gather together in front of the courtyard to welcome their heroes and would sing songs of triumph. The heads of their enemies were hung on stone pillars in front of which were displayed wine and offerings; the sacrificial rite started, the soul of the dead was duly consoled by the sorcerer. A tuft of hair was removed from the skull and solemnly put in a basket, used for divination."In 1871, a Ryūkyūan vessel shipwrecked on the southern tip of Taiwan, 54 of the 66 survivors were beheaded by the Paiwan aborigines.
When Japan sought compensation from Qing China, the court rejected the demand on the grounds that Taiwan's "raw" or "wild" natives were outside its jurisdiction. This perceived renunciation of sovereignty led to the Japanese invasion of Taiwan in 1874 in which chief Tok-a-Tok was killed in action. During the Chinese Civil War, between 1946 and 1949, many Paiwan men were forcibly enlisted in the Kuomintang forces; when the war ended, some of the Paiwan formed their own communities. Tsai Ing-wen, elected as President of Taiwan in 2016, is 1/4 Paiwan via her grandmother. Unlike other peoples in Taiwan, Paiwan society is divided into classes with a hereditary aristocracy; the Paiwan are not allowed to marry outside their group. On the day of their "five-yearly rite," "all marriage-seeking Paiwan men try to cut down as many trees as possible and offer the firewood thus procured to the family of the girl they want to have sex with. Tattooed hands are a tradition of both Rukai peoples. Noble women used to receive these tattoos as a rite of passage into adulthood.
However, since the Japanese colonial era, the practice has been less common as it was discouraged and fined during that time. In the tradition, shamans would tattoo hands in different patterns for different personal backgrounds. Less noble women could have receive it, but they had to pay a hefty price on top of inviting all members of the community to a banquet with the purpose of gaining the community’s approval. Less noble women had different tattoo designs than noblewomen; the painful tattooing process represented the suffering that one could endure. The tattooing process lasts as long as it needs to with consideration for many taboos and nuances, such as praying. For example, pregnant women were not allowed to watch the process and no one watching was allowed to sneeze. If any taboos were broken, the ritual would be put off until another day chosen. In February 2015, Li Lin, the oldest Paiwan with hand tattoos, died at the age of 102. Li Lin had her hand tattoos starting at the age of 14 before marrying a village head as a common girl.
She played a large role in promoting the cultural art form and continues to be an icon of cultural identity in her death. Traditionally the Paiwan have been polytheists, their wooden carvings included images of human heads, snakes and geometric designs. In Taiwan, the Bataul branch of the Paiwan peoples holds a major sacrifice - called maleveq - every five years to invite the spirits of their ancestors to come and bless them. Djemuljat is an activity in the Maleveq in which the participants thrust bamboo poles into cane balls symbolizing human heads. Shamanism has been described as an important part of Paiwan culture. Paiwan shamanism is traditionally seen as being inherited by blood-line. However, a decline in the number of Paiwan shamans has raised concerns that traditional rituals might be lost. Christianity first came to the Paiwan people in the seventeenth century, when Taiwan was occupied by the Dutch. More than 5,000 tribesmen became Christians after only ten years, but all of them were massacred in 1661 when Koxinga occupied Taiwan.
The missionaries were either killed or driven away, the churches were destroyed. Thousands of Paiwan people in Taiwan came to Christianity in the late 1940s and 1950s, sometimes whole villages. Today the Presbyterian church in Taiwan claims 14,900 Paiwan m
Gokoku-ji is a Zazen Buddhist temple in Naha, Okinawa. Established in 1367, the temple served as a major national temple for the Okinawan kingdom of Chūzan and the unified Ryūkyū Kingdom which would follow, it is well known for its associations with Christian missionary Bernard Jean Bettelheim and with the 1853-1854 visits by Commodore Matthew Perry to Okinawa. The temple was first founded in 1367, by a Japanese monk from Satsuma province by the name of Raijū and with the patronage of the royal government of Chūzan, as a companion to the Naminoue Shrine located on the bluff, overlooking the beach and ocean. Centuries in 1846, the temple was taken over by the doctor and Christian missionary Bernard Jean Bettelheim, who occupied it for seven years, driving off Buddhist worshipers and the temple's rightful occupants. Working as a lay medical missionary under the auspices of the Loochoo Naval Mission, when Bettelheim's ship, HMS Starling, arrived at Naha, the Okinawan port master protested that he should not be allowed to disembark.
HMS Starling's captain wished to honor this request, but Bettelheim made his way ashore anyway and ended up being offered shelter in the Gokoku-ji for that night. Turning away worshipers and monks alike by suggesting that they were trying to observe his wife, Bettelheim boarded up the temple's sanctuary and threw out much of what he called "the heathen furniture of idolatry"; the Ryukyuan royal government soon deemed it necessary to keep an eye on Bettelheim, who had become more than a nuisance, a serious burden upon the local community. A guard post was erected just outside the temple grounds, a detachment of men was assigned to both watch over the temple and to accompany the missionary as he traveled about the area; when the American Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in 1853, Bettelheim served for a time as translator and intermediary. Over the missionary's objections, the Commodore established an American base within the grounds of the Gokoku-ji, including a fenced-off area for grazing cattle, something which drew strong protest from the Ryukyuan authorities.
When Perry departed from his second visit to Okinawa a year he was offered, among other gifts from the Kingdom to the United States, a temple bell from Shuri. This was found to be imperfect, so a bell from the Gokoku-ji was offered instead; this bell had been forged in 1456, during the reign of Shō Taikyū. The inscription upon it reads in part "May the sound of this bell shatter illusory dreams, perfect the souls of mankind, enable the King and his subjects to live so virtuously that barbarians will find no occasion to invade the Kingdom." It being part of the Bettelheim residence, desecrated and not used as a place of worship for eight years, the Ryukyuan authorities were willing to part with it. Intended by Perry to be installed in or near the Washington Monument under construction, the associated committee turned down the suggestion, the bell was instead donated to the U. S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, where it was kept and rung in celebration of Navy victories in the annual Army–Navy football game, until it was returned to Japan in 1987.
Bettelheim left Okinawa with Perry. In 1871, a Ryukyuan ship was blown off course by a storm and landed on Taiwan where, following a conflict with local Paiwan aborigines, a number of Okinawans were killed; this became an international incident as Japan and China disagreed over the sovereignty of both Okinawa and Taiwan, thus over whether China owed any form of restitution to Japan. The remains of the Okinawans killed were said to have been recovered and were buried at the Gokoku-ji, a grand ritual performed for them, who were said to have died in the service of the State. Destroyed in the 1945 battle of Okinawa, the temple was rebuilt shortly afterwards and remains operational today. A stone erected in 1926 as a memorial to Dr. Bettelheim remains or has been reconstructed. For an explanation of terms concerning Japanese Buddhism, Japanese Buddhist art, Japanese Buddhist temple architecture, see the Glossary of Japanese Buddhism. Kerr, George H.. Okinawa: the History of an Island People. Boston: Tuttle Publishing
The Ryukyuan people. Politically, they live in either Okinawa Kagoshima Prefecture, their languages make up the Ryukyuan languages, considered to be one of the two branches of the Japonic language family, the other being Japanese and its dialects. Ryukyuans are not a recognized minority group in Japan, as Japanese authorities consider them just a subgroup of the Japanese people, akin to the Yamato people. Although unrecognized, Ryukyuans constitute the largest ethnolinguistic minority group in Japan, with 1.3 million living in Okinawa Prefecture alone. There is a considerable Ryukyuan diaspora; as many as 600,000 more ethnic Ryukyuans and their descendants are dispersed elsewhere in Japan and worldwide. In the majority of countries, the Ryukyuan and Japanese diaspora are not differentiated so there are no reliable statistics for the former. Recent genetic and anthropological studies indicate that the Ryukyuans are related to the Ainu people and share the ancestry with the indigenous prehistoric Jōmon period people and with the Yamato people who are an admixture of the Yayoi period migrants from East Asia.
The Ryukyuans have a specific culture with some matriarchal elements, native religion, cuisine which had late 12th century introduction of rice. The population lived on the islands in isolation for many centuries, in the 14th century from the three divided Okinawan political polities emerged the Ryukyu Kingdom which continued the maritime trade and tributary relations started in 1372 with Ming dynasty China. In 1609 the kingdom was invaded by Satsuma Domain which allowed its independence being in vassal status because the Tokugawa Japan was prohibited to trade with China, being in dual subordinate status between both China and Japan. During the Meiji period, the kingdom became Ryukyu Domain, after which it was politically annexed by the Empire of Japan. In 1879, after the annexation, the territory was reorganized as Okinawa Prefecture with the last king Shō Tai forcibly exiled to Tokyo. China renounced its claims to the islands in 1895. During this period, Okinawan ethnic identity, tradition and language were suppressed by the Meiji government, which sought to assimilate the Ryukyuan people as Japanese.
After World War II, the Ryūkyū Islands were occupied by the United States between 1945–1950 and 1950–1972. During this time, there were many violations of human rights. Since the end of World War II, there exists strong resentment against the Japanese government and US military facilities stationed in Okinawa, as seen in the Ryukyu independence movement. United Nations special rapporteur on discrimination and racism Doudou Diène in his 2006 report, noted perceptible level of discrimination and xenophobia against the Ryukyuans, with the most serious discrimination they endure linked to their dislike of American military installations in the archipelago. An investigation into fundamental human rights was suggested, their usual ethnic name derives from the Chinese name for the islands, "Liuqiu", which in the Japanese language is pronounced "Ryukyu". The indigenous term for the island of Okinawa is Uchinaa, the people Uchinaanchu, their language Uchinaaguchi; these terms are used, are politicized markers of a distinct culture.
According to the recent genetic studies, the Ryukyuan people share more alleles with the Jōmon period hunter-gatherers and Ainu people than the Yamato Japanese, have smaller genetic contributions from Asian continental populations, which supports the dual-structure model of K. Hanihara, a accepted theory which suggests that the Yamato Japanese are more admixed with Asian agricultural continental people than the Ainu and the Ryukyuans, with major admixture occurring in and after the Yayoi period. Within the Japanese population the Ryukyu make a separate and one of the two genome-wide clusters along the main-island Honshu; the Jomon ancestry is estimated at 28% or 50-60%, depending to various studies. The admixture event which formed the admixed Ryukyuans was estimated at least 1100–1075 years ago, which corresponds to the Gusuku period, is considered to be related to the arrival of migrants from Japan. Thus, the Ryukyuans appear to be genetically closest to the Ainu from the Ainu viewpoint, whereas it is the opposite from the Ryukyuans' viewpoint who are closest to the Yamato Japanese.
The comparative studies on the dental diversity showed long-term gene flow from outside source, long-term isolation, genetic drift which produced the morphological diversification of the modern Ryukyuans. However, the analysis contradicts the idea of direct genetic continuity and affinity between the Jomon and the Ryukyuans, although several genetic, dental analyses, viral infection studies indicated their close relationship, while according to anthropological data are between the Yamato Japanese and Ainu people. According to archaeological evidence, there's prehistoric cultural differentiation between the Northern Ryukyu Islands and the Southern Ryukyu Islands; the genome-wide differentiation was pronounced between Okinawa and Miya
University of Tokyo
The University of Tokyo, abbreviated as Todai or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Japan. Established in 1877 as the first imperial university, it is one of Japan's most prestigious universities; the university has 10 faculties and enrolls about 30,000 students, 2,100 of whom are international students. Its five campuses are in Hongō, Kashiwa and Nakano, it is among the top type of the select Japanese universities assigned additional funding under the MEXT's Top Global University Project to enhance Japan's global educational competitiveness. The university has graduated many notable alumni, including 17 Prime Ministers, 9 Nobel Prize laureates, 3 Pritzker Prize laureates, 3 astronauts, 1 Fields Medalist; the university was chartered by the Meiji government in 1877 under its current name by amalgamating older government schools for medicine, various traditional scholars and modern learning. It was renamed "the Imperial University" in 1886, Tokyo Imperial University in 1897 when the Imperial University system was created.
In September 1923, an earthquake and the following fires destroyed about 700,000 volumes of the Imperial University Library. The books lost included the Hoshino Library, a collection of about 10,000 books; the books were the former possessions of Hoshino Hisashi before becoming part of the library of the university and were about Chinese philosophy and history. In 1947, after Japan's defeat in World War II, it re-assumed its original name. With the start of the new university system in 1949, Todai swallowed up the former First Higher School and the former Tokyo Higher School, which thenceforth assumed the duty of teaching first- and second-year undergraduates, while the faculties on Hongo main campus took care of third- and fourth-year students. Although the university was founded during the Meiji period, it has earlier roots in the Astronomy Agency, Shoheizaka Study Office, the Western Books Translation Agency; these institutions were government offices established by the 徳川幕府 Tokugawa shogunate, played an important role in the importation and translation of books from Europe.
Kikuchi Dairoku, an important figure in Japanese education, served as president of Tokyo Imperial University. For the 1964 Summer Olympics, the university hosted the running portion of the modern pentathlon event. On 20 January 2012, Todai announced that it would shift the beginning of its academic year from April to September to align its calendar with the international standard; the shift would be phased in over five years. But this unilateral announcement by the president was received badly and the university abandoned the plans. According to the Japan Times, the university had 1,282 professors in February 2012. Of those, 58 were women. In the fall of 2012 and for the first time, the University of Tokyo started two undergraduate programs taught in English and geared toward international students — Programs in English at Komaba — the International Program on Japan in East Asia and the International Program on Environmental Sciences. In 2014, the School of Science at the University of Tokyo introduced an all-English undergraduate transfer program called Global Science Course.
The University of Tokyo is organized into 15 graduate schools. Todai Law School is considered as one of the top Law schools in Japan, ranking top in the number of successful candidates of Japanese Bar Examination in 2009 and 2010. Eduniversal ranked Japanese business schools, the Faculty of Economics in Todai is placed 4th in Japan; the University of Tokyo is considered a top research institution of Japan. It receives the largest amount of national grants for research institutions, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, receiving 40% more than the University with 2nd largest grants and 90% more than the University with 3rd largest grants; this massive financial investment from the Japanese government directly affects Todai's research outcomes. According to Thomson Reuters, Todai is the best research university in Japan, its research excellence is distinctive in Physics, Biology & Biochemistry, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Materials Science and Immunology. In another ranking, Nikkei Shimbun on 2004/2/16 surveyed about the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters, Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to heads of 93 leading Japanese Research Centers, Todai was placed 4th in this ranking.
Weekly Diamond reported that Todai has the 3rd highest research standard in Japan in terms of research fundings per researchers in COE Program. In the same article, it's ranked 21st in terms of the quality of education by GP funds per student. Todai has been recognized for its research in the social sciences and humanities. In January 2011, Repec ranked Todai's Economics department as Japan's best economics research university, and it is the only Japanese university within world top 100. Todai has produced 9 presidents of the Japanese Economic Association, the largest number in the association. Asahi Shimbun summarized the amount of academic papers in Japanese major legal journals by university, Todai was ranked top during 2005-2009; the University's School of Science and the Earthquake Research Institute are both r
Geography of Taiwan
Taiwan known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia. It has an area of 36,104 km2; the East China Sea lies to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait directly to the south and the South China Sea to the southwest. The island makes up 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China, known as "Taiwan". Taiwan is a tilted fault block, characterized by the contrast between the eastern two-thirds, consisting of five rugged mountain ranges parallel to the east coast, the flat to rolling plains of the western third, where the majority of Taiwan's population reside. There are several peaks over 3,500 m, the highest being Yu Shan at 3,952 metres, making Taiwan the world's fourth-highest island; the tectonic boundary that formed these ranges is still active, the island experiences many earthquakes, a few of them destructive. There are many active submarine volcanoes in the Taiwan Straits; the climate ranges from tropical in the south to subtropical in the north, is governed by the East Asian Monsoon.
The island is struck by an average of four typhoons in each year. The eastern mountains are forested and home to a diverse range of wildlife, while land use in the western and northern lowlands is intensive; the total area of the island is 36,104 km2, making it intermediate in size between Belgium and the Netherlands. It has a coastline of 1,139 km; the ROC claims a territorial sea of 12 nmi. The main island of the archipelago is the island of Taiwan, 394 km long, 144 km wide and has an area of 35,887 km2; the shape of the main island is similar to a sweet potato oriented in a south-to-north direction, therefore Taiwanese the Min Nan speakers call themselves "children of the Sweet Potato". The northernmost point of the island is Cape Fugui in New Taipei's Shimen District; the central point of the island is in Nantou County. The southernmost point on the island is Cape Eluanbi in Pingtung County; the island of Taiwan is separated from the southeast coast of China by the Taiwan Strait, which ranges from 220 km at its widest point to 130 km at its narrowest.
Part of the continental shelf, the Strait is no more than 100 m deep, has become a land bridge during glacial periods. To the south, the island of Taiwan is separated from the Philippine island of Luzon by the 250 km -wide Luzon Strait; the South China Sea lies to the southwest, the East China Sea to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east. Smaller islands of the archipelago include the Penghu islands in the Taiwan Strait 50 km west of the main island, with an area of 127 km2, the tiny islet of Xiaoliuqiu off the southwest coast, Orchid Island and Green Island to the southeast, separated from the northernmost islands of the Philippines by the Bashi Channel; the islands of Kinmen and Matsu near the coast of Fujian across the Taiwan Strait have a total area of 180 km2. The island of Taiwan was formed 4 to 5 million years ago at a complex convergent boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. In a boundary running the length of the island and continuing southwards in the Luzon Volcanic Arc, the Eurasian Plate is sliding under the Philippine Sea Plate.
Most of the island comprises a huge fault block tilted to the west. The western part of the island, much of the central range, consists of sedimentary deposits scraped from the descending edge of the Eurasian Plate. In the northeast of the island, continuing eastwards in the Ryukyu Volcanic Arc, the Philippine Sea Plate slides under the Eurasian Plate; the tectonic boundary remains active, Taiwan experiences 15,000 to 18,000 earthquakes each year, of which 800 to 1,000 are noticed by people. The most catastrophic recent earthquake was the magnitude-7.3 Chi-Chi earthquake, which occurred in the center of Taiwan on 21 September 1999, killing more than 2,400 people. On 4 March 2010 at about 01:20 UTC, a magnitude 6.4 earthquake hit southwestern Taiwan in the mountainous area of Kaohsiung County. Another major earthquake occurred on 6 February 2016, with a magnitude of 6.4. Tainan was damaged the most, with 117 deaths, most of them caused by the collapse of a 17-story apartment building; the terrain in Taiwan is divided into two parts: the flat to rolling plains in the west, where 90% of the population lives, the rugged forest-covered mountains in the eastern two-thirds.
The eastern part of the island is dominated by five mountain ranges, each running from north-northeast to south-southwest parallel to the east coast of the island. As a group, they extend 330 km from north to south and average about 80 kilometres from east to west, they include more than two hundred peaks with elevations of over 3,000 m. The Central Mountain Range extends from Su'ao in the northeast to Eluanbi at the southern tip of the island, forming a ridge of high mountains and serving as the island's principal watershed; the mountains are predominantly composed of hard rock formations resistant to weathering and erosion, although heavy rainfall has scarred the sides with gorges and sharp valleys. The relative relief of the terrain is extensive, and
Shuri is a district of the city of Naha, Okinawa. It was a separate city in and of itself, the royal capital of the Ryūkyū Kingdom. A number of famous historical sites are located in Shuri, including Shuri Castle, the Shureimon gate, Sunuhyan-utaki, royal mausoleum Tamaudun, all of which are designated World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. Established as a castle town surrounding the royal palace, Shuri ceased to be the capital when the kingdom was abolished and incorporated into Japan as Okinawa prefecture. In 1896, Shuri was made a ward of the new prefectural capital, though it was made a separate city again in 1921. In 1954, it was merged again into Naha. Shuri Castle was first built during the reign of Shunbajunki; this was nearly a century before Okinawa Island would become divided into the three kingdoms of Hokuzan, Chūzan. The island was not yet an organized or unified kingdom, but rather a collection of local chieftains loyal to the chief chieftain in Urasoe. Historian George H. Kerr describes Shuri Castle as "one of the most magnificent castle sites to be found anywhere in the world, for it commands the countryside below for miles around and looks toward distant sea horizons on every side."
By 1266, Okinawa was collecting tribute from the communities of the nearby islands of Iheya and Kerama, as well as the more distant Amami Islands. Shō Hashi, first king of the unified Ryūkyū Kingdom, made Shuri his capital, oversaw expansion of the castle and the city. Shuri would remain the royal capital for 550 years; the castle was burned to the ground during succession disputes in the 1450s, but was rebuilt, the castle and city were further embellished and expanded during the reign of King Shō Shin. In addition to the construction of stone dragon pillars and other embellishments upon the palace itself, the Buddhist temple Enkaku-ji was built on the castle grounds in 1492, the Sōgen temple on the road to Naha was expanded, in 1501 construction was completed on Tamaudun, which would be used as the royal mausoleum from thence forward. Throughout the medieval and early modern periods, the residents of Shuri were those associated with the royal court in some way. While Naha was the economic center of the kingdom, Shuri was the political center.
Residence at Shuri was prestigious into the 20th century. Samurai forces from the Japanese feudal domain of Satsuma seized Shuri Castle on 5 April 1609; the samurai withdrew soon afterwards, returning King Shō Nei to his throne, the castle and city to the Okinawans, though the kingdom was now a vassal state under Satsuma's suzerainty and would remain so for 250 years. The American Commodore Perry, when he came to Okinawa in the 1850s, forced his way into Shuri Castle on two separate occasions, but was denied an audience with the king both times; the kingdom was formally abolished when, on 27 March 1879, Japanese Imperial forces led by Matsuda Michiyuki proceeded to the castle and presented Prince Nakijin with formal papers expressing Tokyo's decision. King Shō Tai and his court were removed from the castle, occupied by a Japanese garrison, the main gates of which were sealed; the castle, along with the nearby mansions of former court nobles, fell into disrepair and decay over the ensuing years, the ways of life of the aristocrats of Shuri were shattered.
Royal pensions were shrunk or abolished, income from nobles' nominal domains in the countryside dried up. Servants were dismissed, the aristocratic population of the city scattered, seeking employment in Naha, the countryside, or the Japanese Home Islands. Census figures from 1875-79 show that half of the population of Okinawa Island were living in the greater Naha-Shuri area. Shuri had fewer households than Naha. 95,000 people in 22,500 households were of the aristocracy at this time, out of a total population of 330,000 royal subjects throughout the Ryūkyū Islands, with most of the aristocracy living in and around Shuri. Over the following years, Shuri shrank in both population and importance, as Naha grew. Pressure to restore and protect the historical sites of Shuri began in earnest in the 1910s, in 1928 Shuri Castle was declared a National Treasure. A four-year plan was laid out for the restoration of the structure. Other historical monuments came under protection soon afterward. Though the Japanese garrison which had occupied Shuri Castle in 1879 withdrew in 1896, the castle, a series of tunnels and caverns below it, were made to serve as general headquarters for Japanese military forces on Okinawa during World War II.
The city first suffered Allied air attack in October 1944. Civilian response preparations and organization were inadequate. Bureaucrats all of them native to other prefectures, tied up in obligations to military orders, made little effort to protect civilians, their homes, nor historical monuments. Civilians were left to their own devices to rescue and protect themselves, their families, their family treasures; the official Custodian of the Family Treasures of the Okinawan royal family returned to the family's mansions in Shuri in March 1945 and sought to rescue a great number of treasures, ranging from crowns granted the kings by the Chinese Imperial Court to formal royal portraits. Some of these objects were sealed away in vau
Manzhou Township is a rural township in Pingtung County, Taiwan. It has an area of 142.2 square kilometres and a population of 8,126. The indigenous Paiwan people makes up 25% of the population; the township comprises eight villages: Gangkou, Jiupeng, Manzhou, Xianglin and Zhangle. Cikong Waterfalls Gangkou Suspension Bridge Jioupeng Sand Dunes Kentington Resort Manjhou Township Office