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Mudbound (film)

Mudbound is a 2017 American period drama film directed by Dee Rees and written by Rees and Virgil Williams, based on the novel of the same name by Hillary Jordan. It stars Carey Mulligan, Garrett Hedlund, Jason Clarke, Jason Mitchell, Jonathan Banks, Mary J. Blige; the film depicts two World War II veterans – one white, one black – who return to rural Mississippi each to address racism and PTSD in his own way. The film premiered at the 2017 Sundance Film Festival on January 21, 2017, was released on Netflix and in limited release on November 17, 2017. Critics praised its screenplay and the cast's performances and at the 75th Golden Globe Awards received nominations for Best Supporting Actress and Best Original Song. At the 90th Academy Awards, the film earned four nominations: Best Supporting Actress and Best Original Song for Blige, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Cinematography, the latter of which made Rachel Morrison the first woman nominated in the category. Blige became the first person to be nominated for an acting and song award during the same year.

In a driving rain storm in Mississippi delta farm country and heartless Henry McAllan and his younger brother Jamie struggle to lower their deceased Pappy's coffin into the grave they had just dug. The coffin is too unwieldy. A black share-cropper family they know -- the Jacksons -- is passing by in a wagon. Henry seems uncomfortably asking; the film flashes back to 1939, when Henry buys a farm outside the fictional town of Marietta, Mississippi, in the Mississippi Delta, moves there with his wife Laura, with whom he shares a passionless marriage. The Jackson family, led by tenant farmer Hap and his wife Florence, work the farm's cotton field and dream of owning their own land one day; as World War II begins and the Jacksons' eldest son, join the Army Air Force and Army Jamie to fly bombers, Ronsel to command tanks. Both Jamie and Ronsel experience severe combat trauma. Meanwhile, back in Mississippi both families live at the edge of disaster; the Jacksons' mule has to be put down. Henry exacts half of the Jackson's crop in payment.

Hap, who serves as the preacher for the small local black community, falls while helping to build a small church for the group, breaking a leg. He can't work at all, so Florence and their children have to take up the slack. Florence and Laura respect; when the war ends and Jamie return home. They've changed. Both men suffer from PTSD. Jamie becomes alcoholic. Ronsel appreciated the relative lack of racism among Europeans, struggles with racism back home, they become aware of each others' difficulties, bond over them. Ronsel asks. Ronsel received a letter from a German woman with whom he'd been romantically involved during the war, he shared this with Jamie. When they left the truck, Ronsel took the envelope but accidentally left the letter and photo -- which were found by Pappy. Pappy rounded up several Ku Klux Klan pals, who together with Pappy went looking for Ronsel, found him, beat him badly, prepared to lynch him. Pappy hated Jamie, in part for befriending Ronsel. Pappy woke a sleeping Jamie, telling Jamie to come with him, but not why.

At the lynching site Jamie was tied up. Pappy and the Kluxers tell Jamie to choose Ronsel's punishment for his "crime" -- to lose his eyes, tongue or testicles -- and if refuses to choose watch Ronsel be put to death. Through the pain, Jamie whispers "tongue" and Ronsel's tongue is cut out, his body is left for his family to find. That night, Jamie smothers Pappy to death. Pappy had denigrated Jamie's war experience by saying Jamie hadn't had to look in the eyes of the people he killed; the film returns to the opening scene. Hap accedes to Henry's request to help with the coffin. Henry must have known Hap was a preacher, because after the coffin is lowered we see Hap praying over the grave. In a rebuke to Pappy, Hap recites from the Book of Job, verses 14:2-12. Before the wagon pulls away, Jamie gives the German woman's envelope to Florence, asks her to give it to Ronsel if she should see him; the Jacksons seem to have their meager belongings in the wagon. Jamie moves to Los Angeles, where a military buddy said was a great place to be.

Ronsel makes his way back to Europe where he reunites with the German woman, their son. Development on the film was announced on March 21, 2016, with Dee Rees engaged as director and Carey Mulligan, Garrett Hedlund, Jason Clarke and Jason Mitchell cast in roles. On May 25, Mary J. Blige was added to the cast. On May 31, Jonathan Banks and Rob Morgan were cast, filming began in New Orleans and post-production started in the United Kingdom by July 2016. Dee Rees asked Rachel Morrison to focus on "the idea of the American dream vs. the American reality", so Rachel turned to books by Farm Security Administration photographers

San Sebastián Grand Prix

The San Sebastián Grand Prix was an automobile race held at the Circuito Lasarte in Lasarte-Oria, Spain. During most of its existence, it was the main race event in Spain, since the Spanish Grand Prix had not yet been properly established as a Grand Prix race; the San Sebastián Grand Prix is sometimes retroactively counted as the Spanish Grand Prix, for those years when there was no Spanish Grand Prix held. The 1926 edition was part of the World Manufacturers' Championship; the eighth Grand Prix of San Sebastian was scheduled for July 25, 1930 but had to be cancelled due to the bad economic situation following the Wall Street crash in October 1929. Efforts were made and AIACR granted permission to still go ahead with the race on October 5, 1930; this was to be the last San Sebastián Grand Prix. When racing returned to the Lasarte circuit in 1933 it was as the Spanish Grand Prix; these are the winners of all San Sebastián Grands Prix. For other races held at the Lasarte circuit, see the Spanish Grand Prix.

* The 1926 race had the status of European Grand Prix

Cimoliasaurus

Cimoliasaurus was a plesiosaur that lived during the Late Cretaceous of New Jersey. It grew from 13 to 25 ft long; the name is derived from the Greek Κιμωλία kimolia, meaning "white chalk", σαύρος sauros, meaning "lizard", in reference to the fact that the deposits in which it was found bear a superficial resemblance to the chalk deposits of the Western Interior Seaway. The name Cimoliasaurus magnus was coined by Joseph Leidy for ANSP 9235, one anterior and 12 posterior cervicals collected in Maastrichtian-aged greensand deposits in Burlington County, New Jersey. In his catalogue of plesiosaur and ichthyosaur specimens preserved in the NHM, the British zoologist Richard Lydekker referred several Jurassic and Cretaceous plesiosaur species to Cimoliasaurus, including the new species C. richardsoni and C. cantabrigiensis, as well as Colymbosaurus and a number of described species from the Cambridge Greensand and Chalk Group. Nowadays, Cimoliasaurus is now recognized as being a derived elasmosaurid making the family name Cimoliasauridae Delair, 1959 a junior synonym of Elasmosauridae.

Cimoliasaurus laramiensis Knight, 1900, now Tatenectes Cimoliasaurus richardsoni Lydekker, 1889, now Cryptoclidus richardsoni Cimoliasaurus valdensis Lydekker, 1889, now Hastanectes List of plesiosaur genera Timeline of plesiosaur research https://web.archive.org/web/20080414142638/http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/220Lepidosauromorpha/220.820.html#Cimoliasaurus