Clay is a fine-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to water content and become hard, brittle. Depending on the content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red. Although many naturally occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size, which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays. There is, some overlap in size and other physical properties. The distinction between silt and clay varies by discipline and soil scientists usually consider the separation to occur at a particle size of 2 µm, sedimentologists often use 4–5 μm, and colloid chemists use 1 μm.
Geotechnical engineers distinguish between silts and clays based on the plasticity properties of the soil, as measured by the soils Atterberg limits, ISO14688 grades clay particles as being smaller than 2 μm and silt particles as being larger. These solvents, usually acidic, migrate through the rock after leaching through upper weathered layers. In addition to the process, some clay minerals are formed through hydrothermal activity. There are two types of deposits and secondary. Primary clays form as residual deposits in soil and remain at the site of formation, secondary clays are clays that have been transported from their original location by water erosion and deposited in a new sedimentary deposit. Clay deposits are associated with very low energy depositional environments such as large lakes. Depending on the source, there are three or four main groups of clays, montmorillonite-smectite and chlorite. Chlorites are not always considered to be a clay, sometimes being classified as a group within the phyllosilicates.
There are approximately 30 different types of clays in these categories. Varve is clay with visible annual layers, which are formed by deposition of those layers and are marked by differences in erosion. This type of deposit is common in glacial lakes
Mudgegonga is a locality in northeast Victoria, Australia. It is 316 kilometres northeast of the capital, Melbourne. At the 2011 census, Mudgegonga had a population of 257, the locality was affected by the Black Saturday bushfires, with two deaths in the region. Mudgegonga is 15 minutes out of the nearest town Mrytleford, there are mainly situated in the area
Jarijari were a historically significant Indigenous Australian people whose traditional territory was located in the Mallee region of Victoria. The tribe were one of two tribes speaking the now extinct Keramin language, though there is confusion over names. Jarijari was the word for no. It was used to name the tribe because of the frequency of its use in the language. Tindale notes that the Jari Jari traditional lands were from Western bank of Murray River from above Chalka Creek to Annuello, south to Lake Korong and Pine Plains, northwest to near Redcliffs. Neighbouring tribes were the Wergaia language group tribes to the south, the Latjilatji to the west, accounts of the life of the Jari Jari people were some of the most early documented by explorers and early settlers of the Murray Darling basin. The Jarijari appear to have been in the Murray River valley for at least 40000years, major Thomas Mitchell passed through the tribes territory between June 2 and June 10,1836, during his Third Expedition.
He encountered the remains of a camp of up to 400 natives with temporary structures. In his journals he writes of having heard and being pursued by local natives, the Blandowski Expedition was one of the first documented European encounters with the people. Blandowski engaged the people to document local species and included in his journals the used by the people for two local species of fish - the Murray cod and Trout cod, “Yaturr” and “Barnta”. Blandowski described the Yarree as his good friends, notably one of William Blandowskis 1857 illustrations depicted traditional Jari Jari recreation. Blandowski and Peter Beveridge, in his 1889 account The Aborigines of Victoria, a local Mildura newspaper reports that the last of the tribe, John Mack, died in June,1918
The Jardwadjali people are Indigenous Australians who occupy the lands in the upper Wimmera River watershed east to Gariwerd and west to Lake Bringalbert. The towns of Horsham, Coleraine, Minyip, there were 37 Jardwadjali clans who formed an alliance with the neighboring Djab wurrung people through intermarriage, shared culture and moiety system. The Jardwadjali language shares 90 percent common vocabulary with Djab wurrung, sub-dialects include Jagwadjali and Nundadjali. The Jardwadjali people have lived in the area for up to 30,000 to 40,000 years, one site in the Victoria Range has been dated from 22,000 years ago. In 1836 the squatter Edward Henty was exploring Jardwadjali land from the south, a further wave of European occupation occurred from the north in 1840 with Lieutenant Robert Briggs squatting near Lake Lonsdale. The Jardwadjali called these mountains Gariwerd with Gar meaning ‘pointed mountain’, i meaning ‘the’, Jardwadjali people formed the nucleus of the Australian Aboriginal cricket team in England in 1868, although efforts were made by the Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines to stop the tour.
The team played 47 matches, winning 14, losing 14, settlement was marked by resistance to the invasion often by driving off or stealing sheep which resulted in conflict and sometimes a massacre of aboriginal people. Very few of these reports were acted upon to bring the settlers to court, after the massacre at Fighting Hills, John Whyte travelled to Melbourne to inform Governor La Trobe in person of the massacre. The depositions of the Aboriginal Protector Charles Sievwright who had investigated the massacre were disallowed. At the time aborigines were denied the right to give evidence in courts of law, the incidents listed below are just the cases that have been reported, it is likely other incidents occurred that were never reported and not documented officially. There was much opposition to this proposal by European descendants, the Brambuk centre, representing five aboriginal communities, advocated a dual name for the main area, Gariwerd/Grampians. The indigenous peoples of the Wimmera won native title recognition on 13 December 2005 after a legal process.
It was the first successful native title claim in south-eastern Australia and in Victoria, determined by Justice Ron Merkel involving Wotjobaluk, Jardwadjali, unamurriman, better known in cricket circles as Johnny Mullagh was born around 1843
Overhang (rock formation)
An overhang is a rock face or artificial climbing wall with a slope of more than 90°, i. e. it slopes beyond the vertical. Particularly severe overhangs that reach, or nearly reach, the horizontal, are referred to as a roof, in climbing and especially roofs place special demands both in terms of technique and equipment as well as the constitution of the sportsman or sportswoman. With increasing steepness the loading on arm and hand muscles increases, rest points where the muscles can be relaxed, especially no-hands rests, are rarely found in overhangs. Climbing techniques to tackle overhangs include placing the centre of mass as close as possible to the rock. Many climbing techniques such as the foothook are almost exclusively used in overhangs, for a long time in Alpine climbing, roofs were almost always tacked using climbing aids. By contrast, in sport climbing, severely overhanging terrain is no longer a rarity, because climbing halls frequently include overhangs. A well-known natural example of severely overhanging terrain is the rook in the face of the Western Zinne.
Severe climbing routes that feature overhangs and roofs include Separate Reality in the USA and La Rambla in Spain
Grampians National Park
The Grampians National Park, commonly referred to as The Grampians, is a national park located in the Grampians region of Victoria, Australia. The Grampians feature a series of sandstone mountain ranges. After a two-year consultation process, the park was renamed Grampians National Park in 1991 and this area is a distinct physiographic section of the larger Western Victorian Highlands province, which in turn is part of the larger East Australian Cordillera physiographic division. The general form that the take is, from the west. The most popular walking area for day trippers is the Wonderland area near Halls Gap, in summer the ranges can get very hot and dry. Winter and spring are the best times for walking, the Wonderland area is host to The Grand Canyon on the Wonderland Loop on one of the tracks to the Pinnacle. In spring the Grampians wildflowers are a major attraction, the area is a noted rock climbing destination, and it is popular with campers and bushwalkers for its many spectacular views and unspoilt nature.
Mount William is known within the community as the epicentre of the Grampians Wave. This predominantly occurs during the months of May, June and October when strong westerly winds flow at right angles to the ridge, the rock material that composes the high peaks is sandstone which was laid down from rivers during the Devonian period 380 million years ago. This sediment slowly accumulated to a depth of 7 km, this was raised and tilted for its present form. The highest peak is Mount William at 1167 metres, numerous waterfalls are found in the park and are easily accessible via a well-developed road network. Motifs painted in numerous caves include depictions of humans, human hands, animal tracks, notable rock art sites include, Billimina Jananginj Njani Manja Larngibunja Ngamadjidj Gulgurn Manja. The significance of the hand prints at Gulgurn Manja is now unknown. The town is located towards the side of the park. Grampians National Park is home to one of Australias longest running food and wine festivals, Grampians Grape Escape, held over the first weekend of May in Halls Gap every year.
Launched in 1992, the Grampians Grape Escape is an event for Victoria and provides food and wine offerings by more than 100 local artisan producers, live music. A major bushfire burned out about 50% of the Grampians National Park in January 2006, soon afterwards the first signs of regeneration were already visible with, for example, regrowth of the eucalyptus trees. Many trees exhibit epicormic growth, where a mass of young shoots re-sprout along the length of the trunk to the base of the tree
The Yorta Yorta comprises a number of separate family groups, which include the Bangerang, Wollithiga, Ulupna, Kwat Kwat, Yalaba Yalaba, and Ngurai-illiam-wurrung. Their language is the Yorta Yorta language, the Appeal was dismissed in a majority 2 to 1 decision. The case was taken on appeal to the High Court of Australia, ultimate decision making responsibility was retained by the Environment Minister Adam Briggs, hip-hop artist. William Cooper, helped establish the Australian Aborigines League in 1935 and he led the first Aboriginal deputation to a Commonwealth minister, and another to protest the treatment of German Jews in 1938. His daughter, Amy Charles, was the matron of the first Aboriginal hostel established in Melbourne, in August 2010, the Yad VaShem Holocaust museum in Israel announced they would honor William for his protests on behalf of Jews after Kristallnacht. Yad Vashem plans to endow a small garden at its entrance in Coopers honor, Jimmy Little was a musician whose career has spanned over six decades.
His was the first song written and recorded by indigenous Australians in 1958 and he was the first indigenous Australian entertainer to appear on television, Jimmy Little in 1999, ARIA inducted Little into its Hall of Fame. In 1935, he became the first indigenous Australian to be selected in the Victorian interstate Australian rules team, Burnum Burnum was an activist and author. Eric Onus played a role both politically and socially among Victorian aboriginal people. He was a member of the Australian Aboriginal League established by William Cooper in the mid-1930s. William Townsend Onus, known as Bill Onus, was an Aboriginal Australian political activist, William McLintock Onus Jr was born Lin Burralung McLintock Onus, his father was a political activist and businessman, Bill Onus. Onus was a largely self-taught urban artist who began as a mechanic before making artifacts for the tourist market with his fathers business. John Thomas Patten, known as Jack Patten, was a boxer, civil rights activist, war veteran.
John Trevor Patten, Australian bantamweight boxing champion between 1958 and 1962, wes Patten, television host, and former NRL player with the South Sydney Rabbitohs, St. George Dragons, Balmain Tigers and Gold Coast Chargers. Roles in television and film include playing opposite Cate Blanchett in Heartland, other roles include stints on A Country Practice, Wills & Burke, and G. P. She was a musician who sung at social occasions raising funds for war efforts, David Wirrpanda, former AFL player with the West Coast Eagles, known for his community work in helping to improve the lives of young indigenous Australians. The David Wirrpanda Foundation was launched in 2005 and he was named the 9th most influential Aboriginal Australian by The Bulletin magazine on 30 November 2007. Margaret Wirrpanda, an activist, niece of Margaret Tucker, mother to David Wirrpanda, andrew Walker, a current AFL player with the Carlton Football Club
The Buchan Caves are a group of limestone caves that include the Royal Cave and the Fairy Cave, located south-west of Buchan, in the East Gippsland region of the Australian state of Victoria. They have a length of between 3 and 4 kilometres, and six entrances. The Buchan Cave Reserve has been transferred back to the Gunaikurnai Nation and is managed with the state. The limestone rock at Buchan was laid down during the Devonian period about 300 –400 million years ago, at the time, the sea covered this area of East Gippsland which was alive with shellfish and coral. Their remains were deposited in layers and over the years compacted to form limestone, the caves were formed by solution of the limestone. The Buchan Caves are located approximately 360 kilometres east northeast from Melbourne, along the Princes Highway, the caves are a major tourist attraction for Buchan and for East Gippsland. Daily tours are conducted in Royal Cave and Fairy Cave, Royal Cave features calcite-rimmed pools and in Fairy Cave features elaborate stalactites and stalagmites.
Both caves are lit, have walkways and have a constant temperature of 17 °C making it a comfortable temperature all year round, the Buchan Caves are situated within the Buchan Caves Reserve. There is access to short and long walks in the surrounding bushland, the area is surrounded by trees and wildlife, including over 60 species of birds including bellbirds and lyrebirds. Amenities include campsites and cabins, picnic ground, playground and an information centre, the traditional and current custodians of the Buchan Caves and its surrounds are the Australian Aboriginal Gunaikurnai Nation. The caves were made a reserve in 1887, as they were on land set aside for stock camping. The government commissioned an exploration of the land and, on the recommendation of the geologist Albert Ernest Kitson, in 1907, Frank Moon reported back about the Fairy Cave which was opened to the European public that year, though Aborigines were not allowed. Royal Cave was mapped in 1910 by Frederick Wilson and after a tunnel was excavated.
The Caves Reserve was set out and planted mostly in the late 1930s, the site is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register and is included a Heritage Overlay. Gippsland’s official tourism website The Buchan Caves Area
Coranderrk was a government reserve for Australian Aborigines in the state of Victoria between 1863 and 1924, located 50km north-east of Melbourne. The reserve was closed in 1924, with most residents removed to Lake Tyers Mission. In March 1863, after 3 years of upheaval, the leaders, among them Simon Wonga and William Barak, led 40 Wurundjeri, Taungurong. They squatted on a camping site on Badger Creek near Healesville. They were anxious to have the officially approved so that they could move down. An area of 9.6 km² was gazetted on 30 June 1863 and called Coranderrk and this was the name they used for the Christmas Bush, a white flowering summer plant which is indigenous to the area. In mid-1864, there were around 70 Aboriginal people living at Coranderrk, Coranderrk Station ran successfully for many years as an Aboriginal enterprise, selling wheat and crafts on the burgeoning Melbourne market. Produce from the farm won first prize at the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1881, by 1874, the Aboriginal Protection Board was looking for ways to undermine Coranderrk by moving people away due to their successful farming practices.
Neighbouring farmers wanted the mission closed as the land was now deemed too valuable for Aboriginal people to occupy, photographer Fred Kruger was commissioned to document the site and its inhabitants. In the 1870s and 80s, Coranderrk residents sent deputations to the Victorian colonial government protesting their lack of rights, why does the Board seek in these latter days more stronger authority over us Aborigines than it has yet been. The Coranderrk Petition has survived and is on display at the Melbourne Museum in Carlton, as a result of the Aborigines Protection Act of 1886, around 60 residents were ejected from Coranderrk on the eve of the 1890s Depression. Their forced departure crippled Coranderrk as an enterprise, with only around 15 able-bodied men left to work the hitherto successful hop gardens, the reserve was formally closed in 1924, with most residents moved to Lake Tyers Mission in Gippsland in eastern Victoria. Five older people refused to move and continued living at Coranderrk until they died, the last known Aboriginal woman to live at Coranderrk was Elizabeth Davis, who died in 1956, aged 104.
She was denied permission to be buried at Coranderrk alongside her husband, the last Indigenous child to be born at Coranderrk Station was James Wandin in 1933, in the home of his grandmother, Jemima Wandin. After the death of the last remaining Indigenous residents in 1950s, in 1920, Sir Colin MacKenzie, a leading medical researcher, leased 78 acres from the Aboriginal Protection Board to begin his work in comparative anatomy with Australian fauna. This was the catalyst for the creation of the Healesville Sanctuary, a zoo for Australian native animals. Many Aboriginal families continue to live in the Upper Yarra and Healesville area, in March 1998, part of the Coranderrk Aboriginal Station was returned to the Wurundjeri Tribe Land Compensation and Cultural Heritage Council when the Indigenous Land Corporation purchased 0.81 km². Coranderrk was added to the Australian National Heritage List on 7 June 2011, James Wandin William Barak Simon Wonga Wurundjeri
Wergaia or Werrigia is an indigenous Australian language group in the Wimmera region of north-Western Victoria. Twenty clans made up the Wergaia language, which consisted of four dialects, Wudjubalug/Wotjobaluk. The various groups within the Wergaia speak dialects of Wemba-Wemba, a member of the Kulinic branch of Pama–Nyungan, stately trees and majestic mountains adorned the ever-varying scenery of this region, the most southern of all Australia and the best. It was he added, a sheet for future development. For the natives, it was rich in kumpung, the bulrush whose rhizomes formed the staple of their diet, as well as in lahoor, the water lily. Rivers were trawled for freshwater mussels and crayfish, bushland was carefully kept in order by selected firing. Around February and March, a Festival of Laap attracted many tribes to congregate in order to socialize, settle disputes and enjoy a sweet potion, called laap. Laap was harvested over a period of 6 to eight weeks and it was confected from the sugary excretions of a species of psylla deposited on the leaves of the walkerie mallee gumtree.
The aboriginal people of this go back at least 1,600 generations. There is evidence of occupation in Gariwerd going back to 30-20,000 years ago, predating the end of the last ice age. As the earlier warm, rainy era of the Holocene changed, the Maligundidj people were divided into 20 clans each with their particular territory. The first question they would ask an outsider was, ngaia yauarin, meaning what was your place within the system of moieties and totemic skin relations that governed aboriginal identity. They were a society divided into two moieties and grugidj ), with the moiety to which one belonged called a mir. Intermarriage occurred often with the Jardwadjali and Dja Dja Wurrung clans, and meetings and ceremonies were attended with the Dadidadi, stanbridges exposition showed that the Wergaia connected the rising and setting of particular stars with seasonal events and dreamtime mythology. A few examples illustrate the intimate correlation they established between the movements of bodies and the cycles of natural phenomena in their native habitat.
The northern rise of Arcturus, known as Marpeankuurk signaled that it was time to harvest the larvae of a species of Carpenter ant, when Vega sets just after duskfall, it indicated that malleefowl eggs were ready to be collected. When the Beehive Cluster in the constellation of Cancer set, it marked the onset of autumn, pupperimbul hurled an emu egg into the firmament, whereupon it burst and shed light over the sky. The celestial pattern of the near stars reflected kinship patterns, Gnowees sister was Venus and it killed large numbers of people, and disfigured many more with pock-marked faces, and tribal elders said it came down the Murray River sent by malevolent sorcerers to the north