Urkiola is a mountain range of the Basque mountains in Biscay near Durango, in the western Basque Country, Spain. The highest mountain in the range is Anboto; the range runs from west to east and forms the water divide between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean basins. It was declared natural park on 29 December 1989 prompted by the Basque government's determination to protect the diversity of wildlife and flora it harbours. In the center of this natural park is a church called Santuario de Urkiola; this is the church of both Saint Antonio Saint Anthony of Padua. It visited Basque churches. Basque mythology is present in this natural park. Tradition holds that a cave perched on eastern side of the Anboto mountain holds the abode of Basque goddess Mari, it is formed by several limestone massifs, from west to east: Sierra de Aramotz Ezkubaratz Mugarra At this point of the range the Urkiolamendi pass breaks through it at a height of 711 m, where a sanctuary was built. Untxillaitz Aitz Txiki Alluitz Anboto To the south of the limestone peaks are two round shaped mounts, called Saibigain and Urkiolamendi.
The entire area is enclosed in the Urkiola Natural Park, created by the Basque government to preserve this rich natural area known as Little Switzerland. The closeness to Bilbao and easy access through Urkiolamendi pass attract many tourists and hikers all year round. There is evidence; some archaeologists found pieces of ceramic in the coast, near the ruins of a Roman village. Above these ruins now exists a Basque village called Forua, a name that comes from "foro". In Mañaria archaeologist have found a lot of evidence that Visigoths used to live in that part of the mountain range; this could happen due to the fights. Some tablets have been found in proof of Christian presence in the valleys. In the Middle Ages pastoral activity was common in the mountains and there were a lot of villages in the valleys. There were no people living on the top of the mountains, but there was a military base on the "Aitz txiki" mountain. There were a lot of churches in Urkiola in the 10th century. One of the most important pieces of evidence of, a letter from the king of Pamplona Nájera Gárcia Sánchez who says that the churches of Durango are allowed.
There are more letters of some abbots of churches like the one, in Abadiano. Urkiola Natural Park Urkiola Natural Park at wikineos
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Quercus ilex, the evergreen oak, holly oak or holm oak, is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region. It takes its name from an ancient name for holly, it is a member of the Cerris section of the genus, with acorns. The first trees to be grown from acorns in England are still to be found within the stately grounds of Mamhead Park, Devon. From Britton & Brayley The Beauties of England and Wales: "The woods and plantations of Mamhead are numerous and extensive. Many of them were introduced by Mr Thomas Balle, the last of that family who, on returning from the continent brought with him a quantity of cork, wainscot, oak; the resemblance of the foliage to that of the common European holly, Ilex aquifolium, has led to its common and botanic names. The name ilex was the classical Latin name for the holm oak, but adopted as a botanical genus name for the hollies. An evergreen tree of large size, attaining in favourable places a height of 21–28 m, developing in open situations a huge head of densely leafy branches as much across, the terminal portions of the branches pendulous in old trees.
The trunk is sometimes over 6 m in girth. The young shoots are clothed with a close grey felt; the leaves are variable in shape, most narrowly oval or ovate-lanceolate, 4–8 cm long, 1.2–2.5 cm wide, rounded or broadly tapered at the base, the margins sometimes entire, sometimes more or less remotely toothed. When quite young, both surfaces are clothed with whitish down, which soon falls away from the upper surface leaving it a dark glossy green. Fruits are produced one to three together on a short downy stalk. There are two subspecies: Quercus ilex subsp. Ilex. Native in the north and east of the species' range, from northern Iberia and France east to Greece. Leaves narrow. Quercus ilex subsp. Rotundifolia. Native in the southwest of the species' range, in central and southern Iberia and northwest Africa. Leaves broader. Holm oak grows in pure stands or mixed forest in the Mediterranean and at low or moderate elevations. One of the plant associations in which holm oak is found is the holm oak/Atlas cedar forests of the Atlas Mountains.
In Morocco, some of these mixed forests are habitat to the endangered primate, Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus. Holm oak is prevalent from Portugal to Greece along the northern Mediterranean coastal belt, from Morocco to Tunisia along the southern Mediterranean coast. Holm oak is listed as an alien invader; the tree is unable to withstand severe frost, which would prevent it from spreading north, but with climate change, it has penetrated these areas. The largest population of Holm oak in Northern Europe is present on and around St. Boniface Down on the Isle of Wight and into the neighbouring town of Ventnor, has shown to tolerate the high winds on the downs, it is thought that this population's propagation has been bolstered by native Eurasian jays, which harvest acorns from oak trees and store them by burying them in the ground where they may germinate. The wood is hard and tough, has been used since ancient times for general construction purposes as pillars, wagons and wine casks, it is used as firewood and in charcoal manufacture.
The holm oak is one of the top three trees used in the establishment of truffle orchards, or truffières. Truffles grow in an ectomycorrhizal association with the tree's roots; the acorns, like those of the cork oak, are edible and are an important food for free-range pigs reared for ibérico ham production. Boiled in water, the acorns can be used as a medicinal treatment for wound disinfections. Q. ilex can be clipped to form a tall hedge, it is suitable for coastal windbreaks, in any well drained soil. It forms a picturesque rounded head, with pendulous low-hanging branches, its size and solid evergreen character gives it an imposing architectural presence that makes it valuable in many urban and garden settings. While holm oak can be grown in much of maritime northwestern Europe, it is not tolerant of cold continental winters; the TROBI Champion in Gloucestershire measured 27 1⁄4 ft in circumference at 1.2 m height in 1993. Another tree at Courtown House, Ireland, reputedly planted in 1648, measured 20 m in height, with a spread of 43 m in 2010.
A specimen in Milo, in Sicily, is reputed to be 700 years old while a small population on the slopes of northern village of Wardija in Malta are said to be between 500 and 1,000 years old. Prior to the Carthaginian period, holm oak was prevalent on the islands. BBC News Holm Oak: Garden Invader Royal Botanic Garden Flora Europaea: Quercus ilex W. J. Bean Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles 8th ed. revised. John Murray. C. Michael Hogan Barbary Macaque: Macaca sylvanus, Globaltwitcher.com, ed. N. Strõmberg Holm Oak K. Rushforth Trees of Britain and Europe. HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-220013-9. Chênes: Quercus ilex Quercus ilex - information, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme Media related to
Rock climbing is a sport in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a pre-defined route without falling. Professional rock climbing competitions have the objectives of either completing the route in the quickest possible time or attaining the farthest point on an difficult route. Due to the length of time and extended endurance required, because accidents are most to happen on the descent, rock climbers do not climb back down the route, or "downclimb" on the larger multiple pitch class III–IV, or multi-day grade IV–VI climbs. Rock climbing is a physically and mentally demanding sport, one that tests a climber's strength, endurance and balance along with mental control, it can be a dangerous activity and knowledge of proper climbing techniques and use of specialized climbing equipment is crucial for the safe completion of routes. Because of the wide range and variety of rock formations around the world, rock climbing has been separated into several different styles and sub-disciplines, such as scrambling, another activity involving the scaling of hills and similar formations, differentiated by rock climbing's sustained use of hands to support the climber's weight as well as to provide balance.
Paintings dating from 200 BC show Chinese men rock climbing. In early America, the cliff-dwelling Anasazi in the 12th century are thought to have been excellent climbers. Early European climbers used rock climbing techniques as a skill required to reach the summit in their mountaineering exploits. In the 1880s, European rock climbing became an independent pursuit outside of mountain climbing. Although rock climbing was an important component of Victorian mountaineering in the Alps, it is thought that the sport of rock climbing began in the last quarter of the nineteenth century in various parts of Europe. Rock climbing evolved from an alpine necessity to a distinct athletic activity. Aid climbing, climbing using equipment that acts as artificial handhold or footholds, became popular during the period 1920–1960, leading to ascents in the Alps and in Yosemite Valley that were considered impossible without such means. However, climbing techniques and ethical considerations have evolved steadily.
Today, free climbing, climbing using holds made of natural rock while using gear for protection and not for upward movement, is the most popular form of the sport. Free climbing has since been divided into several sub-styles of climbing dependent on belay configuration. Over time, grading systems have been created in order to compare more the relative difficulties of the rock climbs. In How to Rock Climb, John Long notes that for moderately skilled climbers getting to the top of a route is not enough. Within free climbing, there are distinctions given to ascents: on-sight and redpoint. To on-sight a route is to ascend the wall without aid or any foreknowledge, it is considered the way to climb with the most style. Flashing is similar to on-sighting, except that the climber has previous information about the route including talking about the beta with other climbers. Redpointing means to make a free ascent of the route after having first tried it. Style is up to each individual climber and among climbers the verbiage and definitions can differ.
Most of the climbing done in modern times is considered free climbing—climbing using one's own physical strength, with equipment used as protection and not as support—as opposed to aid climbing, the gear-dependent form of climbing, dominant in the sport's earlier days. Free climbing is divided into several styles that differ from one another depending on the choice of equipment used and the configurations of their belay and anchor systems; as routes get higher off the ground, the increased risk of life-threatening injuries necessitates additional safety measures. A variety of specialized climbing techniques and climbing equipment exists to provide that safety. Climbers will work in pairs and utilize a system of ropes and anchors designed to catch falls. Ropes and anchors can be configured in different ways to suit many styles of climbing, roped climbing are thus divided into further sub-types that vary based on how their belay systems are set up. Speaking, beginners will start with top roping and/or easy bouldering and work their way up to lead climbing and beyond.
Still the most popular method of climbing big walls, aid climbers make progress up a wall by placing and weighting gear, used directly to aid ascent and enhance safety. This form of climbing is used when ascent is too technically difficult or impossible for free climbing; the most used method to ascend climbs refers to climbs where the climber's own physical strength and skill are relied on to accomplish the climb. Free climbing may rely on top rope belay systems, or on lead climbing to establish protection and the belay stations. Anchors and protection are used to back up the climber and are passive as opposed to active ascending aids. Subtypes of free climbing are trad sport climbing. Free climbing is done as "clean lead" meaning no pitons or pins are used as protection. Climbing on short, low routes without the use of the safety rope, typical of most other styles. Protection, if used at all consists of a cushioned bouldering pad below the route and a spotter, a person who watches from below and directs the fall of the climber away from hazardous areas.
Bouldering may be an arena for intense and safe competition, resulting in exceptionally high diffic
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
The Basque Mountains are a mountain range situated in the northern Iberian Peninsula. Geographically it is considered as the eastern section of the larger Cantabrian Range; the range runs through western Navarre. The Basque Mountains are a transitional range between two major ones, the Cantabrian range to the west and the Pyrenees to the east. Geologists call the area "The Basque threshold" and some consider that the Cantabrian Mountains and the Pyrenees are a single greater range and the Basque Mountains are just part of both. There are two parallel sub-ranges running from west to the inner one and the coastal one. In between them there is a 500 m high plateau called "Llanada Alavesa" where Vitoria-Gasteiz is located. East of the Llanada a narrow valley called Burunda and its follow-up Barranca separate the two ranges, with Urbasa-Andia located to the south and Aralar to the north; the valley harbours major infrastructures linking Pamplona. The Basque coastal range forms the water divide of the Mediterranean and Atlantic basins, the climate north of the range is milder and oceanic, typical of the so-called green Spain, while to the south of the coastal range and in the inner range winters are cold and snowy and summers drier and hotter than in the northern range, in general the climate in the Basque municipalities south of this range is more Mediterranean with some Continental traits, showing less precipitation and much colder winters than those coastal municipalities north of the range.
The snow cover is irregular during the winter season. From November to April snow cover can be found in the Basque Mountains above 700 m AMSL, but the changing weather conditions of the Bay of Biscay can bring great accumulations of snow and a sudden rise of temperatures can melt it in a few days due to the Foehn wind effect; this sudden melting can cause flooding problems, specially in the plains of northern Alava. It is a range of moderate height. In the inner range the main massifs from west to east are: Sierra Salvada Mounts of Vitoria, the most important is Kapildui Izki Urbasa, a 1,000 m high plateau Andía, with the impressive Beriain In the coastal range its main massifs from west to east are: Gorbea 1,481 m, maximum height of Biscay. Urkiola, Anboto being its highest peak. Elgea Aizkorri Altzania, the Aratz is the maximum height. Aralar, its most known peak being Txindoki The range is entirely limestone, but other materials can be found; the slopes are gentle, but there are many limestone peaks and cliffs in which vultures dwell.
There is abundant oceanic climate vegetation, like beeches, oaks and other like the Cantabrian Holm Oaks and the Pinus radiata, the last one artificially introduced for plantation. Pyrenees Cantabrian Range Geography of Spain Basque mountains list