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In J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series, a Muggle is a person who lacks any sort of magical ability and was not born in a magical family. Muggles can be described as people who do not have any magical blood inside them, it differs from the term Squib, which refers to a person with one or more magical parents yet without any magical power/ability, from the term Muggle-born, which refers to a person with magical abilities but with non-magical parents. The equivalent term used by the in-universe magic community of America is No-Maj, short for No Magic; the neologism, No-Maj was popular in the 1920s but soon went out of fashion and the original term, muggle came back into use before World War II and has been muggle since. The term Muggle is sometimes used in a pejorative manner in the books. Since Muggle refers to a person, a member of the non-magical community, Muggles are ordinary human beings without any magical powers and always with no awareness of the existence of magic. Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry students who have non-magical parents are called muggle-borns.

There have been some children known to have been born to one magical and one non-magical parent. Children of this mixed parentage are called half-bloods; the most prominent Muggle-born in the Harry Potter series is Hermione Granger, who had two Muggles of unspecified names as parents. A witch or wizard with all magical heritage is called a pure-blood. In the Harry Potter books, non-magical people are portrayed as foolish, sometimes befuddled characters, who are ignorant of the Wizarding world that exists in their midst. If, by unfortunate means, non-magical people do happen to observe the working of magic, the Ministry of Magic sends Obliviators to cast Memory Charms upon them, causing them to forget the event; some Muggles, know of the wizarding world. These include Muggle parents of magical children, such as Hermione Granger's parents, the Muggle Prime Minister, the Dursley family, the non-magical spouses of some witches and wizards. Rowling has stated she created the word "Muggle" from "mug", an English term for someone, fooled.

She added the "-gle" to make it sound less demeaning and more "cuddly". The Dursleys, Harry's maternal relatives with whom he lived for sixteen years; the Muggle Prime Minister Frank Bryce, the Riddle family gardener Tom Riddle Senior, Lord Voldemort's father Tobias Snape, Severus Snape's father Jacob Kowalski, Newt Scamander's No-Maj friend Mary Lou Barebone, leader of the New Salem Philanthropic Society The word muggle, or muggles, is now used in various contexts in which its meaning is similar to the sense in which it appears in the Harry Potter book series. Speaking, it is used by members of a group to describe those outside the group, comparable to civilian as used by military personnel. Whereas in the books muggle is capitalized, in other uses it is predominantly lowercase. Muggle is used in informal English by Mensa members to define non-members or any person with IQ lower than Mensa level. According to the BBC quiz show QI, in the episode "Hocus Pocus", muggle was a 1930s jazz slang word for someone who uses cannabis.

"Muggles" is the title of a 1928 recording by His Orchestra. A muggle is, according to Abbott Walter Bower, the author of the Scotichronicon, "an Englishman's tail". In Alistair Moffat's book A History of the Borders from Early Times, it is stated that there was a held 13th-century belief amongst Scots that Englishmen had tails. Ernest Bramah referred to "the artful Muggles" in a detective story published decades before the Potter books. Muggles is the name of a female character in the children's book The Gammage Cup by Carol Kendall published in 1959 by Harcourt, Brace & World. Published in 1982, Roald Dahl's character the Big Friendly Giant uses the word “Muggled” while describing a good dream to the other main character, Sophie - “And the whole school is cheering like mad and shouting bravo well done, for after that when you is getting your sums all gungswizzled and muggled up, Mr. Figgins is always giving you ten out of ten and writing Good Work Sophie in your exercise book.” – The BFG. Roald Dahl names a family of monkeys “The Muggle-Wumps” in The Twits and other writings.

Muggle was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2003, where it is said to refer to a person, lacking a skill. Muggle is used in informal English by members of small, specialised groups those that consider their activities to either be analogous to or directly involve magic to refer to those outside the group. In online forums for people with herpes, Muggle is used to describe someone who does not have HSV. Muggle is used by geocachers to refer to those aware of the sport of geocaching. A cache, tampered with by non-participants is said to be plundered or muggled. Nancy Stouffer, author of The Legend of Rah and the Muggles accused Rowling of a trademark violation for the use of the term "muggles", as well as copyright violations for some similarities to her book. Rowling and Scholastic, her publisher, sued for declaratory judgment and won on a summary judgment motion, based on a lack of likelihood of confusion. Blood purity in Harry Potter BBC:'Muggle' goes into Oxford English Dict

Fairy chess piece

A fairy chess piece, variant chess piece, unorthodox chess piece, or heterodox chess piece is a chess piece not used in conventional chess but incorporated into certain chess variants and some chess problems. Fairy pieces vary in the way; because of the distributed and uncoordinated nature of unorthodox chess development, the same piece can have different names, different pieces the same name in various contexts. All are symbolised as inverted or rotated icons of the standard pieces in diagrams, the meanings of these "wildcards" must be defined in each context separately. Pieces invented for use in chess variants rather than problems sometimes instead have special icons designed for them, but with some exceptions, many of these are not used beyond the individual games they were invented for. Today's chess exists because of variations someone made to the rules of an earlier version of the game. For example, the queen we use today was once able to move only a single square in a diagonal direction, the piece was referred to as a ferz.

Today, this piece still starts next to the king, but has gained new movement and become today's queen. Thus, the ferz is now considered a non-standard chess piece. Chess enthusiasts still like to try variations of the rules and in the way pieces move. Pieces which move differently from today's standard rules are called "variant" or "fairy" chess pieces; the names of fairy pieces are not standardised, most do not have standard symbols associated with them. Most are represented in diagrams by rotated versions of the icons for normal pieces; the following text uses common names for the pieces described whenever possible, but these names sometimes differ between circles associated with chess problems and circles associated with chess variants. Many of the simplest fairy chess pieces do not appear in the orthodox game, but they fall into one of three classes. There are compound pieces that combine the movement powers of two or more different pieces. An -leaper is a piece that moves by a fixed type of vector between its starting and destination squares.

One of the coordinates of the vector'start square – arrival square' must have an absolute value m and the other one an absolute value n. A leaper captures by occupying the square. For instance, the knight is the -leaper. Note that an -leaper is the same thing as an -leaper, so that the knight can be considered the -leaper; the table to the right shows common names for the leapers with 0 ≤ m, n ≤ 3, together with the letter used to represent them in Betza notation, a common notation for describing fairy pieces. Although moves to adjacent squares are not "leaps" by the normal use of the word, they are included for generality. Leapers that move only to adjacent squares are sometimes called step movers in the context of shogi variants; the leaper's move cannot be blocked. Leapers are effective forking pieces; the check of a leaper cannot be parried by interposing. In shatranj, a Persian forerunner to chess, the predecessors of the bishop and queen were leapers: the alfil is a -leaper, the ferz a -leaper.

The wazir is a -leaper. The dabbaba is a -leaper. The'level-3' leapers are the threeleaper, camel and tripper; the giraffe is a level-4 leaper. Many of these basic leapers appear in Tamerlane chess. A rider, or ranging piece, is a piece that moves an unlimited distance in one direction, provided there are no pieces in the way; each basic rider corresponds to a basic leaper, can be thought of as repeating that leaper's move in one direction until an obstacle is reached. If the obstacle is a friendly piece, it blocks further movement. There are three riders in orthodox chess: the rook is a -rider. Sliders are a special case of riders. All of the riders in orthodox chess are examples of sliders. Riders can create both skewers. One popular fairy chess rider is the nightrider, which can make an unlimited number of knight moves in any direction; the names of riders are obtained by taking the name of its base leaper and adding the suffix "rider". For example, the zebrarider is a -rider. A nightrider can be blocked only on a square one of its component knight moves falls on: if a nightrider starts on a1, it can be blocked on b3 or c2, but not on a2, b2, or b1.

It can only travel from a1 to c5. Some generalised riders do not follow a straight path; the gryphon from the historical game of Grande Acedrex is such a "bent rider": it takes its first step like a ferz and continues outward from that destination like a rook. The unicorn, from the same game, takes its first step like a knight and continues outward from that destination like a bishop; the rose from Chess on a Really Big Board traces out an octagonal path of knight moves: from e1, it can go to g2, h4, g6, e7, c6, b4, c2, back to e1. A limited ranging piece moves like a rider, but only up to a specific number of steps. An example is the short rook from Chess with different armies: it moves like a rook, but only up to a distance of 4 squares. From a1, it can travel in one move to b1, c1, d1, or e1, but not f1. A rider's corresponding leaper


Saygus is an American developer of smartphones headquartered in South Jordan, Utah. Founded by Chad Sayers. Saygus developed two smartphone devices: VPhone and V², neither of which were released. Saygus' VPhone, featuring a 3.5 inch touchscreen and slide-out keyboard, was first revealed in 2009, but did not go to market. The VPhone was presented at the 2010 Consumer Electronics Show, winning the Best of Innovations Award in the Wireless Handsets category; the second device developed by Saygus was named V². The V² smartphone was announced at CES 2015 and was reported to ship in the first quarter of 2015; the device could be pre-ordered directly from Saygus during January 2015. In June 2015 a crowdfunding campaign was launched for the Saygus V² with the company citing manufacturing issues in delivering the finished product to pre-order customers. After several years of delays in delivering the device to backers, Saygus made a further plea for investment in November 2018. Saygus at CeBIT 2015 presents V² smartphone Saygus presents V² at CES 2015 Saygus presents V² at MWC 2015 Saygus presents last hardware update of V² at Los Angeles Saygus VIP Penthouse Lounge near E3

David Jackson (judge)

The Honourable Justice David Jackson is a Judge in the Supreme Court of Queensland, the highest ranking court in the Australian State of Queensland. He was appointed to the Supreme Court of Queensland on 8 October 2012. Jackson was called to the Queensland Bar in 1977 and appointed Queen’s Counsel in 1990. Jackson now sits on the Commercial List of the Supreme Court of Queensland. In August 2014 he was appointed as Chair of the Queensland Law Reform Commission; the appointment of Jackson as a judge was controversial as he was, is still being investigated over his role in the collapse of investment company Equititrust which raised hundreds of millions of dollars from members of the public and collapsed owing $260 million to the investors causing many to lose their homes and life savings. The offices of the company were raided by the Australian Federal Police in 2011 three days after Jackson resigned as a director. Jackson is expected to be examined over his conduct with this company in the Federal Court in 2018.

Jackson caused controversy by a number of his judicial actions including by releasing a notorious female sex offender Jan-Maree Farrenkothen, by ordering that a woman, convicted of acts of bestiality be eligible for a "blue card" allowing her to work with children in Queensland, by ordering rapist Nigel Patrick Robinson be released from custody

Marco Odermatt

Marco Odermatt is a Swiss World Cup alpine ski racer. He races in all alpine specializes in Giant slalom. Odermatt competed for Switzerland at two Junior World Championships and the 2019 World Championships, he gained his first World Cup podium at Kranjska Gora in March 2019. At the 2016 Junior World Championships in Sochi, Odermatt was 11th in the Downhill, took bronze in the Super-G, failed to finish the Alpine combined, won gold in the Giant slalom, failed to finish the Slalom, he made his World Cup debut in March 2016 in a giant slalom at St. Moritz. At the 2018 Junior Worlds in Davos, Odermatt won an unprecedented five gold medals. Odermatt gained his first World Cup win in December 2019 in the Super-G at Colorado. Standings through 22 February 2020 Marco Odermatt at the International Ski Federation Marco Odermatt World Cup standings at the International Ski Federation Marco Odermatt at Ski-DB Alpine Ski Database Marco Odermatt at Swiss Ski Team Marco Odermatt at Stöckli Skis


Aukra is municipality in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. It is part of the region of Romsdalen; the administrative centre is the village of Falkhytta, part of the Aukrasanden urban area. The municipality is made up of the island of Gossa as well as many small surrounding islands, plus a small area around the village of Hollingen across the Julsundet strait on the mainland Romsdal peninsula; some of the main population centers include the villages of Hollingen, Varhaugvika, Røssøyvågen. Nyhamna is a major industrial area in Aukra; the 59-square-kilometre municipality is the 408th largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Aukra is the 245th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 3,557; the municipality's population density is 60.3 inhabitants per square kilometre and its population has increased by 12.1% over the last decade. The municipality of Akerø was established on 1 January 1838. In 1840, most of Akerø on the Romsdal peninsula was separated to form the municipality of Frænen.

On 1 January 1867, the islands that are located to the west of Gossa were separated to become the new Sandøy Municipality. On 1 January 1924, the southern part of the municipality were separated to form the new municipality of Sør-Aukra, the remainder of the municipality was renamed Nord-Aukra. During the 1960s, there were many municipal mergers across Norway due to the work of the Schei Committee. On 1 January 1964, the Mordal area of Nord-Aukra was transferred to Molde Municipality. On 1 January 1965, Nord- was dropped from the name of the municipality, so it was just called Aukra. On 1 January 2020, the uninhabited islands of Lyngværet and the island of Orta were transferred from Sandøy Municipality to Aukra; the municipality is named after the old Aukra farm. The first element is akr which means "field" or "acre" and the last element is vin which means "meadow" or "pasture". Before 1918, the name was written Akerø or Agerø; the coat of arms was granted on 22 May 1987. The arms show two Bronze Age bracelets on a blue background.

The bracelets are based on an archaeological finding in the area. The rings thus symbolize the long tradition of habitation in the area; the Church of Norway has one parish within the municipality of Aukra. It is part of the Molde domprosti in the Diocese of Møre. Aukra is the site of a shipwreck and rescue operation, when the cargo ship Rokta on 4 April 1938; the monument of Rokta is situated on Rindarøy island with a view of Galleskjæra where the Rokta sank. All municipalities in Norway, including Aukra, are responsible for primary education, outpatient health services, senior citizen services and other social services, economic development, municipal roads; the municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elect a mayor. The municipality falls under the Frostating Court of Appeal; the municipal council of Aukra is made up of 21 representatives. The party breakdown of the council is as follows: The Nyhamna industrial area on the northeastern part of the island of Gossa in Aukra is the location from where the Langeled pipeline, transporting natural gas from the enormous Ormen Lange gas field to the United Kingdom, came onstream in 2007.

Local politicians expect a lot from the land-based production facility. The taxes, which in their opinion, far exceeds the externalities put on the inhabitants of Gossa. Aukra Auto runs the bus service on the island of Gossa. Municipal fact sheet from Statistics Norway Møre og Romsdal travel guide from Wikivoyage