Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Rara Lake is the biggest and deepest fresh water lake in the Nepal Himalayas. It is the main feature of Rara National Park, located in Mugu Districts. In September 2007, it was declared a Ramsar site, covering 1,583 ha including the surrounding wetland. Rara Lake lies at an altitude of 2,990 m above sea level, has a water surface of 10.8 km2, a maximum depth of 167 m, is 5.1 km long and 2.7 km wide. It drains into the Mugu Karnali River via the Nijar River, its water quality is characterized by high conductivity and total hardness. It has been classified as oligotrophic as it is polluted. Summer is quite pleasant but winter is cold; the best visiting time to the lake is April to May. From December to March, the temperatures go low below the freezing point, heavy snowfall occur up to one meter, blocking the way to the lake. April to June is warm in this region. Monsoon season, which in this region occurs between the months of July to October, is short; the average rainfall during the ten-year period 1994–2003 was 800 mm.
The surface temperature of the lake was found to be 7.5 °C to 7.6 °C and was visible below 14 m to 15 m. The main occupation of the people living around the area is agriculture. People rear goats and extract medicinal herbs and sell them for their living. Thakur society is dominant in the community. Thakur Baba’s Temple is situated in the southeast corner of the lake. Local people believe that the god Thakur shot an arrow to open the passage of the lake reducing the damage caused by flooding. Problems: Due to over-grazing and defecation, the national park conservation officers are facing a challenge to preserve the lake. Local people are found cutting timber wood and fuel wood, a problem for conservation of Rara. During festivals visitors and local people produce a lot of wastage causing water pollution. Rara Lake, being surrounded by Rara National Park, has unique floral and faunal importance with rare and vulnerable species; the park was established in 1976 to preserve the beauty of the lake and protect it from sedimentation and adverse human activities.
The Park flora consists of 1074 species. The lake holds three endemic fish species Nepalese snowtrout, the Rara snowtrout and one endemic frog, Rara Lake frog. Winter visitor water birds such as gadwall, northern shoveler, common teal, tufted duck, common golden eye, common merganser, common coot, solitary snipe reside and rest at this lake Air is the only mode of transportation for the tourists visiting the Rara Lake. Rara Lake is served by Talcha Airport, 4 km east of the lake. Nepal Airlines and Tara Air operate flights to Rara from Nepalgunj, it takes approx 2 hours to reach Rara Lake from the airport on foot. Rara lake has been a popular destination with a rough route in Western Nepal for trekkers; the glimpses of culture and scenery on the way is quite different from the rest of Nepal. Situated in high altitude, you can find the lake surrounded by Rara National Park with pine and juniper forest; the view of snow-capped Himalayan peaks enhance the attraction of trekkers. The trek begins with flight from nearer Nepalgunj.
Going along the mountain path and some villages one can reach the bank of Rara lake. A travel writer describes his trek to Rara: Although more trampled than in the past, the road to Rara Lake is still without any of the comfortable services available along more popular trails. Logistically it is not an easy trek, it is tough on the bones, involving several 11,000-foot passes. However, once you overcome the obstacles, the rewards are legion: few if any other trekkers, incomparable natural splendor, "untouched" villages, blissful quiet.… Rara Lake as described by GORP founder Bill Greer: "a shimmering blue jewel set in a ring of snowy peaks". Trekkers are recommended to bring their own first aid kit due to the lack of health services around the area. Since there are no accommodation facilities they may need help from a travel agency. Trekkers need to be self-sufficient. Rara Lake as described by Mark Drett: "Since the interval of 10 years, I visited again. Before 10 years, we needed to walk 19 days to get there but, reduced to 10 hours of gravel road and 4 hours of walk.
Not expected but great change. When you get there, you will get the reward for 4 hour long walk." Rara can be the next major place for tourists to visit. During 1997–1998 the number of tourists visiting to this place was found to be 560, but in 2007 it decreased to 87 individuals. Rara Festival was conducted by the Nepal Tourism Board in early 2007 to promote domestic and international visit. Www.rara-lake.com Trek to Rara Laka - Details and Photo Feature Flickr: Rara Lake Picasa: Images of Rara Lake Facebook: Rara Lake images Yentra.com: Journey to Queens Lake
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Gaunpalika or gaupalika is the newly formed lower administrative division in Nepal. The Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development dissolved the existing village development committees and announced the establishment of this new local body. There are 460 rural municipalities; the main purpose of a gaunpalika is similar to that of a village development committee. Besides this, this division has the authority to collect various taxes like entertainment tax, business tax and residential tax at the local level; the Village Development Committee was dissolved on 10 March 2017. Panchayat was dissolved and turned into VDC by the Constitution of Nepal 1990. According to the English translation of the Constitution of Nepal, the term "gaunpalika" has been used as "village body". However, the Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development explained that the term "rural municipality" was coined after opinions from experts and diverse sources; the chief is the head of a rural municipality. A total of 744 chiefs were selected by the government in 10 March 2017.
The rural municipalities will have an annual budget of at least Rs 10 million. Village development committees of Nepal topics
The climatic snow line is the boundary between a snow-covered and snow-free surface. The actual snow line may adjust seasonally, be either higher in elevation, or lower; the permanent snow line is the level above which snow will lie all year. Snow line is an umbrella term for different interpretations of the boundary between snow-covered surface and snow-free surface; the definitions of the snow line may have different spatial focus. In many regions the changing snow line reflect seasonal dynamics; the final height of the snow line in a mountain environment at the end of the melting season is subject to climatic variability, therefore may be different from year to year. The snow line is measured using aerial photographs, or satellite images; because the snow line can be established without on-the-ground measurements, it can be measured in remote and difficult to access areas. Therefore, the snow line has become an important variable in hydrological models; the average elevation of a transient snow line is called the "climatic snow line" and is used as a parameter to classify regions according to climatic conditions.
The boundary between the accumulation zone and the ablation zone on glaciers is called the "annual snow line". The glacier region below this snow line was subject to melting in the previous season; the term "orographic snow line" is used to describe the snow boundary on surfaces other than glaciers. The term "regional snow line" is used to describe large areas; the "permanent snow line" is the level. The interplay of altitude and latitude affects the precise placement of the snow line at a particular location. At or near the equator, it is situated at 4,500 meters above sea level; as one moves towards the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, the parameter at first increases: in the Himalayas the permanent snow line can be as high as 5,700 metres, whilst on the Tropic of Capricorn no permanent snow exists at all in the Andes because of the extreme aridity. Beyond the Tropics the snow line becomes progressively lower as the latitude increases, to just below 3,000 metres in the Alps and falling all the way to sea level itself at the ice caps near the poles.
In addition, the relative location to the nearest coastline can influence the altitude of the snow line. Areas near a coast might have a lower snow line than areas of the same altitude and latitude situated in a landmass interior due to more winter snowfall and because the average summer temperature of the surrounding lowlands would be warmer away from the sea.. A higher altitude is therefore necessary to lower the temperature further against the surroundings and keep the snow from melting. Furthermore, large-scale oceanic currents such as the North Atlantic Current can have significant affects over large areas. In the northern hemisphere the snow line on the north facing slopes is at a lower altitude, as the north facing slopes receive less sun light than south facing slopes; the glacier equilibrium line is the point of transition between the accumulation zone and ablation zone. It is the line. Depending on the thickness of the glacier, this line can seem as though it is leaning more towards one zone but it is determined by the actual mass of ice in either zone.
The rates of ablation and accumulation can be used to determine the location of this line. This point is an important location to use in determining whether a glacier is shrinking. A higher glacier equilibrium line will indicate that the glacier is shrinking, whereas a lower line will indicate that the glacier is growing; the terminus of a glacier advances or retreats based on the location of this equilibrium line. Scientists are using remote sensing to better estimate the locations of this line on glaciers around the world. Using satellite imagery, scientists are able to identify whether the glacier is receding; this is a helpful tool for analyzing glaciers that are difficult to access. Using this technology we can better gauge the effects of climate change on glaciers around the world; the highest mountain in the world below the snow line is Ojos del Salado. Compare the usage of "snow line" indicating the boundary between snow and non-snow. Frost line Frost line Glacier High Alps Ice cap climate Tree line Charlesworth J.
K.. The quaternary era. With special reference to its glaciation, vol. I. London, Edward Arnold Ltd, 700 pp. Flint, R. F.. Glacial and Pleistocene geology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, xiii+553+555 pp. Kalesnik, S. V.. Obshchaya glyatsiologiya. Uchpedgiz, Leningrad, 328 pp. Tronov, M. V.. Voprosy svyazi mezhdu klimatom i oledeneniem. Izdatel'stvo Tomskogo Universiteta, Tomsk, 202 pp. Wilhelm, F.. Schnee- und Gletscherkunde, De Gruyter, Berlin, 414 pp. Braithewaite, R. J. and Raper, S. C. B. "Estimating Equilibrium Line Altitude From Glacier Inventory Data." Annals of Glaciology, 50, pp. 127–132. Doi:10.3189/172756410790595930. Leonard, K. C. and Fountain, A. G.. "Map-Based Methods for Estimating Glacier Equilibrium-Line Altitudes." Journal of Glaciology, vol. 49, no. 166, pp. 329–336. Doi:10.3189/172756503781830665. Ohmura, A. Kasser, P. and Funk, M.. "Climate at the Equilibrium Line
Gamgadhi is the headquarters of Mugu District in the Karnali Zone of northern Nepal. It lies in province 6 of the seven provinces of Nepal. To Promote local culture Gamgadhi has one FM radio station Radio Mugu - 107.4 MHz Which is a Community radio Station
Karnali Pradesh is one of the seven federal provinces of Nepal formed by the new constitution, adopted on 20 September 2015. The total area of the province is 24,453 square kilometres. According to the 2011 Nepal census, the population of the province was 1,570,418, making it the least populous province in Nepal, it borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Gandaki Pradesh to the east, Sudurpashchim Pradesh to the west, Province No. 5 to the south. Birendranagar with a population of 100,458 is both largest city; the province's name is derived from the Karnali River. Karnali is an old civilization of Nepal and it is connected with Karnali River The archaeological sites found in Jumla and Dailekh refers that this area was part of Khasa kingdom, established during 11th century; the capital of the Khas Kingdom was Sinja. The kingdom was expanded to a great extent in 14th century; this kingdom was expanded to Garhwal in the west and Guge regions of Tibet in the north, Gorkha-Nuwakot regions in the east and with Kapilvastu with large areas Terai in the South.
After late 14th century the Khas empire collapsed and divided into Baise Rajya in Karnali-Bheri region. Before unification of modern Nepal, the part of Karnali was an Sanghiya Baise Rajya; the Baise were sovereign, but intermittently allied among themselves until they were annexed during the unification of modern Nepal from 1744 to 1810. Karnali is the largest province of Nepal with an area of 24,453 km2; the province is surrounded by Gandaki Pradesh in east, Province No. 5 in south-east and south, Sudurpaschim Pradesh in the west and Tibet Autonomous Region of China in north. The province has occupied higher mountains land of north and mid-hills of Nepal, it contains Kubi Gangri and Kanjiroba mountains in north. The Shey Phoksundo National Park with Phoksundo lake is the largest national park of Nepal and Rara lake is the largest lake of Nepal which are located in Karnali Pradesh. Karnali River is the biggest river of the province, thought to be longest river of Nepal. Seti River and Bheri River are tributaries of Karnali.
The Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Surkhet High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Durga Keshar Khanal, Mahendra Bahadur Shahi and Hari Kumar Pokharel respectively. The province has 40 provincial assembly constituencies,12 House of Representative constituencies and eight National Assembly seats. Karnali has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal; the term length of provincial assembly is five years. The Provincial Assembly of Karnali is temporarily housed at the Irrigation Division Office in Birendranagar. Karnali is divided into ten districts. Dailekh District Dolpa District Humla District Jajarkot District Jumla District Kalikot District Mugu District Salyan District Surkhet District Western Rukum DistrictA district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer.
The districts are further dived to municipalities or rural municipalities which are further divided into wards. There are 54 rural municipalities in the province; the capital and largest city of the province is Birendranagar. It is only city in the province with a population of over 50,000. List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal