The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Nasrullah Khan (Bukhara)
Nasrullah Khan or Nasr-Allah bin Haydar Tora was the Emir of Bukhara from 1827 to 1860. His father was emir Haydar Tora. After Haydar's death Hussain bin Haydar Tora came to power, he died two months and was succeeded by Umar bin Haydar Tora, who in 1827 was succeeded by Nasrullah. Nasr-Allah bin Haydar Tora was ruler in a time when the Central Asian states were under pressure from the advance of Russian Empire in the north and the British Raj in the south. Nasr-Allah bin Haydar Tora is best known in the West as the Emir who imprisoned and executed in 1842 the British envoys Charles Stoddart and Arthur Conolly, imprisoned but released Joseph Wolff who came in 1843 to seek news of them. Nasr-Allah bin Haydar Tora organized several unsuccessful military campaigns against the Kokand Khanate. In 1839 he declared war against Kokand due to their building of the Pishagar fort near the Bukhara front, he conquered Khojand twice in 1839 and 1841, forcing the Khan of Kokand into a peace in his favour and took Ura Tepe and Khojend as compensation.
The Khan of Kokand was forced to pay a heavy amount and recognize him as lord, putting his name on the coins and the khutba. After a revolt in Khujent the Emir's forces occupied Kokand. Madali Khan, the Khan of Kokand escaped to Marghilan, but was captured and executed in Bukhara at the end of April 1842. Nasrullah personally ordered execution of Ali-Khan and Nodira of Kokand along with most of the family Bukharan forces were the in Khanate of Kokand were expelled after a revolt in Kokand two months later. Nasr-Allah bin Haydar Tora died in his son Muzaffar al-Din bin Nasr-Allah came to power. Fitzroy Maclean: A Person from England and Other Travellers, 1958 Fitzroy Maclean, Eastern Approaches, chap. 6 "Bokhara the Noble", 1949. Joseph Wolff: Narrative of a Mission to Bokhara, in the years 1843-1845, to ascertain the fate of Colonel Stoddart and Captain Conolly. London, J. W. Parker, 1845
Khujand, sometimes spelled Khodjent and known as Leninabad in 1936–1991, is the second-largest city of Tajikistan and the capital of the northernmost province of Tajikistan, now called Sughd. Khujand is one of the oldest cities in Central Asia, it is situated on the Syr Darya at the mouth of the Fergana Valley and was a major city along the ancient Silk Road inhabited by ethnic Tajiks. It is proximate to both the Kyrgyzstan borders. Khujand is the site of Cyropolis, established when king Cyrus the Great founded the city during his last expedition against the Saka tribe of Massagetae shortly before his death. Alexander the Great built his furthest Greek settlement near Cyropolis in 329 BC and named it Alexandria Eschate or "Alexandria The Furthest"; the city would form a bastion for the Greek settlers against the nomadic Scythian tribes who lived north of the Syr Darya River. According to the Roman writer Curtius, Alexandria Ultima retained its Hellenistic culture as late as 30 BC; the city became a major staging point on the northern Silk Road.
It became a cultural hub and several famous poets and scientists came from this city. In the early 8th century, Khujand was captured by the forces of the Umayyad Caliphate, under Qutayba ibn Muslim; the city was incorporated into the Umayyad and subsequent Abbasid Caliphates, a process of Islamicization began. In the late 9th century, however, it reverted to local rule of Turkic governors, incorporated for a short period into the Samanid Empire, it came under the rule of the Kara-Khanid Khanate in 999 and after the division of Kara Khanids in 1042, it was part of Eastern Kara Khanids, later passed to the western one. Karakhitans conquered it in 1137, but it passed to Khwarazmshahs in 1211. In AD 1220, it resisted the Mongol hordes and was thus laid to waste - around 20,000 Mongol soldiers surrounded the city and besieged it but a local man opened the doors of the city and let the Mongol army in. In the 14th century, the city was part of the Chagatai Khanate until it was incorporated into the Timurid Dynasty' in the late 14th century, under which it flourished greatly.
The Shaybanid dynasty of Bukhara next annexed Khojand, until it was taken over by the Kokand Khanate in 1802, however Bukhara regained it in 1842 until it was lost a few decades to the Russia. In 1866, as most of Central Asia was occupied by Russian Empire, the city became part of the General Governorate of Turkestan, under Tsarist Russia; the threat of forced conscription during World War I led to protests in the city in July 1916, which turned violent when demonstrators attacked Russian soldiers. In 1918 when Turkestan ASSR was dismantled, the city became a part of Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1929 in order to gain a sufficient number of inhabitants for the newly created Soviet Republic of Tajikistan the city of Khujand, inhabited by ethnic Tajiks, was transferred by Soviet Communists from Uzbek SSR to the Tajik SSR; the city was renamed Leninabad on 10 January 1936 and it remained part of the Soviet Union until 1991. With the independence of Tajikistan, Khujand became the second largest city in the nation.
It reverted to its original name in 1992 after the breakup of the Soviet Union. In 1996 the city experienced the Ashurov protests during which citizens called for the President, Emomali Rakhmonov to step down; the popular protests were followed by a protest from the city's prisoners, many of whom had been sentenced to long jail terms for minor crimes and who were living in poor conditions. The protest led to the Khujand prison riot in which between 150 prisoners were killed. In the early 2000s many residents of Khujand had little to no access to water, what water they did have was unsafe to drink and had to be boiled. In 2004, The Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs and the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development joined to help improve the situation, providing 32,000 water meters for inhabitants and developing improved access to water. Residents pay for their water supply, which in turn helps Khujand's municipal water company to continue to renovate and improve their services.
The project is in its third stage of development, should be completed by 2017. In comparison to other Central Asian projects aiming to improve access to water, this project is considered a success and has been applied to Kyrgyz cities and towns such as Osh, Jalal-Abad and Talas, with a possible extension into the Kyrgyz capital of Bishkek. Khujand Airport has scheduled flights to Dushanbe as well as several international destinations. There is a rail connection between Khujand and Samarkand in Uzbekistan on the way to Dushanbe; the city is connected by road to Panjakent in the Zeravshan River Valley as well as Dushanbe via the Anzob Tunnel. As of December 2014 the construction of highway between capital and Khujand has been carrying on. Necessary works like cementation and installation of ventilation equipment are still going on inside the Istiqlol Tunnel, after specialists from the ministry detected an error while analyzing the 40-million-U. S.-dollar project in July. The 5-km tunnel, located 80 km northwest of Dushanbe and built with assistance from Iran, is a transit route between Dushanbe and the Uzbek capital of Tashkent.
After its completion, the Dushanbe-Khujand highway will open for traffic the whole year round and the transit time is expected to be cut by four to five hours. During
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
Istaravshan is a city in Sughd Province in Tajikistan. Located in the northern foothills of the Turkistan mountain range, 78 kilometers southwest of Khujand, Istaravshan is one of the oldest cities in today's Tajikistan, having existed for more than 2500 years. Before 2000, it was known as Ура́-Тюбе in Russian, Ӯротеппа in Tajik and O‘ratepa in Uzbek, the native language of the locals. In 2000, the Tajik authorities decided to delete Uzbek names in country's map and renamed the Uzbek name of the city from O‘ratepa into Istaravshan, the process called as forced "Tajikization" or "Persification" by many. Bordered by Uzbekistan in the north and west, Kyrgyzstan in the east, the territorial area of Istaravshan stretches 1,830 square kilometers, with an administrative population of 199,000 people, the majority of its citizens live in the outlying countryside; the city lies on the main road connecting Tajikistan's two largest cities and Dushanbe. The accompanying 1923 map of gives the location of the ancient city of Cyropolis as being a close approximation to that of modern-day Istaravshan.
Istaravshan has a cold semi-arid climate. There is more rainfall in winter than in summer; the average annual temperature in Istaravshan is 12.2 °C. About 485 mm of precipitation falls annually. List of cities in Tajikistan Osrūshana Official web site Istaravshan RISOL Internet Learning Center Istaravshan IREX OpenStreetMap
Khanate of Kokand
The Khanate of Kokand was an Uzbek state in Fergana Valley, Central Asia that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, southeastern Kazakhstan. The name of the city and the khanate may be spelled as Khoqand in modern scholarly literature; the Khanate of Kokand was established in 1709 when the Shaybanid emir Shahrukh, of the Ming Tribe of Uzbeks, declared independence from the Khanate of Bukhara, establishing a state in the eastern part of the Fergana Valley. He built a citadel as his capital in the small town of Kokand, his son, Abd al-Karim, grandson, Narbuta Biy, enlarged the citadel, but both were forced to submit as a protectorate, pay tribute to, the Qing dynasty in China between 1774 and 1798. Narbuta Biy's son Alim was both efficient, he hired a mercenary army of Tajik highlanders, conquered the western half of the Fergana Valley, including Khujand and Tashkent. He was assassinated by his brother Umar in 1810. Umar’s son, Mohammed Ali, ascended to the throne in 1821 at the age of 12.
During his reign, the Khanate of Kokand reached its greatest territorial extent. The Kokand Khanate housed the Khojas of Kashgar like Jahangir Khoja. In 1841, the British officer Captain Arthur Conolly failed to persuade the various khanates to put aside their differences, in an attempt to counter the growing penetration of the Russian Empire into the area. In November 1841, he left Kokand for Bukhara in an ill-fated attempt to rescue fellow officer Colonel Charles Stoddart, both were executed on 24 June 1842 by the order of Emir Nasrullah Khan of Bukhara. Following this, Madali Khan, who had received Conolly in Kokand, who had sought an alliance with Russia, lost the trust of Nasrullah; the Emir, encouraged by the conspiratorial efforts of several influential figures in Kokand, invaded the Khanate in 1842. Shortly thereafter he executed Madali Khan, his brother, Omar Khan's widow, the famed poet Nodira. Madali Khan’s cousin, Shir Ali, was installed as the Khan of Kokand in June 1842. Over the next two decades, the khanate was weakened by a bitter civil war, further exacerbated by Bukharan and Russian incursions.
Shir Ali’s son, Khudayar Khan, ruled from 1845 to 1858, following another interlude under Emir Nasrullah, again from 1865. In the meantime, Russia was continuing its advance: on 28 June 1865 Tashkent was taken by the Russian troops of General Chernyayev. Shortly before the fall of Tashkent, Kokand’s best-known son, Yakub Beg, former lord of Tashkent, was sent by the Khan of Kokand, Alimqul, to Kashgar, where the Hui Muslims were in revolt against the Chinese; when Alimqul was killed in 1867 following the loss of Tashkent, many Kokandian soldiers fled to join Yaqub Beg, helping him establish his dominion throughout the Tarim Basin, which lasted until 1877, when Qing reconquered the region. In 1868, a treaty turned Kokand into a Russian vassal state; the now powerless Khudayar Khan spent his energies improving his lavish palace. Western visitors were impressed by the city of 80,000 people, which contained some 600 mosques and 15 madrasahs. Insurrections against Russian rule and Khudayar’s oppressive taxes forced him into exile in 1875.
He was succeeded by his son, Nasir ad-din Abdul Karim Khan, whose anti-Russian stance provoked the annexation of Kokand by Generals Konstantin von Kaufman and Mikhail Skobelev. In March 1876, Tsar Alexander II stated that he had been forced to "... yield to the wishes of the Kokandi people to become Russian subjects." The Khanate of Kokand was declared abolished, incorporated into the Fergana Province of. Nasir ad-din Abdul Karim Khan fled the region shortly after the arrival of Russian forces through the Pamirs, he was accompanied by 60 armed horse-mounted bodyguards, 3 wives and treasure chests on his journey to the British-India where he was offered asylum by British Authorities and settled in Peshawar where he died. His body was buried in famed Wazir Bagh cemetery and moved to Mir Tayab Garhi where his descendants still live and reside today. Shahrukh Bey Abdul Rahim Bey Abdul Kahrim Bey Abdurakhman-Batir Irdana Bey Bobobek Irdana Bey Suleiman Bey Shahruhk III Narbuta Bey Alim Khan Muhammad Umar Khan Muhammad Ali Khan Shir Ali Khan Murad Beg Khan Muhammad Khudayar Khan Abdulla Beg Muhammad Khudayar Khan Muhammad Mallya Beg Khan Shah Murad Khan Muhammad Khudayar Khan Muhammad Sultan Khan Bil Bahchi Khan Muhammad Sultah Khan Muhammad Khudayar Khan Nasruddin Khan Muhammad Pulad Beg Khan Nasruddin Khan (December 1875 - 19 February 1883 Nasruddin Abdul Karim Khan: Shahzada Abdul Rahim Beg Khan Shahzada Mehmood Beg Khan Shahzada Abdullah Beg Khan Shahzada Azeem Beg Khan Shahzada Ahmed Beg Khan Sahazada Hussain Beg KhanShahzada Mehmood Baig Khan son: Umar Baig Khan Kamal Baig Khan Iqbal Baig Khan Adil Baig KhanShahzada Abdullah Baig Khan son: Younus Baig Khan Humayun Baig Khan Bakhtiar Baig Khan Zahir Baig Khan Jahangir B
Emirate of Bukhara
The Emirate of Bukhara was an Uzbek state that existed from 1785 to 1920 in what is now modern-day Uzbekistan. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known as Transoxiana, its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River, its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarkand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarezm, the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana; the Emirate of Bukhara was created in 1785, upon the assumption of rulership by the Manghit emir, Shah Murad. As one of the few states in Central Asia after the Mongol Empire not ruled by descendants of Genghis Khan, it staked its legitimacy on Islamic principles rather than Genghisid blood, as the ruler took the Islamic title of Emir instead of Khan. Moreover, both of its neighbors, the Khanate of Khiva and the Kokand Khanate, as well as its predecessor, the Khanate of Bukhara, were ruled by Genghisid descendants. Over the course of the 18th century, the emirs had gained effective control of the Khanate of Bukhara, from their position as ataliq.
In 1747, after Nadir Shah's death, the ataliq Muhammad Rahim Bi murdered Abulfayz Khan and his son, ending the Janid dynasty. From on the emirs allowed puppet khans to rule until, following the death of Abu l-Ghazi Khan, Shah Murad assumed the throne openly. Fitzroy Maclean recounts in Eastern Approaches how Charles Stoddart and Arthur Conolly were executed by Nasrullah Khan in the context of The Great Game, how Joseph Wolff, known as the Eccentric Missionary, escaped their fate when he came looking for them in 1845, he was wearing his full canonical costume, which caused the Emir to burst out laughing, "Dr Wolff was suffered to leave Bokhara to the surprise of the populace, who were not accustomed to such clemency."In 1868, the emirate lost a war with Imperial Russia, which had colonial aspirations in the region. Russia annexed much of the emirate's territory, including the important city of Samarkand. In 1873 the remainder became a Russian protectorate, was soon surrounded by the Governorate-General of Turkestan.
Reformists within the Emirate had found the conservative emir, Mohammed Alim Khan, unwilling to loosen his grip on power, had turned to the Russian Bolshevik revolutionaries for military assistance. The Red Army launched an unsuccessful assault in March 1920, a successful one in September of the same year; the Emirate of Bukhara was conquered by the Bolsheviks and replaced with the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic. Today the territory of the defunct emirate lies in Uzbekistan, with parts in Tajikistan and Kazakhstan, it had included present northern Afghanistan between 1793 and 1850. The emir's daughter Shukria Raad Alimi worked as a broadcaster in Radio Afghanistan. Shukria Raad left Afghanistan with her family three months after Soviet troops invaded the country in December 1979. With her husband a journalist, two children she fled to Pakistan, through Germany to the United States. In 1982, she joined the VOA, has worked as a broadcaster for VOA's Dari Service, editor and producer. Located along important trading routes, Bukhara enjoyed a rich cultural mixture, including Persian and Jewish influences.
The city of Bukhara has a rich history of Persian architecture and literature, traditions that were continued into the Emirate Period. Prominent artists of the period include the poet Kiromi Bukhoroi, the calligrapher Mirza Abd al-Aziz Bukhari and the scholar Rahmat-Allah Bukhari. Throughout this period, the madrasahs of the region were renowned. Pink Rows Signifies progenitor chiefs serving as Viziers to the Khans of Bukhara. Green Rows Signifies chiefs who took over reign of government from the Janids and placed puppet Khans. Malikov A; the Russian conquest of the Bukharan Emirate: military and diplomatic aspects in Central Asian Survey, Volume 33, issue 2, 2014, p. 180-198