Marwān ibn al-Ḥakam ibn Abiʾl-ʿAs ibn Umayya known as Marwan I was the fourth caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. He ruled for less than a year in 684–685, founding the Marwanid ruling house, which took over power from the Sufyanid branch of the Umayyad dynasty and remained in power until 750. Marwan had known the Islamic prophet Muhammad and is thus considered a ṣaḥābī, he served as the secretary and right-hand man of his kinsman Caliph Uthman and participated in the defense of his house during a rebel siege. Uthman was killed by the rebels, prompting Marwan to kill Talha ibn Ubayd Allah, whom he held culpable, during the Battle of the Camel in 656, he subsequently gave allegiance to Caliph Ali and served as governor of Medina under his kinsman Caliph Mu'awiya I, founder of the Umayyad Caliphate. Following the deaths of Mu'awiya I's successors Yazid I and Mu'awiya II in 683 and 684 Marwan organized the defense of the Umayyad realm in the Hejaz against Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, a rival claimant to the caliphate.
Ibn al-Zubayr expelled Marwan and his clan from Medina, they became refugees in Syria. As he was prepared to give allegiance to Ibn al-Zubayr, the ex-Umayyad governor of Iraq, Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, urged him to instead volunteer his candidacy for the caliphate during a summit of loyalist tribes at Jabiya; the tribal nobility, led by Ibn Bahdal of the Banu Kalb elected Marwan and together they defeated the pro-Zubayrid Qaysi tribes at the Battle of Marj Rahit. In the months that followed, Marwan reasserted Umayyad rule over the pro-Zubayrid territories of Egypt and northern Syria, while keeping the Qays in check in Upper Mesopotamia, he dispatched an expedition led by Ubayd Allah to reconquer Iraq, but died as it was on the move in the spring of 685. Prior to his death, Marwan established his sons in positions of power:'Abd al-Malik was designated his successor,'Abd al-'Aziz was made governor of Egypt and Muhammad oversaw military command in Upper Mesopotamia. Though Marwan was stigmatized as an outlaw and a father of tyrants in anti-Umayyad tradition, historian Clifford E. Bosworth asserts that the caliph was a shrewd and decisive military leader and statesman who laid the foundations of continued Umayyad rule for a further sixty-five years.
Marwan was born in 623 or 626 CE to father al-Hakam ibn Abi al-'As and mother Amina bint'Alqama al-Kinaniyya. His father belonged to the Banu Umayya, the strongest clan of the Quraysh, a polytheistic tribe which dominated Mecca in western Arabia; the Quraysh converted to Islam en masse in circa 630 following the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, himself a member of the Quraysh. Marwan is thus counted among the latter's ṣaḥāba. Marwan had at least sixteen children, among them at least twelve sons from five wives and an umm walad. From his wife A'isha, a daughter of his paternal first cousin Mu'awiya ibn al-Mughira, he had his eldest son'Abd al-Malik, Mu'awiya and daughter Umm Amr, his wife Layla bint Zabban ibn al-Asbagh of the Banu Kalb bore him'Abd al-'Aziz and daughter Umm Uthman, while another wife, Qutayya bint Bishr of the Banu Kilab, bore him Bishr and Abd al-Rahman, the latter of whom died young. One of Marwan's wives, Umm Aban, was a daughter of his paternal first cousin and maternal half-brother, Uthman ibn Affan, who became caliph in 644.
She was mother to six of his sons, Uthman, Ubayd Allah, Ayyub and Abd Allah, though the last of them died a child. Marwan was married to a woman of the Banu Makhzum, Zaynab bint Umar, who mothered his son Umar. Marwan's umm walad was named Zaynab and gave birth to his son Muhammad. Marwan was the paternal uncle of ten nephews. During the reign of Caliph Uthman, Marwan took part in a military campaign against the Byzantines in Ifriqiya, where he acquired significant war spoils; these formed the basis of Marwan's substantial wealth, part of which he invested in properties in Medina. At an undetermined point, he served as Uthman's governor in Fars before becoming the caliph's kātib and the overseer of Medina's treasury. According to historian Clifford E. Bosworth, in this capacity Marwan "doubtless helped" in the revision "of what became the canonical text of the Qur'an" in Uthman's reign. Historian Hugh N. Kennedy asserts that Marwan was the caliph's "right-hand man". According to the traditional Muslim reports, many of Uthman's erstwhile backers among the Quraysh withdrew their support for him as a result of Marwan's increasing influence, which they blamed for the caliph's controversial decisions.
Donner questions the veracity of these reports, citing the unlikelihood that Uthman would be influenced by a younger relative such as Marwan and the rarity of specific charges against the latter, describes them as a possible "attempt by Islamic tradition to salvage Uthman's reputation as one of the so-called "rightly-guided" caliphs by making Marwan... the fall guy for the unhappy events at the end of Uthman's twelve-year reign". As discontent over Uthman's policies developed into rebellion, Marwan recommended a violent response. However, Uthman publicly recanted his behavior and desisted from military action against the rebel siege of his home in Medina in June 656. Despite orders to the contrary, Marwan defended Uthman's house and was badly wounded in the neck when he challenged the rebels assembled at its entrance. According to tradition, he was saved by the intervention of his wet nurse, Fatima bint Aws, was transported to the safety of her home by his
Abd al-Rahman III
Abd al-Rahman III was an Arab Emir and Caliph of Córdoba of the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus. Called al-Nasir li-Din Allah, he ascended the throne in his early 20s and reigned for half a century as the most powerful prince of Iberia. Although people of all creeds enjoyed tolerance and freedom of religion under his rule, he repelled the Fatimids by supporting their Maghrawa enemies in North Africa, by claiming the title Caliph for himself. Abd al-Rahman was born in Córdoba, the grandson of Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi, seventh independent Umayyad emir of al-Andalus, his parents were Muzna, a Christian concubine. His paternal grandmother was a Christian, the royal infanta Onneca Fortúnez, daughter of the captive king Fortún Garcés of Pamplona. Abd al-Rahman was thus nephew in the half-blood of queen Toda of Pamplona, he is described as having "blue eyes and attractive face. His legs were short, to the point that the stirrups of his saddle were mounted just one palm under it; when mounted, he looked tall.
He dyed his beard black. Muhammad was assassinated by his brother Al-Mutarrif, who had grown jealous of the favour Muhammad had gained in the eyes of their father Abdallah. Al-Mutarrif had accused Muhammad of plotting with the rebel Umar ibn Hafsun, Muhammad had been imprisoned. According to some sources, the emir himself was behind Muhammad's fall, as well as Al-Mutarrif's death in 895. Abd al-Rahman spent his youth in his mother's harem. Al-Mutarrif's sister, known as al-Sayyida, was entrusted with his education, she made sure. Emir Abdallah died at the age of 72. Despite the fact that four of his sons were alive at the time of his death, all of them were passed over for succession. Abdallah instead chose as his successor his grandson, Abd al-Rahman III; this came as no surprise, since Abdallah had demonstrated his affection for his grandson in many ways, namely by allowing him to live in his own tower, allowing him to sit on the throne on some festive occasions. Most Abdallah gave Abd al-Rahman his ring, the symbol of power, when Abdallah fell ill prior to his death.
Abd al-Rahman succeeded Abdallah the day after his death, 16 October 912. Historiographers of the time, such as Al-Bayan al-Mughrib and the Crónica anónima de Abd al-Rahman III, state that his succession was "without incident". At the time, Abd al-Rahman was about 22 years old, he inherited an emirate on the verge of dissolution, his power extending not far beyond the vicinity of Córdoba. To the north, the Christian Kingdom of Asturias was continuing its program of Reconquista in the Douro valley. To the south in Ifriqiya, the Fatimids had created an independent caliphate that threatened to attract the allegiance of the Muslim population, who had suffered under the harsh rule of Abdullah. On the internal front the discontented Muladi families represented a constant danger for the Córdoban emir; the most powerful of the latter was Umar ibn Hafsun, from his impregnable fortress of Umar ibn Hafsun, controlled much of eastern Al-Andalus. From the early stages of his reign, Abd al-Rahman showed a firm resolve to quash the rebels of al-Andalus, consolidate centralized power, reestablish internal order within the emirate.
Within 10 days of taking the throne, he exhibited the head of a rebel leader in Cordoba. From this point on he led annual expeditions against the northern and southern tribes to maintain control over them. To accomplish his aims he introduced into slaves of East European origin; the saqalibah represented a third ethnic group that could neutralize the endless strife between his subjects of Muslim Arab heritage, those of Muslim Berber heritage. Hasdai ibn Shaprut, a Jewish courtier of the king's court who served as financier to the king, wrote of the king's revenues on this wise: The revenue of the king amounts annually to 100,000 florins, this arising only from the income derived from the numerous merchants who come hither from various countries and isles. All their commerce and affairs must be subjected to my guidance, praised be the Almighty, who bestows his mercy upon me! The kings of the world no sooner perceive of the greatness of my monarch, than they hasten to convey to him presents in abundance.
It is myself who am appointed to receive such presents, at the same time to return rewards awarded to them. During the first 20 years of his rule, Abd al-Rahman avoided military action against the northern Christian kingdoms and the Kingdom of Navarre; the Muladi rebels were the first problem. Those powerful families were supported by Iberians who were or secretly Christians and had acted with the rebels; these elements, which formed the bulk of the population, were not averse to supporting a strong ruler who would protect them against the Arab aristocracy. Abd al-Rahman moved to subdue them by means of a mercenary army, he first had to suppress the rebel Umar ibn Hafsun. On 1 January 913 an army, led by the eunuch Badr, conquered the fortress of Écija, at some 50 kilometres from the capital. All the city's fortifications were destroyed, aside from the citadel, left as residence of the gove
The Iberian Peninsula known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal, comprising most of their territory, it includes Andorra, small areas of France, the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of 596,740 square kilometres ), it is both the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula, by population, after the Balkan Peninsula; the word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originated by the Ancient Greek word Ἰβηρία by Greek geographers under the rule of the Roman Empire to refer to what is known today in English as the Iberian Peninsula. At that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabo's'Iberia' was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the entire land mass southwest of there. With the fall of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the new Castillian language in Spain, the word "Iberia" appeared for the first time in use as a direct'descendant' of the Greek word "Ἰβηρία" and the Roman word "Hiberia".
The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, by voyaging westward on the Mediterranean. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country "this side of the Ἶβηρος" as far north as the river Rhône in France, but they set the Pyrenees as the limit. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms.
The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia translates to "land of the Hiberians"; this word was derived from the river Ebro. Hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro; the first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics; the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became politically interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior for'near' and'far' Hispania. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Lusitania. Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. Whatever language may have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, preserved as a language isolate by the barrier of the Pyrenees.
The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so well known. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called "the whole of Spain" Hiberia because of the Hiberus River; the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus. With reference to this border, Polybius states that the "native name" is Ibēr the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination; the early range of these natives, which geographers and historians place from today's southern Spain to today's southern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yet unknown language, dubbed "Iberian." Whether this was the native name or was given to them by the Greeks for their residence on the Ebro remains unknown. Credence in Polybius imposes certain limitations on etymologizing: if the language remains unknown, the meanings of the words, including Iber, must remain unknown.
In modern Basque, the word ibar means "valley" or "watered meadow", while ibai means "river", but there is no proof relating the etymology of the Ebro River with these Basque names. The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 1.2 million years as remains found in the sites in the Atapuerca Mountains demonstrate. Among these sites is the cave of Gran Dolina, where six hominin skeletons, dated between 780,000 and one million years ago, were found in 1994. Experts have debated whether these skeletons belong to the species Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, or a new species called Homo antecessor. Around 200,000 BP, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula. Around 70,000 BP, during the Middle Paleolithic period, the last glacial event began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established. Around 37,000 BP, during the Upper Paleolithic, the Neanderthal Châtelperronian cultural period began. Emanating from Southern France, this culture extended into the north of the p
Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan called Marwan II, was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. Much of his reign was dominated by the Third Fitna, he was the last Umayyad ruler to rule the united Caliphate before the Abbasid Revolution toppled the Umayyad dynasty. Marwan ibn Muhammad was a member of the Marwanid household of the Umayyad Caliphate. In A. H. 114 Caliph Hisham appointed Marwan governor of Azerbaijan. In A. H. 117 Marwan invaded Georgia, devastated it and took three fortresses of the Alans and made peace with Tumanshah. In A. H. 121 he obtained tribute. In A. H. 126 on hearing news of the plotting to overthrow al-Walid II Marwan wrote to his relatives from Armenia discouraging such an act. He urged them to harmoniously preserve the stability and well being of the Umayyad house; when Yazid III persisted in overthrowing al-Walid II, Marwan at first opposed him rendered allegiance to him. On Yazid's early death, Marwan renewed his ambitions, ignored Yazid's named successor Ibrahim and became caliph.
Ibrahim hid requested Marwan give him assurances of personal safety. This Marwan granted and Ibrahim accompanied the new caliph to Hisham's residence of Rusafah. Marwan named his two sons Abdallah heirs, he proceeded to assert his authority by force. However, anti-Umayyad feeling was prevalent in Iran and Iraq; the Abbasids had gained much support. As such, Marwan's reign as caliph was entirely devoted to trying to keep the Umayyad empire together. Marwan took Emesa after a bitter ten-month siege. Al-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Shaybani led a Kharijite rebellion, he took Kufa. Sulayman ibn Hisham suffered a severe defeat; the Kharijites were defeated. Sulayman joined them. Al-Dahhak's successor al-Khaybari was successful in pushing back Marwan's centre and took the caliph's camp and sat on his carpet. However, he and those with him fell in fighting in the camp. Shayban succeeded him. Marwan Sulayman to Mosul and besieged them there for six months. Reinforced the caliph drove them out. Shayban fled to Bahrayn. In Khurasan there was internal discord with the Umayyad governor Nasr ibn Sayyar facing opposition from al-Harith and al-Kirmani.
They fought each other. In addition Abbasid envoys arrived. There had long been a kind of messianic expectation of Abbasid ascendency. During Ramadan 747, they unfurled the standards of their revolt. Nasr sent his retainer Yazid against them. Yazid, was bested and held captive, he was impressed by the Abbasids and when released told Nasr he wanted to join them, but his obligations to Nasr brought him back. Fighting continued throughout Khurasan with the Abbasids gaining increasing ascendency. Nasr fell sick and died at Rayy on November 9, 748 at the age of eighty five; the Abbasids achieved success in the Hijaz. Marwan suffered a decisive defeat by Abu al-'Abbas al-Saffah on the banks of the Great Zab called Battle of the Zab. At this battle alone, over 300 members of the Umayyad family died. Marwan fled, leaving Damascus and Palestine and reaching Egypt, where he was caught and killed on August 6, 750, his heirs Ubaydallah and Abdallah escaped to modern Eritrea. Ubaydallah died in fighting there. Marwan's death signalled the end of Umayyad fortunes in the East, was followed by the mass-killing of Umayyads by the Abbasids.
The entire Umayyad dynasty was killed, except for the talented prince Abd ar-Rahman who escaped to Spain and founded an Umayyad dynasty there. Marwan ibn Muhammad's invasion of Georgia Kennedy, Hugh N.. The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. ISBN 0-582-40525-4. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, History v. 25 "The End of Expansion," transl. Khalid Yahya Blankinship, SUNY, Albany, 1989. Carole Hillenbrand, SUNY, Albany, 1989. John Alden Williams, SUNY, Albany, 1985 Sir John Glubb, "The Empire of the Arabs", Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1963 Syed Ameer Ali, "A Short History of the Saracens", Macmillan and co. London, 1912
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate. He ruled for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683, his appointment was the first hereditary succession in Islamic history and his caliphate was marked by the death of Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali and the start of the crisis known as the Second Fitna. In 676, Muawiya made him his heir apparent. A few prominent Muslims from Hejaz, including Husayn, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr and Abdullah ibn Umar, refused to accept his nomination. Following his accession after Muawiya's death in 680, Yazid demanded allegiance from these three, but only ibn Umar recognized him, while the other two refused and escaped to sanctuary of Mecca; when Husayn was on his way to Kufa to lead a revolt against Yazid, he was killed with his small band of supporters by forces of Yazid in the Battle of Karbala. Killing of Husayn led to widespread resentment in Hejaz, where Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr centered his opposition to rule of Yazid, was supported by many people in Mecca and Medina.
After failed attempts to regain confidence of ibn al-Zubayr and people of Hejaz through diplomacy, Yazid sent an army to end the rebellion. The army defeated Medinese in the Battle of al-Harrah in August 683 and the city was given to three days of pillage. On siege was laid to Mecca, which lasted for several weeks, during which the Kaaba was damaged by fire; the siege ended with death of Yazid in November 683 and the empire fell to civil war. Yazid is considered an illegitimate ruler and a tyrant by many Muslims due to his hereditary succession, death of Husayn and attack on the city of Medina by his forces. Modern historians present a mild view him, consider him a capable ruler, albeit less successful than his father. Yazid was born in 646 CE to Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan and Maisun bint Bahdal, the daughter of powerful Kalbite leader Bahdal ibn Unayf, grew up with his maternal tribe, the Kalbites, he led several campaigns against the Byzantine Empire and in 670 participated in an attack on Constantinople.
He performed Hajj on several occasions. By the end of the first Islamic civil war, Muawiya became sole ruler of the empire as a result of a peace treaty with Hasan ibn Ali, who had controlled most of the empire following the murder of his father Ali a few months earlier; the terms of the treaty stipulated. However, in 676, a few years before his death, Muawiya nominated Yazid. Muawiya and the Shura decided for Yazid in Damascus, where the former had summoned influential people from all provinces to the capital and convinced them one way or the other. Muawiya ordered Marwan ibn Hakam the governor of Medina, to inform the people of Medina, of Muawiya's decision. Marwan faced resistance on this announcement from Husayn ibn Ali, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr, Abdullah ibn Umar and Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr. Muawiya himself went to Medina and began pressing against the four dissenters, who fled to Mecca. Muawiya threatened some of them with life, but got only refusal. Nonetheless he was successful in convincing the people of Mecca that these four men had pledged their allegiance, received allegiance for Yazid.
On his way back to Damascus, he secured allegiance from people of Medina as well. The opponents went into silence thereafter. German orientalist Julius Wellhausen doubts the story, while Bernard Lewis writes that the homage was arranged with mix of diplomacy and bribes and, to lesser extent, by force. Before dying, Muawiya left Yazid a will, he advised him to beware of Husayn and Ibn al-Zubayr, predicted that the people of Iraq will entice Husayn into rebellion and abandon him. Yazid was further advised to treat Husayn with caution and not to spill his blood, since he was grandson of Muhammad. Ibn al-Zubair, on the other hand, was to be treated harshly. Muawiya advised him to treat people of Hejaz well. Upon succession, Yazid asked the governors of all provinces to take an oath of allegiance to him; the necessary oath was secured from all parts of the country. He wrote to the governor of Medina Walid ibn Utbah ibn Abu Sufyan, informing him about the death of Muawiya, he attached a small note with the letter, asking him to secure allegiance from Husayn ibn Ali, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr and Abdullah ibn Umar.
The note read: Seize Husayn, Abdullah ibn Umar, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr to give the oath of allegiance. Act so fiercely. Peace be with you. Walid sought advice of Marwan ibn Hakam on the matter. Marwan suggested that ibn al-Zubayr and Husayn should be forced to pay allegiance as they were dangerous, while ibn Umar should be left alone as he posed no threat; when summoned by Walid, Husayn answered the summon. When Husayn met Walid and Marwan in a semi-private meeting at night, he was informed of Muawiya's death and Yazid's accession to the caliphate; when asked for his pledge of allegiance to Yazid, Husayn responded that giving his allegiance in private would be insufficient, such a thing should be given in public. Walid agreed to this, but Marwan interrupted demanding that Walid imprison Husayn and not let him leave until he gives the pledge of allegiance to Yazid. At this interruption, Marwan was scolded by Husayn who exited unharmed. Husayn had his own group of armed supporters waiting nearby just in case a forcible attempt was made to apprehend him.
Following Husayn's exit, Marwan admonished Walid, who in turn rebutted Marwan, justifying his refusal to harm Husayn by s
Abu'l-Walid Hisham II al-Mu'ayyad bi-llah was the third Umayyad Caliph of Spain, in Al-Andalus from 976–1009, 1010–13. In 976, at the age of 11, Hisham II succeeded his father Al-Hakam II as Caliph of Cordoba. Hisham II was a minor at the time of his accession and therefore was unfit to rule. In order to benefit the Caliphate, his mother Subh was aided by first minister Jafar al-Mushafi to act as regents with al-Mansur ibn Abi Aamir as her steward. In 978 Almanzor manipulated his way into the position of royal chamberlain. In an attempt to position himself as a prospective ruler of the Caliphate and General Ghalib al-Siklabi sabotaged the brother of Al-Hakam II, set to succeed his brother and become the next Caliph of Cordoba. Too young to rule, Hisham II handed his political reins of power over to Almanzor in 981 who became the de facto leader of the Caliphate until his death in 1002. Al-Mansur ibn Abi Amir perpetuated his position as the omnipotent ruler in charge of the empire while he exiled Hisham II and kept him prisoner leaving him impotent for most of his reign as the third Caliph of Cordoba.
With his countless successful campaigns against Christian powers in the Spanish North such as Barcelona in 985, León in 988, as well as a major strike on the church of St. James in the Galician city of Santiago de Compostela in 998, Almanzor is known for bringing the Caliphate of Córdoba to its apex of power in Islamic Iberian history. In 1002, after the death of his father, Abd al-Malik became the ruler of the Caliphate and led successful campaigns against Navarre and Barcelona. In 1008 Abd ur-Rahman Sangul is said to have poisoned his brother which led to his death in October 1008. In 1009, while Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo was waging war against Alfonso V in León, Muhammad II al-Mahdi usurped the throne from Hisham II held him hostage in Cordoba. In November of the same year, just months after initiating his control as the ruler of the Caliphate, Muhammad II al-Mahdi was overthrown by a Berber army, led by Sulayman ibn al-Hakam in the battle of Alcolea. After the battle, Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar was exiled to Toledo at which point Sulayman laid siege to Cordoba freeing Hisham II from the imprisonment that took place under the rule of Muhammad II al-Mahdi.
Sulayman ibn al-Hakam was appointed to Caliph by his Berber army and maintained that position until Muhammad II al-Mahdi re-conquered the territory in May, 1010. The Slavic troops of the Caliphate under al-Wahdid restored Hisham II as Caliph. Hisham II was now under the influence of al-Wahdid, unable to gain control of the Berber troops - these still supported Sulayman, the civil war continued, it is known that Hisham "openly kept a male harem." In 1013 the Berbers took Cordoba with much destruction. What happened to Hisham after, uncertain – he was killed on 19 April 1013 by the Berbers. In any case, Sulayman al-Mustain became Caliph. Due to his disappearance, hence his possible survival, Hisham II was revived as a symbol of legitimacy by the taifa kings who appeared following the definitive collapse of the caliphate: in 1035, the ruler of the Taifa of Seville, Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abbad, announced that Hisham had reappeared, declared his allegiance to him. Other taifas falling under Seville's sway during the following years followed suit.
It was not until 1060 that the Sevillan ruler Abbad II al-Mu'tadid acknowledged that this supposed Hisham had died in 1044 without a successor, but the "convenient fiction" of his survival lasted until at least 1082/83, when his name still appears in the coins of the Taifa of Zaragoza. Jacob ibn Jau Kennedy, Hugh. Muslim Spain and Portugal. A political history of al-Andalus. London: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-49515-9. Al-Andalus: the art of Islamic Spain, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Hisham II
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik was the 10th Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743. When he was born in 691 his mother named him after her father. Inheriting the caliphate from his brother Yazid II, Hisham was ruling an empire with many different problems, he would, however, be effective in attending to these problems, in allowing the Umayyad empire to continue as an entity. His long rule was an effective one, it saw a rebirth of reforms that were originated by Umar bin Abd al-Aziz. Like his brother al-Walid I, Hisham was a great patron of the arts, he again encouraged arts in the empire, he encouraged the growth of education by building more schools, most by overseeing the translation of numerous literary and scientific masterpieces into Arabic. He returned to a stricter interpretation of the Sharia as Umar had, enforced it upon his own family, his ability to stand up to the Umayyad clan may have been an important factor in his success, may point to why his brother Yazid was ineffective.
On the military front his empire suffered a series of setbacks in the Caucasus against the Khazars and in Transoxiana against the Turgesh. Hisham sent armies to end the Hindu rebellion in Sindh, was successful when the Hindu ruler Jai Singh was killed; this allowed the Umayyads to reassert their rule over some portions of their provinces in India. Under Hisham's rule, regular raids against the Byzantine Empire continued. One regular commander of Arab forces was Hisham's half-brother, he fought the Byzantines in A. H. 107 and the next year captured Caesarea Mazaca. He fought the Khazars in the Caucasus. In A. H. 110 he defeated him. Hisham's son Mu'awiyah ibn Hisham was another Arab commander in the annual raids against the Byzantine Empire. In A. H. 110. The next year Mu'awiyah thrust Sa'id ibn Hisham right. In addition there was a sea raid. In A. H. 112 Mu'awiyah captured Kharsianon in Cappadocia. Mu'awiyah raided the Byzantine Empire in A. H. 113. The next year he captured Aqrun. Mu'awiyah raided Byzantium in A.
H. 115, 116, 117 and 118. In A. H. 119 al Walid ibn al Qa'qa al-Absi led the raid against the Byzantines. The next year Sulayman ibn Hisham captured Sindirah. In A. H. 121 Maslama captured some of Cappadocia and raided the Avars. Theophanes the Confessor states that while some Arabs raided in 739 and returned home safely, others were soundly defeated at the Battle of Akroinon, he records that internal Byzantine strife facilitated Arab raids by Sulayman ibn Hisham in 741-742 that resulted in many Byzantines made Arab captives. Al-Tabari refers to the same raid. In North Africa, Kharijite teachings combined with natural local restlessness to produce a significant Berber revolt. In 740 A large Berber force surrounded a loyal army at Wadi Sherif; the loyalists fought to the death. Hisham dispatched a force of 27,000 Syrians; this was destroyed in 741. In 742 Handhala ibn Safwan began but soon was besieged in Qairawan, he led a desperate sortie from the city that scattered the Berbers, killing thousands and re-establishing Umayyad rule.
Hisham faced a revolt by the armies of Zayd bin Ali, grandson of Husayn bin Ali, put down because of the betrayal of the Kufans. The Kufans encouraged Zayd to revolt. Zayd was ordered to leave Kufah and though he appeared to set out for Mecca, he returned and dwelt secretly in Kufah moving from house to house and receiving the allegiance of many people. Yusuf ibn Umar al-Thaqafi, Iraq's governor, learned of the plot, commanded the people to gather at the great mosque, locked them inside and began a search for Zayd. Zayd with some troops called on people to come out, he pushed back Yusuf's troops, but was felled by an arrow. Although his body was buried, the spot was pointed out and it was extracted and the head sent to Hisham and to Medina. In Spain, the internal conflicts of the years past were ended, Hisham's governor, Abd ar Rahman ibn Abdallah, assembled a large army that went into France, he pushed to the Loire. This marked the limit of Arabic conquest in Western Europe; the wave was halted at the Battle of Tours by Charles Martel.
Blankinship, Khalid Yahya, ed.. The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume 25: The End of Expansion: The Caliphate of Hishām, A. D. 724–738/A. H. 105–120. SUNY series in Near Eastern studies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-569-9. Blankinship, Khalid Yahya, The End of the Jihâd State: The Reign of Hishām ibn ʻAbd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-1827-8 Hawting, G. R; the First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661–750, London and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-24072-7