Muhammad Taqi Usmani

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Muhammad Taqi Usmani
Title Mufti Justice Imam
Born 5 October 1943 (age 74)
Deoband, British India
Era 21st-century philosophy
Religion Islam
Denomination Sunni
Jurisprudence Hanafi[1]
Movement Deobandi
Main interest(s) Shari'a, Hadith, Islamic finance, Tafsir, Sufism
Notable idea(s) Evolution of Islamic economics, Islamic banking
Alma mater Darul Uloom Karachi
Karachi University
Punjab University
Website Official website

Muhammad Taqi Usmani (Urdu: محمد تقی عثمانی‎, Muhammad Taqī ‘Usmāni, born 5 October 1943) (also spelled Uthmani) is a Deobandi Hanafi Islamic scholar from Pakistan.[2] He served as a judge on the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan from 1981 to 1982 and the Shariat Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan between 1982 and 2002.[2] He is an expert in the fields of Islamic Jurisprudence (fiqh), economics, Tasawwuf, and hadith. He also held a number of positions on the Shariah Boards of prestigious Islamic institutions,[2] and was instrumental in the writing of the Hudood Ordinances under General Zia ul-Haq.[3] He is the brother of Islamic scholars Muhammad Rafi Usmani, Muhammad Wali Razi, and Muhammad Razi Usmani, as well as of the Urdu poet Muhammad Zaki Kaifi.[citation needed] He has written translations of the Qur'an in both English and Urdu.[2]

Early life[edit]

Muhammad Taqi Usmani was born on 5 October 1943[4] (5 Shawwal 1362 AH) in Deoband, a city in the Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India.[5]

In 1958, Usmani passed the Fazil-e-Arabi (Arabic language examination) with distinction, administered by the Punjab Board;[4] in 1959 he graduated from the `Alim course at Darul Uloom Karachi.[6][7] He then specialised in fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) under the guidance of his father,[5] the Mufti of Darul Uloom Karachi, Muhammad Shafi, receiving his Takhassus degree (equivalent to a PhD) in fiqh and ifta (issuance of Islamic legal opinions) from Darul Uloom Karachi in 1961, earning the title of Mufti. He graduated from the University of Karachi with a Bachelor of Arts in 1964, then received a Bachelor of Laws with distinction from the University of Karachi in 1967. He received a Master of Arts in Arabic literature, with distinction, from the University of Punjab in 1970.[7][8]

Usmani received ijaza to teach hadith from Islamic scholars including Muhammad Shafi, Muhammad Idris Kandhlawi, Qari Muhammad Tayyib, Saleemullah Khan, Mufti Rashid Ahmad Ludhianvi, Sahban Mahmud, Zafar Ahmad Usmani, Muhammad Zakariya Kandhalvi, Hasan al-Mahshat, and others.[5]

His Teachers also include Mufti Wali Hasan Tonki, the Grand Mufti of Jami' ul Uloom Al-Islamiyyah, his elders include Shaikh Abdul Fattah Abu Ghuddah.

In tradition to the scholars of Deoband, recognising the importance of Tasawwuf, he traversed the path under the guidance of his Shaikh Dr. Abdul Hai Arifi and Maulana Muhammad Masihullah Khan both khulafa of Hakeemul Ummat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi,[2] he is authorized by both of his mentors in Silsila e Ashrafia: Chistiyyah, Naqshbandiyah, Qadiriyah and Suharwardiyah. In addition to his busy schedule he is himself a mentor to numerous spiritual aspirants all over the world, such as Moulana Sheikh Mohammad Luqman Sahib Ji of the renowned Abu Bakr Trust in Walsall, England.

Usmani pioneered the concept of Islamic banking in Pakistan when he established the Meezan Bank. Usmani has authored a number of books in Arabic, Urdu, and English on Islamic topics in addition to a large number of articles on Islamic banking and finance published in a number of journals and magazines. According to The Muslim 500 website, he is a leading scholar of Islamic Finance, "Usmani's chief influence comes from his position as a global authority on the issue of Islamic finance."[2]

In March 2004, United Arab Emirates Vice President and Prime Minister Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum presented an award to Taqi Usmani in recognition of his lifetime service and achievement in Islamic finance during the annual International Islamic Finance Forum (IIFF) in Dubai.[citation needed]

In accordance with the tradition of the scholars of Deoband and recognising the importance of tasawwuf, Usmani's bay'ah was accepted by Abdul Hai Arifi and Muhammad Masihullah Khan. Usmani is currently a mentor to numerous spiritual aspirants all over the world and delivers weekly lectures on self-improvement at Darul Uloom Karachi on Sundays between Asr Salaah and Maghrib Salaah.[9]

He currently teaches Sahih al-Bukhari, fiqh, and Islamic economics at Darul Uloom Karachi and is known for his Islahi Khutbat. He was a key member of a team of scholars which helped declare Ahmadis (Qadianis), as non-Muslims by Pakistan's National Assembly during the era of former Pakistani president, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, in the 1970s, during the presidency of General Zia ul Haq, he was instrumental in drafting laws pertaining to Hudood, Qisas meaning retaliation in kind or (eye for an eye, and Diyya (blood money).


Usmani strongly opposes elements of modernity, which he describes as engulfing

"the whole world in the tornado of nudity and obscenity, and has provided an excuse for fornication, and more so it has led under thunder claps to the passage of a bill in the British House of Commons to legalize homosexuality. It is in the shadow of the same modernity that Western women are openly displaying banners on the streets demanding legalization of abortion ....[10]

He also strongly supports Pakistan's Hudood Ordinances he helped write and strongly opposed the Women's Protection Bill, which he believes violates the injunctions of Quran and Sunnah, he thinks it will not provide a great relief to countless women.

At a religious conference in 1984 he urged a more "dynamic attitude" towards the practice of ijtihad, arguing there is no shortage of fine minds capable of interpreting the sharia, but warning against the contamination of sharia by Western ideas such as the elimination of hudood penalties such as amputation and stoning.[11][12]


Muhammad Taqi Usmani has been called "a leading scholar of Islamic jurisprudence" and "one of the most successful of the Islamic revivalist initiatives of the past century", by The Muslim 500 website, which lists him among the 500 "most influential Muslims" in the world;[2] and "one of the leading religious experts on Islamic finance and much sought after person by Islamic financial institutions for their Shari'ah Boards," by M.O.Farooq.[13]

Positions currently being held[edit]

  • Chairman, Sharia Board of State Bank of Pakistan
  • Vice President and Shaykh al-Hadith, Jamia Darululoom Karachi
  • Chairman, International Shariah Standard Council, Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions, Bahrain[14]
  • Permanent Member, Vice Chairman, International Islamic Fiqh Academy, Jeddah, organ of the Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC).[6][2]
  • Member, Islamic Fiqh Academy of Rabita-al-‘Alam-e-Islami, Makkah
  • Permanent Member International Islamic Fiqh Academy, Jeddah, sponsored by OIC.
  • Chairman Centre for Islamic Economics Pakistan since 1991
  • Chairman Shariah Board Central Bank of Bahrain
  • Chairman Shariah Board Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, U.A.E.
  • Chairman Shariah Board Meezan Bank Limited, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Chairman Shariah Board International Islamic Rating Agency, Bahrain
  • Chairman Shariah Board Pak-Kuwait Takaful, Karachi
  • Chairman Shariah Board Pak-Qatar Takaful, Karachi
  • Chairman Shariah Board JS Investments Islamic Fund, Karachi
  • Chairman Shariah Board of JS Islamic Pension Savings Fund
  • Chairman Shariah Board Arif Habib Investments – Pakistan International Islamic Fund, Karachi
  • Member Shariah Board Arcapita Investment Fund, Bahrain
  • Member Unified Shariah Board Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah
  • Member Shariah Board Guidance Financial Group, USA [15]

Positions held in the past[edit]

  • Judge, Shariat Appellate Bench, Supreme Court of Pakistan (1982 to May 2002)[16][2]
  • Chairman, Centre for Islamic Economics, Pakistan since 1991
  • Judge, Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan from (1980 to 1982)
  • Member, Syndicate University of Karachi (1985 to 1988)
  • Member, Board of Governors, International Islamic University Islamabad, 1985 to 1989.
  • Member, International Institute of Islamic Economics (1985 to 1988)
  • Member, Council of Islamic Ideology (1977 to 1981)
  • Member, Board of Trustees International Islamic University, Islamabad (2004 to 2007)
  • Member, Commission for Islamisation of Economy of Pakistan.[15]



  1. Ahkam-ul-Auraq An-Naqdiyah (Rulings regarding paper money)
  2. Ahkam-uz-Zaba'ih (The Legal Rulings on Slaughtered Animals)
  3. Bahouth Fee Qadaya Fiqheyah Ma'asirah (Fiqh discussions on some important contemporary issues)
  4. Ma Hea An-Nasraniyah? (What is Christianity?)[9]
  5. Nathrat 'Abarah Houl At-Ta'limi Al-Islamiyah (About Islamic Education)
  6. Takmila Fathul Mulhim (An encyclopaedic work of interpretation of Saheeh Muslim in 6 volumes, complimentary to Fathul Mulhim by 'Allamah Shabbir Ahmad Usmani)[9]
  7. Fiqh-ul-Buyoo' (2 volumes)
  8. Usool al Ifta wa A'dabuhu
  9. Mu'aqqaf Ummat-ul-Islamiyah Minal Qadiyaniyah (The View of the Ummah on Qadiyanism/Qadiyanism on Trial)


  1. Tauzeeh Al-Qur'an/Aasan Tarjuma-e-Qur'an (The Urdu Translation of the Holy Qur'an with commentary) (3 volumes)
  2. 'Uloomu-l-Qur'an (An Approach to the Qur'anic Sciences)
  3. Ina’mul Bari (Explanation of famous Hadeeth collection Saheeh Bukhari) (8 volumes published as yet)
  4. Khatm-e-Bukhari Shareef
  5. Dars-e-Tirmidhi (3 Volumes) (Explanation of famous hadith collection Sunan-e-Tirmidhi)
  6. Taqreer-e-Tirmidhi (2 Volumes)
  7. Hudhur (Salla-Allahu alayhi wa Sallam) ney Farmaya (Sayings of Prophet Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam)
  8. Aik Hazar Hadeeth (with Ashraf Ali Thanwi, Jameel Ahmad Thanwi, and Wahid Uddeen Panipati)
  9. Hujjiyat-e-Hadeeth (The Authority of Sunnah)
  10. Deen Kya Hai?
  11. Asr-e-Haazir Mein Islam Kaise Naafiz Ho
  12. Namazein Sunnat Ke Mutabiq Parhey (Offer Salah according to the Sunnah)
  13. Aap Zakat Kis Tarah Ada Karein?
  14. Ahkam-e-I'tikaf (The Rules of I'tikaf)
  15. Pur Noor Duain (Radiant Prayers) (Collection of Prayers for all occasions)
  16. Aasan Nakiyan (Easy Good Deeds)[9]
  17. Taqleed Ki Shari'i Hasiyat (The Legal Status of Following a Madhab)
  18. Deeni Madaris ka Nisab wa Nitham
  19. Zabet-e-weladat (Birth Control: Islamic rulings)
  20. Maghribi Mumalik Kay Jadeed Fiqhi Masa'il Aur Un Ka Hal
  21. Mahe Rawjabb Chand Galat Fehmiyon Ka Azala
  22. Taraashay (Excerpts from Islamic works)
  23. Akabir 'Ulama-e-Deoband Kya Thay? (The Scholars of Deoband Islamic Seminary)
  24. Irshadat-e-Akabir - Ifadaat (collected)
  25. Nuqoosh-e-Raftigan (Obituaries of Islamic Scholars and other dignitaries)
  26. Meray Walid Meray Sheikh (My Father, My Shaikh)
  27. Ma'asir Hazrat Arifi (Sayings and memories of Dr Adbul Hai Arifi)
  28. Hakeemul Ummat Kay Siasi Afkar (The Political Thoughts of Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi)
  29. Islam aur Seasate Hazra (Islam and Contemporary Politics)
  30. Islam Aur Siyasi Nazriyat
  31. Andulus Mei Chand Roz (Travelogue) (A Few Days in Andalusia)[9]
  32. Dunya Meray Aagay (Travelogue)
  33. Jahaney Deda (Travelogue)
  34. Safar Dar Safar (Travelogue)
  35. Hadhrat Ameer Mu'awiyah (Radi-Allahu 'anhu) aur Tareekhi Haqa`iq (Hadhrat Mu'awiyah (Radi-Allahu 'anhu) and the Historical Facts) - A book pointing out the errors in Sayyid Abul A'la Maududi's book "Khilaafat wa Mulookiyat" and their correct answers.
  36. Qadiyani Fitnah aur Millat-e-Islamiyah Ka Mu'aqqaf (with Samiul-Haqq) [Mu'aqqaf Ummat-ul-Islamiyah Minal Qadiyaniyah (The View of the Ummah on Qadiyanism/Qadiyanism on Trial)]
  37. Bible Se Qur'an Tak (3 volumes)
  38. Bible Kya Hai? (What is the Bible?)
  39. 'Eesayat Kya Hai? [Ma Hea An-Nasraniyah? (What is Christianity?)]
  40. Islam Mein Khula Ki Haqeeqat
  41. Islam Mein Pooray Dakhil Ho Jao
  42. Islami Bankari Ki Buyadayn
  43. Islami Bankari
  44. Jalsay O Jaloos
  45. Jhoot Aur Uski Murawwaja Sooratayn
  46. Allah Keliye Jeena Marna
  47. Andhera Ho Raha Hai Bijli Ki Roshni Mein
  48. Aulad Ki Islah-o-Tarbiyat Waldain Ki Zimmadari Hai
  49. Azadi-e-Niswan ka Faraib
  50. Bidat - Aik Ghumrahi
  51. Bismillah Ki Ahmiyat
  52. Daulat-e-Qur'an Ki Qadr-o-Azmat
  53. Dunya K Uss Paar (Beyond this World)
  54. Dunya Say Dil Na Lagao
  55. Durood Shareef Aik Ehm 'Ibadat Hai
  56. Falsafa-e-Hajj O Qurbani
  57. Ghair Soodi Bankari
  58. Gunahgar Say Nafrat Mat Kijiyay
  59. Haqooqu-l-'Ibadd Aur Mu'amalat
  60. Harawm Ashiya Se Ilaj Ka Hukm
  61. Hasad - Aik Muhlik Bemari
  62. Hudood - Aik Ilmi Jaiza (The Case of the Hudood Ordinances)
  63. 'Ilm Par A'mal Karein
  64. Islam aur Jidat Pasandi (Islam and Modernism)
  65. Islah-e-Ma'ashara (Perfecting society)
  66. Islahi Mawa’iz (Discourses for spiritual perfection) (3 volumes)
  67. Islahi Majalis (Discourses on Tasawwuf) (7 volumes published as yet)
  68. Islahi Khutubat (The Discourses on the Islamic Way of Life) (23 volumes published as yet)
  69. Islam aur Humaray Zindagi (10 volumes)
  70. Islam aur Jadeed Mu'ashi Masa'il (8 volumes)
  71. Fiqhi Maqalat (6 volumes) (Collection of articles on Islamic Jurisprudence)
  72. Maqalat-e-Uthmani (2 volumes)
  73. Fatawa-e-Uthmani (3 volumes)
  74. Zikr o Fikr (Collection of articles written for Daily newspaper Jang)
  75. 'Idalatey Faislay (Court Rulings)
  76. Nashri Taqreerain (Speeches aired on Radio Pakistan)
  77. Dastoor-ul 'Amal baeraey Talibeen e Islah (Instructions for aspirants of spiritual improvement)
  78. Fard Ke Islah (Individual Reform)
  79. Milkiyat-e-Zamion aur uske Tahdeed (Land ownership and its limitation)
  80. Nifaz-e-Shariat aur uske Masa'il (The Establishment of Sharee'ah and its Rulings)
  81. Hamaray 'A`eli Masa`il (Our Family Issues)
  82. Hamara Ta'lemi Nizam (Our Educational System)
  83. Hamara Ma'ashi Nizam (Our Economic System)
  84. Islam aur Jadeed Ma'eeshat wa Tijarat (Islam and Modern Economics & Commerce)
  85. Mu'amalaat Saaf Rakhayn (Live like Brothers, Deal like Strangers)
  86. Mu'asharti Huqooqq O Fara'iz
  87. Nafs Ki Kashmakash
  88. Namoos-e-Risalat Ki Hifazat Kijiyay
  89. Parosion K Huqooq
  90. PLS Account Ki Haqeeqat
  91. Prize Bond Ki Sharee Haseeat
  92. Qatal Aur Khana Jangi
  93. Rahat Kis Tarah Hasil Ho
  94. Ramadan Kis Tarah Guzaarein
  95. Rizqq Ka Sahih Istemaal
  96. Roza Hum Say Kia Mutalba Kerta Hai
  97. Sahafat (Article)
  98. Seerat-un-Nabee (S) Aur Hamari Zindagi
  99. Sood Per Tareekhi Faisla (The Historic Judgement on Usury-Interest)
  100. Soodi Nizam Ki Kharabiyan Aur Uss Ka Mutabadil
  101. Taqdeer Per Raazi Rehna Chahiye
  102. Tawakkul K Ahmiyat
  103. Tawakkul Ki Haqeeqat
  104. Waldain Ki Khidmat - Jannat Ka Zariya


  1. The Meanings of the Noble Qur'an with explanatory notes (2 Volumes) (2007), revised with Indo-Pak Arabic script in a single volume (2016)
  2. Qur'an-e-Kareem (The English Translation of the Qur'an) (2007)
  3. An Introduction to Islamic Finance[9]
  4. The Language of the Friday Khutbah
  5. Hajj - Merits and Precepts
  6. Islamic Months - Merits and Precepts[9]
  7. The Present Financial Crisis - the Causes & the Remedies from the Islamic Perspective
  8. Contemporary Fatawa[9]

As contributor[edit]


  1. Fathul Mulhim (by 'Allamah Mawlana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani)
  2. I'la as-Sunan (12/18/20 Volumes by 'Allamah Mawlana Zafar Ahmad Usmani under the instruction of Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanwi) - a collection of all the Ahadith that support and is related to the Hanafi jurisprudence. The number of volumes vary due to being published by different publishers.


  1. Ashraf-ut-Tafaseer (3/4 Volumes) - (The collection of all the sermons related to Tafseer of the Qur'an from the Mawa'iz-e-Ashrafiyah of Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanwi)
  2. Ahkam Al-Qur'an (5 Volumes by 'Allamah Mawlana Zafar Ahmad Usmani - (from Al-Baqarah to An-Nisa), Mawlana Mufti Jameel Ahmad Thanawi - (from Yoonus to An-Nahl), Mawlana Mufti Muhammad Shafi - (from Ash-Shu'ara to Al-Hujurat), and Mawlana Muhammad Idris Kandhlawi - (from Qawf to An-Naas) under the instruction of Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanwi) - a collection of the Laws of the Shari‘ah derived from the Qur'an. Unfortunately, two of its sections are unfinished: (from the start of Surah Ma’idah to the end of Surah Tawbah and from Surah Bani Isra’il to the end of Surah Furqan).


  1. Maariful Quran (8 Volumes) (The Wisdom of the Qur'an by Mawlana Mufti-e-Azam Muhammad Shafi Deobandi)
  2. Izhar ul-Haqq (The Truth Revealed by Mawlana Rahmatullah Kairanawi) - a refutation of Reverend Karl Gottlieb Pfander's Meezan-ul-Haqq (The Balance of Truth)

Works in English Translation[edit]

  • Hudhur (Salla-Allahu alayhi wa Sallam) ney Farmaya (Sayings of Muhammad)
  • 'Uloom-ul-Qur'an (An Approach to the Qur'anic Sciences)
  • Hujjiyat-e-Hadeeth (The Authority of Sunnah)
  • Dunya K Uss Paar (Beyod this World)
  • Aasan Nakiyan (Easy Good Deeds)
  • Islam aur Jidat Pasandi (Islam and Modernism)
  • Mu'amalaat Saaf Rakhayn (Live like Brothers, Deal like Strangers)
  • Perform Salah Correctly
  • Pur Noor Duain (Radiant Prayers) (Collection of Prayers for all occasions)
  • Hudood - Aik Ilmi Jaiza (The Case of the Hudood Ordinances)
  • Islahi Khutubat (The Discourses on the Islamic Way of Life) (10 volumes published as yet)
  • Spiritual Discourses (4 Volumes)
  • Salah - a Unique Meeting
  • Solutions to Domestic Conflicts (A collection of 6 Speeches entitled "Causes of Disunity and its Remedy")
  • A Call to Allah
  • Resisting the Evils in Society
  • Rights and Responsibilities
  • Akabir 'Ulama-e-Deoband Kya Thay? (The Scholars of Deoband Islamic Seminary)
  • Sood Per Tareekhi Faisla (The Historic Judgement on Interest)
  • Ahkam-uz-Zaba'ih (The Legal Rulings on Slaughtered Animals)
  • Taqleed Ki Shari'i Hasiyat (The Legal Status of Following a Madhab)
  • Ahkam-e-I'tikaf (The Rules of I'tikaf)
  • The Sanctity of Life in the Qur'an & Sunnah
  • Qadiyani Fitnah aur Millat-e-Islamiyah Ka Mu'aqqaf (with Samiul-Haqq) [Mu'aqqaf Ummat-ul-Islamiyah Minal Qadiyaniyah (The View of the Ummah on Qadiyanism/Qadiyanism on Trial)]
  • 'Eesayat Kya Hai? [Ma Hea An-Nasraniyah? (What is Christianity?)]
  • In the Footsteps of the Beloved
  • Preserving the Deen
  • Self Management
  • To Preach and Practice
  • A Guide to Perfection
  • A Successful Believer
  • An Outlook on Life
  • Divine Gifts
  • Islam in Today's World
  • Bringing up Children in Islam
  • The Issue Of Interest
  • Wonderful Life of Paradise (Just one chapter is written by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani)
  • Some Points to Ponder about Post Crisis Reforms
  • The Right of a Woman to Unilateral Divorce under Islamic Law
  • An Obituary to Shaikh 'Abdul Fattah Abu Ghuddah

Many of these books are available online, he also gave many lectures that are available online in audio formats.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Jocelyne Cesari, Encyclopedia of Islam in the United States, p 23. ISBN 0313336253.("The Pakistani Hanafi scholar and judge Muhammad Taqi al-Deen Usmani...")
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Sheikh Taqi Usmani's Profile". Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  3. ^ Scroggins, Deborah (2012-01-17). Wanted Women: Faith, Lies, and the War on Terror: The Lives of Ayaan Hirsi Ali and Aafia Siddiqui. Harper Collins. p. 58. ISBN 9780062097958. 
  4. ^ a b "Profile of Justice Maulana Muhammad Taqi Usmani" (PDF). Federal Shariat Court, Pakistan. Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c Profile of Muhammad Taqi Usmani on website, Retrieved 20 July 2017
  6. ^ a b Brian Kettell, Introduction to Islamic Banking and Finance, p 28. ISBN 047097804X.
  7. ^ a b "Islamic Finance Scholars". 30 June 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  8. ^ Brian B. Kettell, Introduction to Islamic Banking and Finance, p 28. ISBN 1119990602
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Profile of Muhammad Taqi Usmani on website, Retrieved 23 July 2017
  10. ^ Taqi Usmani, Muhammad. Islam and Modernism. p. 6. Retrieved 18 February 2017. 
  11. ^ Kadri, Sadakat (2012). Heaven on Earth: A Journey Through Shari'a Law from the Deserts of Ancient Arabia ... Macmillan. pp. 228–9. ISBN 9780099523277. 
  12. ^ Usmani, Taqi. "THE ISLAMIC WAY OF LIFE. Misunderstandings about "Ijtehad" [excerpt taken from Islam and Modernism by Taqi Usmani]". Islamic reality. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  13. ^ Farooq, M.O. (2009). "Riba, Interest and Six Hadiths: Do We Have a Definition or a Conundrum?". Review of Islamic Economics. 13 (1): 130. Retrieved 15 December 2016. 
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  15. ^ a b
  16. ^ Theodore Friend, Professor Philip Jenkins, Woman, Man, and God in Modern Islam, p 81. ISBN 0802866735

External links[edit]