click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī, was a Persian polymath, alchemist and important figure in the history of medicine. He wrote on logic and grammar. A comprehensive thinker, Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to various fields, which he recorded in over 200 manuscripts, is remembered for numerous advances in medicine through his observations and discoveries. An early proponent of experimental medicine, he became a successful doctor, served as chief physician of Baghdad and Ray hospitals; as a teacher of medicine, he attracted students of all backgrounds and interests and was said to be compassionate and devoted to the service of his patients, whether rich or poor. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, he was among the first to use humoral theory to distinguish one contagious disease from another, wrote a pioneering book about smallpox and measles providing clinical characterization of the diseases, he discovered numerous compounds and chemicals including alcohol and sulfuric acid.

Through translation, his medical works and ideas became known among medieval European practitioners and profoundly influenced medical education in the Latin West. Some volumes of his work Al-Mansuri, namely "On Surgery" and "A General Book on Therapy", became part of the medical curriculum in Western universities. Edward Granville Browne considers him as "probably the greatest and most original of all the Muslim physicians, one of the most prolific as an author". Additionally, he has been described as a doctor's doctor, the father of pediatrics, a pioneer of obstetrics and ophthalmology. For example, he was the first to recognize the reaction of the eye's pupil to light. Razi was born in the city of Ray situated on the Great Silk Road that for centuries facilitated trade and cultural exchanges between East and West, his nisba, Râzī, means "from the city of Ray" in Persian. It is located on the southern slopes of the Alborz mountain range situated near Iran. In his youth, Razi moved to Baghdad where he practiced at the local bimaristan.

He was invited back to Rey by Mansur ibn Ishaq the governor of Rey, became a bimaristan's head. He dedicated two books on medicine to Mansur ibn Ishaq, The Spiritual Physic and Al-Mansūrī on Medicine; because of his newly acquired popularity as physician, Razi was invited to Baghdad where he assumed the responsibilities of a director in a new hospital named after its founder al-Muʿtaḍid. Under the reign of Al-Mutadid's son, Al-Muktafi Razi was commissioned to build a new hospital, which should be the largest of the Abbasid Caliphate. To pick the future hospital's location, Razi adopted what is nowadays known as an evidence-based approach suggesting having fresh meat hung in various places throughout the city and to build the hospital where meat took longest to rot, he spent the last years of his life in his native Rey suffering from glaucoma. His eye affliction ended in total blindness; the cause of his blindness is uncertain. One account mentioned by Ibn Juljul attributed the cause to a blow to his head by his patron, Mansur ibn Ishaq, for failing to provide proof for his alchemy theories.

He was approached by a physician offering an ointment to cure his blindness. Al-Razi asked him how many layers does the eye contain and when he was unable to receive an answer, he declined the treatment stating "my eyes will not be treated by one who does not know the basics of its anatomy"; the lectures of Razi attracted many students. As Ibn al-Nadim relates in Fihrist, Razi was considered a shaikh, an honorary title given to one entitled to teach and surrounded by several circles of students; when someone raised a question, it was passed on to students of the'first circle'. When all students would fail to answer, Razi himself would consider the query. Razi was a generous person by nature, with a considerate attitude towards his patients, he was charitable to the poor, treated them without payment in any form, wrote for them a treatise Man La Yaḥḍuruhu al-Ṭabīb, or Who Has No Physician to Attend Him, with medical advice. One former pupil from Tabaristan came to look after him, but as al-Biruni wrote, Razi rewarded him for his intentions and sent him back home, proclaiming that his final days were approaching.

According to Biruni, Razi died in Rey in 925 sixty years of age. Biruni, who considered Razi as his mentor, among the first penned a short biography of Razi including a bibliography of his numerous works. Ibn al-Nadim recorded an account by Razi of a Chinese student who copied down all of Galen's works in Chinese as Razi read them to him out loud after the student learned fluent Arabic in 5 months and attended Razi's lectures. After his death, his fame spread beyond the Middle East to Medieval Europe, lived on. In an undated catalog of the library at Peterborough Abbey, most from the 14th century, Razi is listed as a part author of ten books on medicine. Al-Razi was one of the world's first great medical experts, he is considered the father of psychotherapy. Razi wrote: Smallpox appears when blood "boils" and is infected, resulting in vapours being expelled, thus juvenile blood is being transformed into richer blood, having the color of mature wine. At this stage, smallpox shows up as "bubbles found in wine"... this disease can occur at

Deep Storm

Deep Storm is the third solo novel by American author Lincoln Child, published on January 30, 2007. This is the first of Child's novels to introduce Dr. Jeremy Logan, the protagonist of Child's solo works. In the prologue, three workers – Kevin Lindengood, Fred Hicks, John Wherry – are operating the rig on the Storm King oil rig in the North Atlantic, off the coast of Greenland; when the equipment begins malfunctioning, Wherry orders everything to be shut down. However after Lindengood shuts off the electromagnet, a series of strange signals are still being transmitted to their devices. Twenty months Former naval doctor Peter Crane is sent to investigate a mysterious illness that has broken out on the rig, he meets Dr. Howard Asher. Government officials transport him to a massive, 12-level facility run by the United States military, he receives a confidential envelope. As he is brought down into the facility, codenamed Deep Storm, he discovers that nearly a quarter of the staff have been acting strangely within the last few weeks.

Working alongside the psychiatrist Dr. Roger Corbett and the chief military doctor Michele Bishop, Crane is witness to one of these incidents. After interviewing some of the patients there, finding many of the symptoms including sleeplessness, lack of focus and psychological effects such as changes in personality, Crane realizes that there must be some kind of unifying basis to all of them. Meanwhile, Asher talks with the military commander in charge of Deep Storm, Admiral Spartan, his second-in-command, Commander Terrence Korolis. Asher thinks that Crane should have the right to go down to the “classified” levels, levels 6 through 1, to investigate the cause of the sickness, After this, the base is set on alert after a pinhole breach in one of the corridors; the officers determine it was an act of sabotage and Asher reminds all of the heads of departments to be vigilant, while Korolis brings in a team of black ops soldiers, who answer directly to him rather than Spartan, to reinforce security.

Asher shows Crane several "sentinels" that they have found: cube-shaped objects with a texture that seems to consist of every color known to man, emit thin beams of light straight up, gravitate to the center of any room or container they are kept in. Asher tells him that this is not a solid beam of light, but a pulse sending out a mini signal in binary code, he further goes on to say that he hired his personal cryptographer, Joseph Marris, to analyze this binary code since he believes that this technology is not meant for humans. Admiral Spartan and his forces come in at this instant and, much to Crane’s surprise, give him clearance to visit the entire facility. Crane goes down and meets Hui Ping, a doctor, trying to analyze the beams of light. Ping and Crane agree to leave no stone unturned and check for any kind of similarity all the patients may have. Meanwhile, back on the mainland, Lindengood gets in contact with a man named Wallace, who represents a shadowy organization that has taken a great interest in the discovery after Lindengood provides them with certain information.

However, unbeknownst to him, they plan to destroy whatever is down there. When Lindengood demands an increased pay for his information, Wallace kills him and flees to Storm King, working undercover as a crew member and shipping supplies to a fellow insider on Deep Storm. A few days Asher reaches a breakthrough with the binomial code, realizes that it is a mathematical expression: 1 divided by 0. A while after Crane mistakenly handles a sentinel with his bare hand, Asher excitedly describes how the sentinel’s broadcasts are now more clear, they can now analyze messages on the infra-red spectrum, radioactive spectrum, any other kind of measuring device know to man. However, during this exchange, Peter notices how Asher has a pale complexion and bruising along his arm, he requests that Asher go to medical, but Asher disagrees, saying that he could spend time in the Hyperbaric chamber as a way to alleviate his illness for a short time, just until they decode the rest of the messages coming from the sentinel.

At this point, Crane runs a brain scan on all of the patients and discovers that they all do have something in common. He realizes, he realizes the implications, that whoever made this technology is much more powerful than humans. He is about to tell Asher of his discovery when Asher phones him saying that he decoded all of the messages. However, upon his arrival at the Hyperbaric chamber, the saboteur has struck again, burning the Hyperbaric chamber with Asher and Marris both inside. Asher manages to say one word to Crane before he dies: Whip. Along with Ping, Crane does not realize what this means, but figures out that they could salvage the hard drive and look at the decoded messages from Asher's laptop. However, Commander Korolis records the conversation and hurriedly runs a degaussing magnet over the hard drive, erasing it, he notices how Asher did not want to continue with the digging, assumes that whatever is on the hard drive is not relevant and would halt America from recovering beneficial technology.

Korolis subsequently frames Ping as the saboteur, forcing Crane and Ping into hiding as they decipher Asher's hard drive. They realize that the hard drive was magnetized. Despite this, Ping manages to resu

Roman Vishniac

Roman Vishniac was a Russian-American photographer, best known for capturing on film the culture of Jews in Central and Eastern Europe before the Holocaust. A major archive of his work was housed at the International Center of Photography until 2018, when Vishniac's daughter, Mara Vishniac Kohn, donated it to The Magnes Collection of Jewish Art and Life at the University of California, Berkeley. Vishniac was a versatile photographer, an accomplished biologist, an art collector and teacher of art history, he made significant scientific contributions to photomicroscopy and time-lapse photography. Vishniac was interested in history that of his ancestors, attached to his Jewish roots. Roman Vishniac won international acclaim for his photos of shtetlach and Jewish ghettos, celebrity portraits, microscopic biology, his book A Vanished World, published in 1983, made him famous and is one of the most detailed pictorial documentations of Jewish culture in Eastern Europe in the 1930s. Vishniac was remembered for his humanism and respect for life, sentiments that can be seen in all aspects of his work.

In 2013, Vishniac's daughter Mara Kohn donated to the International Center of Photography the images and accompanying documents comprising ICP's "Roman Vishniac Rediscovered" travelling exhibition. In October, 2018, Kohn donated the Vishniac archive of an estimated 30,000 items, including photo negatives, prints and other memorabilia, housed at ICP to the Magnes Collection of Jewish Art and Life, a unit of the University of California at Berkeley's library system. Vishniac was born in his grandparents' dacha outside Saint Petersburg, in the town of Pavlovsk, grew up in Moscow. To live in this city was a right granted to few Jews but the Vishniac family lived there because Solomon Vishniac, Roman's father, was a wealthy manufacturer of umbrellas, his mother, was the daughter of affluent diamond dealers. Vishniac had a sister, Katja. During the summer months, the Vishniac family left Moscow, as it became uncomfortably hot, they retreated to a dacha a few miles outside the city; as a child, Vishniac was fascinated by biology and photography, his room was filled with "plants, insects and small animals".

On his seventh birthday, he got a microscope from his grandmother, to which he promptly hooked up a camera, by which he photographed the muscles in a cockroach's leg at 150 times magnification. Young Vishniac used this microscope extensively and photographing everything he could find, from dead insects to animal scales, to pollen and protozoa; until the age of ten, Vishniac was homeschooled. Beginning in 1914, he spent six years at Shanyavsky Institute in Moscow. At the Institute he studied zoology; as a graduate student, he worked with prestigious biologist Nikolai Koltzoff, experimenting with inducing metamorphosis in axolotl, a species of aquatic salamander. While his experiments were a success, Vishniac was not able to publish a paper detailing his findings due to the chaos in Russia and his results were independently duplicated. In spite of this, he went on to take a three-year course in medicine. In 1918, Vishniac's immediate family moved to Berlin because of anti-Semitism spurred by uprisings against the Bolsheviks.

Roman followed them and, shortly after arriving, married Luta Bagg, who gave birth to two children and Wolf. In his free time, he studied Far Eastern Art at the University of Berlin. Vishniac researched endocrinology and optics, did some photography. In Berlin, he initiated his public speaking career by joining the Salamander Club, at which he gave lectures on naturalism. In 1935, as anti-Semitism was growing in Germany, Vishniac was commissioned by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee in Central Europe to photograph Jewish communities in Eastern Europe as part of a fund-raising drive to help support these poor communities. Vishniac printed these pictures in his darkroom in his Berlin apartment. Further trips to Eastern Europe were undertaken between 1935 and 1938, again at the behest of the JDC. Vishniac used both a Rolleiflex camera in his photography. In 1939, his wife and children moved to Sweden to stay with Luta's parents, away from hostile Germany, he met his parents in Nice that summer.

Vishniac traveled to Paris in late summer 1940, was arrested by Marshal Pétain's police and interned at Camp du Ruchard, a deportation camp in Indre-et-Loire. This occurred because Latvia, of which he was a citizen, had been subsumed into the Soviet Union and Vishniac was considered a "stateless person". After three months, as a result of his wife's efforts and aid from the JDC, he obtained a visa that allowed him to escape via Lisbon to the U. S. with his family. His father spent the war hidden in France; the Vishniac family fled from Lisbon to New York City in 1940. Vishniac tried to get a job but failed: "For me, it was a time of distraction and fear." He was multilingual, speaking at least German and Yiddish, but he could not yet speak any English and thus had a difficult time. He managed to do some portraiture work with foreign clients, it was during this time, in 1942, that he took one of his most celebrated portraits, that of Albert Einstein. He arrived at Einstein's home in Princeton, New Jersey, getting into the scientist's study with the ruse of bringing regards from mutual fr

2011–12 PGE Skra Bełchatów season

PGE Skra Bełchatów 2011–2012 season is the 2011/2012 volleyball season for Polish professional volleyball club PGE Skra Bełchatów. The club won silver medal of Polish Championship, Polish Cup 2012 and silver medal of CEV Champions League; the club competed in: Polish Championship Polish Cup CEV Champions League In: Out: PGE Skra achieve silver medal of CEV Champions League. They won the match against Arkas Izmir in semifinal, but losing final against Russian club - VC Zenit-Kazan in the Final Four in Łódź, Poland; the final match ended controversially, because the referee didn't see the block of Russian player and ended the match despite the fact that audience and all players saw the error on screen. PGE Skra players received 3 of 8 individual awards. Best Receiver was Michał Winiarski, the award for Best Spiker received Bartosz Kurek and title of Most Valuable Player gained team captain - Mariusz Wlazły

Khajuraho railway station

Khajuraho railway station is located in Chhatarpur district of Madhya Pradesh and serves as an entry point for the Khajuraho Group of Monuments, medieval Hindu famous for their erotic sculptures. Between 950 and 1150, the Chandela monarchs built these temples; the Jhansi-Manikpur line was opened in 1889 by Indian Midland Railway. A branch line linking Khajuraho to Mahoba on the Jhansi-Manikpur line was inaugurated in 2008. Khajuraho is linked by train to Jhansi on the Delhi-Chennai line and Kanpur on the Howrah-Delhi line. There is a cloak room at Khajuraho railway station where one can leave one's luggage for a nominal payment. Small shops sell Khajuraho local maps. Khajuraho railway station handles around 3,000 passengers every day; as of 2016 January, it is connected by a daily train to Delhi via Mahoba and Gwalior. It is connected by a daily train that connects it to Agra and Udaipur. A local daily train connects to Kanpur and Varanasi is connected thrice a week. Khajuraho - Hazrat Nizamuddin Uttar Pradesh Sampark Kranti Express Khajuraho - Udaipur City Express Bundelkhand Link Express Bhopal - Khajuraho Mahamana Superfast Express Indore - Khajuraho Express Mahoba - Khajauraho Passenger Khajuraho - Jhansi Passenger Khajuraho - Kanpur Passenger Trains at Khajuraho Khajuraho travel guide from Wikivoyage Panna National Park travel guide from Wikivoyage - 25 km from Khajuraho

Castle Eden Dene

Castle Eden Dene is a Site of Special Scientific Interest and National Nature Reserve in the Easington district of County Durham, England. It is located in Peterlee, between the A19 and A1086 roads; the dene is the largest, biologically the richest, of a series of deep ravines that have been incised through the Magnesian Limestone and overlying boulder clay of coastal Durham by streams flowing into the North Sea. It is the largest area of semi-natural woodland in north-east England and, because the steep valley sides are inaccessible, it has suffered little from human interference; the majority of the woodland is dominated by ash, Fraxinus excelsior, wych elm, Ulmus glabra, though sycamore, Acer pseudoplatanus is well-established and yew, Taxus baccata, is common. This last is said to have given the dene its name, "Eden" being derived from the earlier "Yoden", or Yew dene, though an alternative explanation is that "Eden" and "Yoden" derive from Old English Idun, itself a derivative of Indo-European pid, meaning "a spring, water".

Over 450 species of plants have been recorded in the wood, many of which are typical of ancient woodlands that date back to pre-medieval times. The ground-flora is dominated by ramsons, or wild garlic, Allium ursinum, with its characteristic garlic-like aroma. In early spring, the woodland floor is scattered with the yellow flowers of primrose, Primula vulgaris, lesser celandine, Ranunculus ficaria, the white flowers of wood anemone, Anemone nemorosa, which give way in late spring to thick carpets of bluebells, Hyacinthoides non-scripta; the Dene is a popular venue for walkers and there are several entrances, from Peterlee and Horden to the north, Castle Eden and Heselden to the south, from the A19 and A1086 roads. Natural England, which manages the area in partnership with local councils, has done much to improve access within the dene, both by strengthening the paths and bridges across the burn and by creating better drainage around the paths. Despite this, heavy rain storms can disrupt access to some areas.

Storms in July 2009 and November 2012 have left several areas inaccessible and some stretches of path may have to be closed permanently because of the instability of the valley slopes. Although Castle Eden Burn is seasonal, there is no running water at the bottom of the ravine, the culvert which carries the burn under the A1086 road can become blocked with logs after heavy rain storms. To minimise accidents and to avoid damage to the plants and the dene itself, Natural England advises walkers not to stray from the paths and prohibits the use of bicycles within the reserve. Castle Eden Dene National Nature Reserve