Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah

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Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah ibn Ali
محمد بن الحنفية.png
Name of Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah in the style of Arabic calligraphy
Religion Islam
Lineage Hashemite , Hashmi
Sect Muslim
Born 15 A.H/AD 636 (2nd year of the Caliphate of Umar ibn Khattab)
Medina, Hejaz
Died Wednesday, 1st Muharram, 81 A.H/ 25 Feb, AD 700
Medina, Hejaz
Resting place Medina, Saudi Arabia
Senior posting
Period in office 681–700
Predecessor Hussein ibn Ali
Successor Abu Hashim

Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib, also known as Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (15 AH – 81 AH; c. AD 636 – 700) and surnamed Abu'l-Qasim was an early Muslim leader. He was a son of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first Imam and the fourth Caliph.


Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (Muhammad Akbar) was born in Medina about AD 633 (though also said to be during Umar's era), the third of Ali's sons. He was called Ibn al-Hanafiyyah after his mother, Khawlah bint Ja'far; she was known as Hanafiyyah, "the Hanafi woman", after her tribe Banu Hanifah. After the death of Muhammad, the people of Yamamah were declared apostates by the Muslims for refusing to pay the zakat (religious tax); the men were killed (see Ridda wars), and the women were taken to Medina as slaves, Khawlah bint Ja'far among them. When her tribesmen found out, they approached Ali ibn Abi Talib and asked him to save her from slavery and to protect her family's honor and prestige. Consequently, Ali ibn Abi Talib purchased her, set her free, and, after the martyrdom of Fatimah, married her.[1] Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah was the only child of Khawlah bint Ja'far. During his father's lifetime he distinguished himself for piety, rectitude, and courage and effectiveness in war. During Ali's caliphate at Kufa he was one of the caliph's four chief lieutenants. He particularly distinguished himself at the battles of Jamal and Siffin.[2] During the Battle of Siffin, Ali described al-Hanafiyyah as his hand due to his bravery and strength while fighting.[3]

When Imam Husayn, then in Mecca, was considering the expedition to Kufa that ended at Karbala, Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah advised him not to go,[4] pointing out that the men of Kufa had betrayed and turned against their father Ali[5] and their brother Hasan ibn Ali,[6] and saying that he feared that they would betray Husayn as well. Husayn replied that he feared that if he stayed in Mecca, Yazid ibn Muawiya would have him killed there, and violate the sanctity of the Holy City. Muhammad ibn al-Hanifiyyah then urged him to go instead to Yemen, where he could indefinitely elude an army. The next day Husayn replied that his grandfather Muhammad had appeared to him in a dream and required him to undertake this sacrificial expedition.[4]

After Husayn and so many of his kinsmen died at Karbala and the young Ali ibn Husayn adopted a life of retirement and prayer, Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah became the visible head of the house of Ali (see Kaysanites Shia). It was in his name that Al-Mukhtar rebelled in Kufa in 686. In the hajj of 688, four men led their respective followers in the rites of pilgrimage, claiming the headship of Islam. One was Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, leading the Shi'ites. The others were Abdullah ibn Zubayr, who ruled in Mecca; Abd al-Malik, the Umayyad, who ruled in Damascus; and Najdah ibn 'Amir, leader of the Kharijites.[7]

Ibn al-Hanafiyyah was called "the Mahdi," "the rightly-guided," which then was simply a pledge of confidence in his knowledge, character, and judgment over those of the rival caliphs. In 692 he traveled to Damascus and swore allegiance to Abd al-Malik. In 700 he died in Medina, but thereafter a legend grew up that he was not dead, but living in seclusion on Mount Radwa near Medina, protected and fed by wild animals, and that he would, in God's good time, return to establish justice and true religion in the world. Thus arose the legend of the Mahdi as savior.[8] This is not to be confused with the Twelver Shia Mahdi, who is the son of the 11th Imam Hasan al-Askari.

There are many stories told by the elderly people about him (addressing him as Muhammed Hanif) to their grand children, and, the most famous story is Jung e Zaitoon and Mohamed Hanif. Surprisingly, there is no record for all of these incidents except some published documents in Urdu language. In this story, Muhammed Hanif is traveling to another city within Arabia where he stops near a beautiful garden full of all kind of fruits. Here, he faced Zaitoon for the first time. Zaitoon as the owner of this garden told Hanif as to why he entered in that garden. After few arguments they start fighting where he loses with Zaitoon and returns to home. He was scolded by his mother Khawlah bint Ja'far; known as Hanafiyyah how he could lost with a women ? He got angry and returned to the same place. This time he managed to defeat Zaitoon and later they get married. Many of the Alvis (Family names as Ali or Alvi) and Shaikh migrated to India are said to be the descendants of Muhammed Hanif + Zaitoon.

The second story is famous about snatching and eating the country figs from Hasan and Hussein during his child hood. Once his mother sent him to meet his dad Ali as he was away from him for years. He traveled to the city (most probably Medina) and when he reached the city, got very hungry. He saw a man dropping country figs from a tree and two of his sons were eating. He rushed there and pushed the two (Hasan and Husein in their child hood) to eat. After some time, the man on the tree (100% Ali Ibn-e-Abu Talib) asked if they are fed well so that he can come down. They both replied no dad there is a kid and he is eating all the country figs. Ali said that let him eat too and also told Hanif to let his sons eat too. But since he kept eating and pushing the two he got angry and came down. After few arguments they started fighting. It is said that Ali was unable to defeat him until he prayed to god for victory. After defeating him Ali said to him "Should I kill you now?". He replied "If you kill me then my dad will not spare you as he is the strongest and well known warrior" On this Ali asked "Who is he ?" Mohammed Hanif raised his hand and show him a ring. Ali remembered the ring as he gave this to his wife Hanifa --> Khawlah bint Ja'far; known as Hanafiyyah . Ali immediately hugged him and took him to his home.

The third story is similar to narrated earlier --- "but thereafter a legend grew up that he was not dead, but living in seclusion on Mount Radwa near Medina, protected and fed by wild animals, and that he would, in God's good time, return to establish justice and true religion in the world." As per the stories told by elderly people, when he got the news of Martyrdom of greatest Imam Hussein from Iraq, he was too angry. He himself joined the war and killed many followers of devilish Yazeed. He continued killing and killing the supporters of Yazid. Blood was flowing like water when he heard a voice from sky to stop his hand (i.e. killing)... He questioned to the voice " Why should I (Stop killing) ?" The voice said "Spare some for the Judgment-day so I can punish them." He replied to the voice "My revenge is still incomplete and will return on the day of Judgment" Thus giving birth to the belief that he never died and is still alive.

Succession and legacy[edit]

After Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya died, his son Abu Hashim claimed the imamate. After his death the Abbasids claimed that on his deathbed Abu Hashim nominated his distant cousin Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdullah ibn Abbas ibn Abdu'l-Muttalib ibn Hashim as the imam. This man's son Abu'l-Abbas Abdullah as-Saffah became the first Abbasid caliph, repudiating Shi'ism, which effectively extinguished the sect that had recognized Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah as an imam.[9]

His ancestors and family tree[edit]

Quraysh tribe
Waqida bint Amr
Abd Manaf ibn Qusai
Ātikah bint Murrah
Nawfal ibn Abd Manaf
‘Abd Shams
Muṭṭalib ibn Abd Manaf
Salma bint Amr
Umayya ibn Abd Shams
ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib
Abū al-ʿĀs
Abī Ṭālib
Abū Lahab
ʾAbī Sufyān ibn Harb
(Family tree)
Khadija bint Khuwaylid
(Family tree)
Khawlah bint Ja'far
ʿAbd Allāh
Muʿāwiyah I
Marwān I
ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
ʿAli ibn ʿAbdallāh
(Family tree)
Abu Hashim
(Imām of al-Mukhtār and Hashimiyya)

Ibrāhim "al-Imām"

File:Imam chart.pdf


  1. ^ "Nahj al-Balaghah, Sermon 11 (note)".
  3. ^ Shahin, Badr (2001). Al Abbas. Qum, Iran: Ansariyan Publications. ISBN 978-1519308115. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  4. ^ a b "Chapter 36 "The Journey to Iraq" in Martyrdom Epic of Imam al-Husain".
  5. ^ Hazleton, Lesley (2009). After the Prophet: The Epic Story of the Shia-Sunni Split in Islam. New York: Doubleday. pp. 138–143.
  6. ^ Hazleton, Lesley (2009). After the Prophet: The Epic Story of the Shia-Sunni Split in Islam. New York: Doubleday. pp. 160–163.
  7. ^ Balyuzi, H. M. (1976). Muhammad and the Course of Islam. Oxford, U.K.: George Ronald. p. 200.
  8. ^ Küng, Hans (2007). Islam Past, Present and Future. Oxford, U.K.: Oneworld. pp. 199–200.
  9. ^ Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam. Oxford, U.K.: George Ronald. pp. 47–48.
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
of the Ahl al-Bayt
Clan of the Banu Quraish
Born: AD 633  Died: 700
Shia Islam titles
Preceded by
Hussein ibn Ali
4th Imam of Kaysanites Shia
Succeeded by
Abu Hashim