Kingdom of Castile
The Kingdom of Castile was a large and powerful state located on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. Its name comes from the host of castles constructed in the region, it began in the 9th century as the County of Castile, an eastern frontier lordship of the Kingdom of León. During the 10th century its counts increased their autonomy, but it was not until 1065 that it was separated from León and became a kingdom in its own right. Between 1072 and 1157 it was again united with León, after 1230 this union became permanent. Throughout this period the Castilian kings made extensive conquests in southern Iberia at the expense of the Islamic principalities. Castile and León, with their southern acquisitions, came to be known collectively as the Crown of Castile, a term that came to encompass overseas expansion. According to the chronicles of Alfonso III of Asturias. In Al-Andalus chronicles from the Cordoban Caliphate, the oldest sources refer to it as Al-Qila, or "the castled" high plains past the territory of Alava, more south to it and the first encountered in their expeditions from Zaragoza.
The name reflects its origin as a march on the eastern frontier of the Kingdom of Asturias, protected by castles, towers or castra. The County of Castile, bordered in the south by the northern reaches of the Spanish Sistema Central mountain system, just north of modern-day Madrid province, it was re-populated by inhabitants of Cantabria, Asturias and Visigothic and Mozarab origins. It had customary laws. From the first half of the 9th century until the middle of the century, in which it came to be paid more closer attention to, its administration and defense by the monarchs of Leon – due the increased incursions from the Emirate of Córdoba – its first repopulation settlements were led by small abbots and local counts from the other side of the Cantabrian ridge neighbor valleys and Primorias and smaller ones, being its first settlers from the contiguous maritime valleys of Mena and Encartaciones in nearby Biscay, some of whom had abandoned those exposed areas of the Meseta a few decades earlier, taken refuge by the much dense and intractable woods of the Atlantic valleys, so they were not that foreign to them.
A mix of settlers from the Cantabrian and Basque coastal areas, which were swelled with refugees, was led under the protection of Abbot Vitulus and his brother, count Herwig, as registered in the local charters they signed around the first years of the 800's. The areas that they settled didn't extend far from the Cantabrian southeastern ridges, not beyond the southern reaches of the high Ebro river valleys and canyon gores; the first Count of a wider and more united Castile was Rodrigo in 850, under Ordoño I of Asturias and Alfonso III of Asturias, who settled and fortified the ancient Cantabrian hill town of Amaya, much farther west and south of the Ebro river to offer a more easy defense and command of the still functional Roman Empire main highway passing by, south of the Cantabrian ridge all the way to Leon, from the Muslim military expeditions. Subsequently, the region was subdivided, separate counts being named to Alava, Cerezo & Lantarón, a reduced Castile. In 931 the County was reunified by Count Fernán González, who rose in rebellion against the Kingdom of León, successor state to Asturias, achieved an autonomous status, allowing the county to be inherited by his family instead of being subject to appointment by the Leonese king.
The minority of Count García Sánchez led Castile to accept Sancho III of Navarre, married to the sister of Count García, as feudal overlord. García was assassinated in 1028 while in León to marry the princess Sancha, sister of Bermudo III of León. Sancho III, acting as feudal overlord, appointed his younger son Ferdinand as Count of Castile, marrying him to his uncle's intended bride, Sancha of León. Following Sancho's 1035 death, Castile returned to the nominal control of León, but Ferdinand, allying himself with his brother García Sánchez III of Navarre, began a war with his brother-in-law Vermudo. At the Battle of Tamarón Vermudo was killed. In right of his wife, Ferdinand assumed the royal title as king of León and Castile, for the first time associating the royal title with the rule of Castile; when Ferdinand I died in 1065, the territories were divided among his children. Sancho II became King of Castile, Alfonso VI, King of León and García, King of Galicia, while his daughters were given towns, Urraca and Elvira, Toro.
Sancho II allied himself with Alfonso VI of León and together they conquered divided Galicia. Sancho attacked Alfonso VI and invaded León with the help of El Cid, drove his brother into exile, thereby reuniting the three kingdoms. Urraca permitted the greater part of the Leonese army to take refuge in the town of Zamora. Sancho laid siege to the town, but the Castilian king was assassinated in 1072 by Bellido Dolfos, a Galician nobleman; the Castilian troops withdrew. As a result, Alfonso VI recovered all his original territory of León, now became the king of Castile and Galicia; this was the second union of León and Castile, although the two kingdoms remained distinct entities joined only in a personal union. The before Alfonso VI in Santa Gadea de Burgos regarding the innocence of Alfonso in the matter of the murder of his brother is well known. During the first years of the 12th century Alfonso VI only son Sancho died leaving only his daughter. Due to this Alfonso VI took a different approach to the rest of Europeans kingdoms, including France
John II of Castile
John II of Castile was King of Castile and León from 1406 to 1454. John was his wife, Catherine of Lancaster, his mother was the granddaughter of King Peter, ousted by Henry III's grandfather, King Henry II. John succeeded his father on 25 December 1406, united in his person the claims of both Peter and Henry II, his mother and his uncle, King Ferdinand I of Aragon, were co-regents during his minority. When Ferdinand I died in 1416, his mother governed alone until her death in 1418. John II's reign, lasting 48 years, was one of the longest in Castilian history, but John himself was not a capable monarch, he spent his time verse-making and holding tournaments. His favourite, Álvaro de Luna influenced him until his second wife, Isabella of Portugal, obtained control of his feeble will. At her instigation, he dismissed his faithful and able servant, an act, said to have caused him much remorse. John II's Regents declared the Valladolid laws in 1411, which restricted the social activity of Jews. Among the most notable of the provisions were outlining that Jews must wear distinctive clothes and banned them from holding administrative positions.
However, once John took control of the throne for himself in 1418, he reversed such ordinances, favoring instead a more tolerant attitude toward the battered Jewish population of Castile following the mass wave of conversions between 1391-1415. In 1431, John placed Yusuf IV on the throne as the Sultan of Granada in the Moorish Emirate of Granada, in exchange for tribute and vassal status to Castile; this exchange is depicted in the short ballad the Romance of Abenamar. He was "all and handsome, fair-skinned and ruddy... his hair was the color of a mature hazelnut, the nose a little snub, the eyes between green and blue... he had graceful legs and feet and hands."John II was the single largest contributor to the continuing construction of the Alcázar of Segovia and built the "New Tower" known today as the "Tower of John II". John II died on July 1454 at Valladolid. In 1418, John married Maria of Aragon, the oldest daughter of his paternal uncle, Ferdinand I of Aragon; the marriage produced four children: Catherine, Princess of Asturias, his heiress presumptive from her birth until her death Eleanor, Princess of Asturias, his heiress presumptive from the death of Catherine until the birth of Henry King Henry IV of Castile Infanta Maria Of all their children, only the future Henry IV of Castile survived infancy.
John was widowed in 1445 and remarried to Isabella of Portugal, daughter of Infante John of Portugal, with whom he had two children: Queen Isabella I of Castile Alfonso, Prince of Asturias This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "John II. of Castile". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Cambridge University Press. P. 441
The Nasrid dynasty was the last Muslim dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1230 until 1492. The Nasrid dynasty rose to power after the defeat of the Almohad Caliphate in 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Twenty-three emirs ruled Granada from the founding of the dynasty in 1230 by Muhammad I until 2 January 1492, when Muhammad XII surrendered all lands to King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castille. Today, the most visible evidence of the Nasrid dynasty is the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule; the Nasrid dynasty was descended from the Arab Banu Khazraj tribe, claimed direct male-line descent from Sa'd ibn Ubadah, the chief of the tribe and one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The nasab of Yusuf. During the time the Christians were launching a campaign against the Emirate of Granada that would end the Nasrid dynasty, the Nasrids were engaged in a civil war over the throne of Granada; when Abu l-Hasan Ali, Sultan of Granada, was ousted by his son Muhammad XII, Abu l-Hasan Ali retreated to Málaga and civil war broke out between the competing factions.
Christians took full advantage of continued capturing Muslim strongholds. Muhammed XII was caught by Christian forces in 1483 at Córdoba, he was freed after he swore an oath of allegiance to Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. Abu l-Hasan Ali abdicated in favor of his brother Muhammad XIII, Sultan of Granada, known as Al-Zaghal, a power struggle with Muhammad XII continued. Al-Zaghal was forced to surrender to the Christians. Muhammad XII was given a lordship in the Alpujarras mountains but instead took financial compensation from the Spanish crown to leave the Iberian Peninsula; the Nasrid dynasty was the longest ruling Muslim dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula, reigning for more than 250 years from the establishment of the Emirate of Granada in 1230 to its annexation in 1492. The Nasrids constructed the Alhambra palace-fortress complex in Granada; the family tree below shows the genealogical relationship between each sultan of the Nasrid dynasty. It starts with Yusuf al-Ahmar. Daughters are omitted.
During times of rival claims to the throne, the family tree recognizes the sultan who controlled the city of Granada itself and the Alhambra palace. First dynasty: Muhammad I ibn Nasr Muhammed II al-Faqih Muhammed III Nasr Second dynasty: Ismail I Muhammed IV Yusuf I Muhammed V Ismail II Muhammed VI Yusuf II Muhammed VII Yusuf III Muhammed VIII Muhammed IX Yusuf IV Yusuf V Muhammed X Muhammed XI Sa'ad Abu l-Hasan Ali, known as Muley Hacén Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammed XII, known as Boabdil Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muhammed XIII, known as El Zagal Al-Andalus Alhambra Romance of Abenamar Taifa of Granada Fernández Puertas, Antonio; the Alhambra. Vol 1. From the Ninth Century to Yusuf I. Saqi Books. ISBN 0-86356-466-6. Fernández Puertas, Antonio; the Alhambra. Vol. 2.. Saqi Books. ISBN 0-86356-467-4. Harvey, Leonard Patrick. Islamic Spain 1250 to 1500. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-31962-8. Watt, W. Montgomery. A History of Islamic Spain. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-0847-8. Arié, Rachel. L’Espagne musulmane au Temps des Nasrides.
De Boccard. ISBN 2-7018-0052-8. Bueno, Francisco. Los Reyes de la Alhambra. Entre la historia y la leyenda. Miguel Sánchez. ISBN 84-7169-082-9. Cortés Peña, Antonio Luis. Historia de Granada. 4 vols. Editorial Don Quijote. Miranda, Ambroxio Huici. "The Iberian Peninsula and Sicily". In Holt, P. M. S.. The Cambridge History of Islam. Vol. 2A. Cambridge University Press. Fernández-Puertas, Antonio. "The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Ismā'īliyya al-Naṣriyya Who Built the Fourteenth-Century Alhambra: Ismā'īl I, Yūsuf I, Muḥammad V". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Third Series. Vol. 7
Campo de Cartagena
Campo de Cartagena is a natural region located in the Region of Murcia, in Spain. For administrative purposes, it is known, as Comarca del Campo de Cartagena or Comarca de Cartagena, it is located in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula, forming a plain which extends from the Sierra de Carrascoy to the Mediterranean. The capital city is Cartagena, the most important Naval Base of the Spanish Navy in the Mediterranean Sea; the comarca, agglomerates 409,586 inhabitants in 1855.14 km², making up the metropolitan area of Cartagena, a center for tourism, culture and nature, with more than 18,500 protected hectares, among places like the Calblanque, Monte de las Cenizas y Peña del Águila Natural Park. Beside those places, it must be added much of the marine environment, highlighting the Mar Menor, the Marine Reserve of Cabo de Palos e Islas Hormigas, the Cape Tiñoso surroundings. Cartagena Torre-Pacheco San Pedro del Pinatar San Javier La Unión Portmán Los Alcázares Fuente Álamo de Murcia Mazarrón The Campo de Cartagena has valuable remains of its ancient past.
In the city of Cartagena can be seen numerous monuments and archaeological remains. An attempt was made during the First Spanish Republic, on July 12 of 1873 to establish a canton in the Cartagena area; the insurgency took the name Cantonal Revolution and in the following days it spread through many other regions. Following the revolt the city of Cartagena endured for several months the attack of the troops sent by Nicolás Salmerón to restore order. Comarcas of Spain Sierra minera de Cartagena-La Unión Mar Menor El Carmolí Ayuntamiento de Cartagena Ayuntamiento de Fuente Álamo Aprovechamientos Forestales en la Comarca del Campo de Cartagena durante la Edad Media Los Tribunales Sacrales en el Campo de Cartagena37°37′N 00°59′W
Al-Andalus known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain that in its early period occupied most of Iberia, today's Portugal and Spain. At its greatest geographical extent, it occupied the northwest of the Iberian peninsula and a part of present day southern France Septimania and for nearly a century extended its control from Fraxinet over the Alpine passes which connect Italy with the remainder of Western Europe; the name more describes the parts of the peninsula governed by Muslims at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed as the Christian Reconquista progressed shrinking to the south around modern-day Andalusia and to the Emirate of Granada. Following the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, al-Andalus at its greatest extent, was divided into five administrative units, corresponding to modern Andalusia and Galicia, Castile and León, Aragon, the County of Barcelona, Septimania; as a political domain, it successively constituted a province of the Umayyad Caliphate, initiated by the Caliph Al-Walid I.
Rule under these kingdoms led to a rise in cultural exchange and cooperation between Muslims and Christians. Christians and Jews were subject to a special tax called Jizya, to the state, which in return provided internal autonomy in practicing their religion and offered the same level of protections by the Muslim rulers. Under the Caliphate of Córdoba, al-Andalus was a beacon of learning, the city of Córdoba, the largest in Europe, became one of the leading cultural and economic centres throughout the Mediterranean Basin and the Islamic world. Achievements that advanced Islamic and Western science came from al-Andalus, including major advances in trigonometry, surgery, pharmacology and other fields. Al-Andalus became a major educational center for Europe and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea as well as a conduit for cultural and scientific exchange between the Islamic and Christian worlds. For much of its history, al-Andalus existed in conflict with Christian kingdoms to the north. After the fall of the Umayyad caliphate, al-Andalus was fragmented into minor states and principalities.
Attacks from the Christians intensified, led by the Castilians under Alfonso VI. The Almoravid empire intervened and repelled the Christian attacks on the region, deposing the weak Andalusi Muslim princes and included al-Andalus under direct Berber rule. In the next century and a half, al-Andalus became a province of the Berber Muslim empires of the Almoravids and Almohads, both based in Marrakesh; the Christian kingdoms in the north of the Iberian Peninsula overpowered the Muslim states to the south. In 1085, Alfonso VI captured Toledo. With the fall of Córdoba in 1236, most of the south fell under Christian rule and the Emirate of Granada became a tributary state of the Kingdom of Castile two years later. In 1249, the Portuguese Reconquista culminated with the conquest of the Algarve by Afonso III, leaving Granada as the last Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula. On January 2, 1492, Emir Muhammad XII surrendered the Emirate of Granada to Queen Isabella I of Castile, completing the Christian Reconquista of the peninsula.
Although al-Andalus ended as a political entity, the nearly eight centuries of Islamic rule which preceded and accompanied the early formation of the Spanish nation-state and identity has left a profound effect on the country's culture and language in Andalusia. The toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia; these coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Arabic. The etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. In 1986, Joaquín Vallvé proposed that "al-Andalus" was a corruption of the name Atlantis, Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts, in 2002, Georg Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate. During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, the commander Tariq ibn-Ziyad led a small force that landed at Gibraltar on April 30, 711, ostensibly to intervene in a Visigothic civil war. After a decisive victory over King Roderic at the Battle of Guadalete on July 19, 711, Tariq ibn-Ziyad, joined by Arab governor Musa ibn Nusayr of Ifriqiya, brought most of the Visigothic Kingdom under Muslim occupation in a seven-year campaign.
They occupied Visigothic Septimania in southern France. Most of the Iberian peninsula became part of the expanding Umayyad Empire, under the name of al-Andalus, it was organized as a province subordinate to Ifriqiya, so, for the first few decades, the governors of al-Andalus were appointed by the emir of Kairouan, rather than the Caliph in Damascus. The regional capital was set at Córdoba, the first influx of Muslim settlers was distributed; the small army Tariq led in the initial conquest consisted of Berbers, while Musa's Arab force of over 12,000 soldiers was accompanied by a group of mawālī, that is, non-Arab Muslims, who were clients of the
Cieza is a town and municipality in Spain, in the autonomous community of Murcia. It is the capital of the Vega Alta comarca, an old form of provincial subdivision), its current population consisted of 34,889 inhabitants in the year 2018. The Segura River passes by the town, its economy is based on agriculture in the cultivation of peaches and olives, but industry is important, since 4,000 people work in that sector. The public sector and tourism are very important in the local economy. Populated since the Paleolithic Age, the area of Cieza is home to archaeological excavations in Almadenes, La Serreta, Barranco de los Grajos. There are Iberian remains, as well as Roman and Arabic deposits; the Arabs, who inhabited the area from the eleventh to thirteenth centuries, who knew the area as Medina Siyâsa, left behind a mountain fortress. At the dig site of Medina Siyâsa, many decorative architectural elements have been found, such as engraved arches and porticos, polychromed ceramics, metals, etc. All these discoveries are kept in the museum of Siyâsa.
The Ermita de la Virgen del Buen Suceso is located in the area known as Collado de la Atalaya. The Plaza de España is located in the heart of the city; the modern market was built in 1929 by Julio Carrilero. El Paseo contains pictorial work in glazed tile by José Lucas, who dedicated the different tiles to several men of letters; the main church is the eighteenth-century Basílica de la Asunción. Inside, there are sculptures and retablos by Rafael Ximeno y Planes, Ignacio Pinazo Martínez, José González Moreno, Francisco Romero Zafra, etc; the Iglesia de San Joaquín, dating from the seventeenth century, used to be a Franciscan monastery in the past. The church-monastery of the Order of Poor Ladies, from the eighteenth century is an important monument. Other important sites include the main market,which was built in 1929, "El Muro", built in the nineteenth century in the place where the medieval wall was located. Sport facilities – In Cieza there are several swimming pools -including a covered and heated one-, several basketball and tennis courts, two football fields, an athletics track, several gyms.
Theaters – There are several theatres in the town. They are called Auditorio Gabriel Celaya and Teatro Capitol. Education – In Cieza there are two secondary schools, seven primary schools, a music college, a special education school, several nursery schools, two catholic schools and two schools which are run by private companies but financed by the regional government. Health – There is a public hospital which provides health care not only for Cieza but for people who live in other towns and villages. There are two public clinics as well as some private ones. Judiciary – The town is head of a judicial district; as a result of that, there are first instance courts in the town. Museums – There are some museums and art galleries; the best-known art gallery is Casa Efe Serrano. The most popular museum is Medina Siyasa Museum; the Holy Week celebrations are the main fiestas. They are Fiestas of National Tourist Interest. Saint Bartholomew fiestas are important fiestas, as well as the Moros y cristianos.
Baler, Philippines Cieza, Spain
Lorca is a municipality and city in the autonomous community of Murcia in southeastern Spain, 58 kilometres southwest of the city of Murcia. It had a population of 478,956 in 2010, up from the 2001 census total of 399,567. Lorca is the municipality with the largest surface area in Spain with 1,675.21 km2. The city is home to the Collegiate church dedicated to St. Patrick. In the Middle Ages Lorca was the frontier town between Muslim Spain. Earlier to that during the Roman period it was ancient Ilura or Heliocroca of the Romans; the city was damaged by a magnitude 5.1 earthquake on 11 May 2011, killing at least nine people. Due to shallow hypocenter, the earthquake was much more destructive than usual for earthquakes with similar magnitude. Archaeological excavations in the Lorca area have revealed that it has been inhabited continuously since Neolithic times, 5,500 years ago; the earliest permanent settlement is in the Guadalentín River valley because of its presence of water sources, mineral resources, lying along a natural communication route in Andalusia.
On the hillside below the castle and the town archaeological digs have revealed the remains of an important population of the El Argar culture during the Bronze Age. During the Roman period, a settlement here was called Eliocroca, detailed in the Antonine Itinerary and located right on Via Augusta. Elicroca was important enough to become a bishopric, suffragan of the primatial Metropolitan Archbishopric of Toledo, but it was to fade under Islam. In 713, the Teodomiro Pact was signed, referring to the place with the name "Lurqa". Under this pact, the population was integrated into an autonomous territory, along with six other cities, governed by Theudimer; this lasted until his death when a Muslim reorganization of the state occurred, carried out by Abb-al-Rahman II, who turned the territory into a Córdoba dependency. It led to the formation of the Taifa kingdoms, with the Taifa of Lorca as one of these kingdoms, first created in 1042, when Lorca declared its independence from the emirate of Valencia.
Its first governor was its power extending from the city to Jaén and Baza. During the Arab period it was known as Lurka and the old part of the town, made up of narrow streets and alley-ways, achieved its present shape under Moorish rule; the taifa was shortly recreated in 1228, after the fall of the Almoravids, until it conquered by the Taifa of Murcia. The main tower of the fortress of Lorca was named Torre Alfonsina in honour of the King; the city continued to grow, as in Arab times, became the main town in an emerging rich agricultural region, although the border hindered economic development. Lorca, known as the city of 100 Coat of Arms, is where the Moors and the Visigoths battled for control of the land. During the late Middle Ages, Lorca was a dangerous border town, spearhead of the Christian kingdom of Murcia against the Moorish Kingdom of Granada. Lorca served as a base for launching raids into enemy territory; the Battle of Los Alporchones, took place here in 1452, during the reign of Juan II of Castile, who ten years earlier had granted the Lorca the title of "ciudad".
The Kingdom of Murcia took Granada in 1492. After the War of Granada and the Muslim threat disappeared, the city changed in appearance, carrying out a series of urban reforms and developing trade; the numerous public works to be carried out attracted labourers from elsewhere, resulting in an increase in the population to 8,000 people. Among the new buildings include the Colegiata de San Patricio, erected in 1553, the religious centre of the city, as well as numerous convents of La Merced, Santo Domingo and San Francisco. In the seventeenth century, Lorca took shape as a modern city, but still had defensive duties due to the Ottoman threat along the coast; this century witnessed the expulsion of the Moors, the plague, which killed half the population, droughts and locust plagues. From 1660 a spectacular recovery and development began; the eighteenth century is of vital importance for the city, being one of the regions favoured by the Bourbon reforms. Lorca became a modern city, losing its medieval character.
The population grew, urban sprawl began as immigrants settled in the suburbs of San Cristóbal and San José. The defensive wall disappeared, indicative of the greater security of the times; the city became a haven for painters and engravers. On 30 April 1802, a great calamity struck the town of Lorca; the walls of a nearby reservoir gave way, flooding the town and destroying many buildings and killing up to 700 people. In the nineteenth century, the War of Independence and yellow fever epidemics and recurring droughts brought famine to the region and brought about the emigration of more than twelve thousand people. By 1845 Lorca had become the largest and most populous municipality in Murcia. Trade declined during the first half of the century, although in 1865 it received its first steam engine, the Sewer-Lorca railway opened in 1885 and the Baza-Lorca railway opened in 1890, bringing integration of the region in the domestic market, enabling the movement of mineral deposits and people. Restoration in the late 19th century brought with it a period of prosperi