A stock trader or equity trader or share trader is a person or company involved in trading equity securities. Stock traders may be an agent, arbitrageur, stockbroker; such equity trading in large publicly traded companies may be through one of the major stock exchanges, such as the New York Stock Exchange or the London Stock Exchange, which serve as managed auctions for stock trades. Stock shares in smaller public companies are sold in over-the-counter markets. Equity trading can be performed by the owner of the shares, or by an agent authorized to buy and sell on behalf of the share's owner. Proprietary trading is selling for the trader's own profit or loss. In this case, the principal is the owner of the shares. Agency trading is buying and selling by an agent a stockbroker, on behalf of a client. Agents are paid a commission for performing the trade. Major stock exchanges have market makers who help limit price variation by buying and selling a particular company's shares on their own behalf and on behalf of other clients.
Stock traders help manage portfolios. Traders engage in buying and selling bonds, stocks and shares in hedge funds. A stock trader conducts extensive research and observation of how financial markets perform; this is accomplished through microeconomic study. Other duties of a stock trader include comparison of financial analysis to current and future regulation of his or her occupation. Professional stock traders who work for a financial company, are required to complete an internship of up to four months before becoming established in their career field. In the United States, for example, internship is followed up by taking and passing a Financial Industry Regulatory Authority-administered Series 63 or 65 exam. Stock traders who pass demonstrate familiarity with U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission compliant practices and regulation. Stock traders with experience obtain a four-year degree in a financial, accounting or economics field after licensure. Supervisory positions as a trader may require an MBA for advanced stock market analysis.
The U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that growth for stock and commodities traders was forecast to be greater than 21% between 2006 and 2016. In that period, stock traders would benefit from trends driven by pensions of baby boomers and their decreased reliance on Social Security. U. S. Treasury bonds would be traded on a more fluctuating basis. Stock traders just entering the field suffer. While entry into this career field is competitive, increased ownership of stocks and mutual funds drive substantial career growth of traders. Banks were offering more opportunities for people of average means to invest and speculate in stocks; the BLS reported that stock traders had median annual incomes of $68,500. Experienced traders of stocks and mutual funds have the potential to earn more than $145,600 annually. Contrary to a stockbroker, a professional who arranges transactions between a buyer and a seller, gets a guaranteed commission for every deal executed, a professional trader may have a steep learning curve and his/her ultra-competitive performance based career may be cut short during generalized stock market crashes.
Stock market trading operations have a high level of risk and complexity for unwise and inexperienced stock traders/investors seeking an easy way to make money quickly. In addition, trading activities are not free. Stock speculators/investors face several costs such as commissions and fees to be paid for the brokerage and other services, like the buying/selling orders placed at the stock exchange. Depending on the nature of each national or state legislation involved, a large array of fiscal obligations must be respected, taxes are charged by jurisdictions over those transactions and capital gains that fall within their scope. However, these fiscal obligations will vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Among other reasons, there could be some instances where taxation is incorporated into the stock price through the differing legislation that companies have to comply with in their respective jurisdictions. Beyond these costs are the opportunity costs of money and time, currency risk, financial risk, Internet and news agency services and electricity consumption expenses—all of which must be accounted for.
Jérôme Kerviel and Kweku Adoboli, two rogue traders, worked in the same type of position, the Delta One desk - a table where derivatives are traded, not single stocks or bonds. These types of operations are simple and reserved for novice traders who specialize in exchange-traded funds, financial products that mimic the performance of an index; as they are easy to use, they facilitate portfolio diversification through the acquisition of contracts backed by a stock index or industry. The two traders were familiar to control procedures, they worked in the back office, the administrative body of the bank that controls the regularity of operations, before moving to trading. According to the report of the Inspector General of Societe Generale, in 2005 and 2006 Kerviel "led" by taking 100 to 150 million-euro positions on the shares of Solarworld AG listed in Germany. Moreover, the "unauthorized trading" of Kweku Adoboli, similar to Kerviel, did not date back a long way. Adoboli h
Dhanteras known as Dhanatrayodashi or Dhanvantari Trayodashi, is the first day that marks the festival of Diwali in India and the festival of Tihar in Nepal. Dhanteras is celebrated on the thirteenth lunar day of Krishna Paksha in the Vikram Samvat Hindu calendar month of Karthik. Dhanvantari, worshipped on the occasion of Dhanteras, is the god of Ayurveda who imparted the wisdom of Ayurveda for the betterment of mankind and to help rid it of the suffering of disease; the Indian ministry of Ayurveda and Naturopathy, Unani and Homoeopathy, announced its decision to observe Dhanteras, as the "National Ayurveda Day", first observed on 28 October 2016. Vasubaras marks the beginning of the celebration of Diwali festival. On Vasubaras the Cow with her calf is worshipped; the Cow holds a sacred place in the Vedic Mythology. She nurtured with utmost respect. Our "Gau Mata" and her Prasad.. Milk, milk products, Curds are an inseparable part of Hindu culture. "Pancha Gavya",Panchamrut are used in all Hindu celebrations.
Vasubaras is followed by Dhanteras. Dhanteras is the worship of lord Dhanvantari. Lord Dhanvantari, according to Hindu Mythology, emerged during Samudra Manthan, holding a Kalash full of Amrit in one hand and the sacred text about Ayurveda in the other hand, he is considered to be the Vaidya of Gods. The festival is celebrated as "Lakshmi Puja" is performed in the evenings when tiny diyas of clay are lit to drive away the shadows of evil spirits. Bhajans, devotional songs in praise of Goddess Lakshmi, are sung and "Naivedya" of traditional sweets is offered to the Goddess. A peculiar custom in Maharashtra exists where people pound dry coriander seeds with jaggery and offer the mixture as Naivedya; this occasion has nothing to do with Bengali culture. On Dhanteras, homes that have not yet been cleaned in preparation for Diwali are cleansed and whitewashed, Lord Dhanvantari, the god of health and ayurveda, is worshiped in the evening; the main entrance are decorated with colorful lanterns, holiday lights and traditional motifs of Rangoli designs are made to welcome the Goddess of Wealth and Prosperity.
To indicate her long-awaited arrival, small footprint's are drawn with rice flour and vermilion powder all over the houses. On the night of Dhanteras, diyas are ritually kept burning all through the nights in honor of Lakshmi and Dhanvantari. On this day, Hindus consider it as an auspicious day to make new purchases gold or silver articles and new utensils, it is believed that some form of precious metal is a sign of good luck. In modern times, Dhanteras has come to be known as the most auspicious occasion for buying gold and other metals kitchenware; the day sees heavy purchases of appliances and automobiles. On this night, the lights are set out every night both in the sky lamps and as offerings at the base of a Tulsi plant and in the form of diyas, which are placed in front of the doorways of homes; this light is an offering to Yama, the Host of Death, to avert untimely death during the time of the Diwali festival. This day is a celebration aimed at increasing prosperity. Dhanteras engages themes of cleansing and the securing of auspiciousness in the form of Lakshmi.
In the villages, cattle are adorned and worshiped by farmers as they form the main source of their income. In South India, Brahmin women make'Marundhu' which translates into medicine on the eve of Naraka Chaturdasi, Dhanvantri Trayodashi; the Marundhu is offered during the prayer and eaten in the early morning on Naraka Chaturdasi before sunrise. In fact, many families handover the recipes of daughter in law; the Marundhu is consumed to eliminate the imbalance of tridoshas in the body. On the day of Dhantrayodashi, Goddess Lakshmi came out from the ocean of milk during the churning of the Sea. Hence, Goddess Lakshmi is worshiped on the day of Trayodashi. According to a popular legend, when the devas and asuras performed the Samudra manthan for Amrita, Dhanvantari emerged carrying a jar of the elixir on the day of Dhanteras. An ancient legend ascribes the occasion to an interesting story about the 16-year-old son of King Hima, his horoscope predicted his death by snake-bite on the fourth day of his marriage.
On that particular day, his newly-wed wife did not allow him to sleep. She laid out all her ornaments and lots of gold and silver coins in a heap at the entrance of the sleeping chamber and lit lamps all over the place, she narrated stories and sang songs to keep her husband from falling asleep. The next day, when Yama, the god of Death arrived at the prince's doorstep in the guise of a serpent, his eyes were dazzled and blinded by the brilliance of the lamps and the jewellery. Yama could not enter the Prince's chamber, so he climbed on top of the heap of gold coins and sat there the entire night listening to the stories and songs. In the morning, he silently went away. Thus, the young prince was saved from the clutches of death by the cleverness of his new bride, the day came to be celebrated as Dhanteras; the following day came to be called Naraka Chaturdashi. It is known as ‘Yamadeepdaan’ as the ladies of the house light earthen lamps or ‘deep’ and these are kept burning throughout the night glorifying Yama, the God of Death.
Since this is the night before Diwali, it is called'Chhoti Diwali' or Minor Diwali. Ganesh – Hindu god
A Diya, deya, deepa, deepam, or deepak is an oil lamp used in the Indian subcontinent, notably India and Nepal made from clay, with a cotton wick dipped in ghee or vegetable oils. Diyas are native to the Indian subcontinent used in Hindu, Sikh and Zoroastrian religious festivals such as Diwali or the Kushti ceremony. Clay diyas are used temporarily as lighting for special occasions, while diyas made of brass are permanent fixtures in homes and temples. Diwali: The lighting of diyas forms a part of celebrations and rituals of the festival. Houses are decorated with small diyas placed at entrances. In fact, the name of Diwali is derived from the Sanskrit word Deepavali, which means the row of lights. Karthikai Deepam: Diyas known as deepam in Tamil Nadu, can be lighted during the Karthikai Deepam. A diya placed in temples and used to bless worshippers is referred to as an aarti. A similar lamp called. Death: The lighting of diya is part of the Hindu religion rituals related to death. Butter lamp Oil lamp Aarti Rangoli
Lakshmi or Laxmi, is the Hindu goddess of wealth and prosperity. She is the wife and shakti of Vishnu, one of the principal deities of Hinduism and the Supreme Being in the Vaishnavism Tradition. With Parvati and Saraswati, she forms the holy trinity. Lakshmi is an important deity in Jainism and found in Jain temples. Lakshmi has been a goddess of abundance and fortune for Buddhists, was represented on the oldest surviving stupas and cave temples of Buddhism. In Buddhist sects of Tibet and southeast Asia, goddess Vasudhara mirrors the characteristics and attributes of the Hindu goddess Lakshmi with minor iconographic differences. Lakshmi is called Sri or Thirumagal because she is endowed with six auspicious and divine qualities, or gunas, is the divine strength of Vishnu. In Hindu religion, she was born from the churning of the primordial ocean and she chose Vishnu as her eternal consort; when Vishnu descended on the Earth as the avatars Rama and Krishna, Lakshmi descended as his respective consort as Sita and Rukmini.
In the ancient scriptures of India, all women are declared to be embodiments of Lakshmi. The marriage and relationship between Lakshmi and Vishnu as wife and husband is the paradigm for rituals and ceremonies for the bride and groom in Hindu weddings. Lakshmi is considered another aspect of the same supreme goddess principle in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism. Lakshmi is depicted in Indian art as an elegantly dressed, prosperity-showering golden-coloured woman with an owl as her vehicle, signifying the importance of economic activity in maintenance of life, her ability to move and prevail in confusing darkness, she stands or sits like a yogin on a lotus pedestal and holds lotus in her hand, a symbolism for fortune, self-knowledge and spiritual liberation. Her iconography shows her with four hands, which represent the four goals of human life considered important to the Hindu way of life: dharma, kāma, artha and moksha, she is depicted as part of the trinity consisting of Saraswati and Parvati.
Archaeological discoveries and ancient coins suggest the recognition and reverence for Lakshmi by the 1st millennium BCE. Lakshmi's iconography and statues have been found in Hindu temples throughout southeast Asia, estimated to be from the second half of the 1st millennium CE; the festivals of Diwali and Sharad Purnima are celebrated in her honor. Lakshmi is one of many Hindu deities whose meaning and significance evolved in ancient Sanskrit texts. Lakshmi is mentioned once in Rigveda, where it means kindred sign of auspicious fortune. भद्रैषां लक्ष्मीर्निहिताधि वाचिbhadraiṣāṁ lakṣmīrnihitādhi vāci"an auspicious fortune is attached to their words" In Atharvaveda, transcribed about 1000 BCE, Lakshmi evolves into a complex concept with plural manifestations. Book 7, Chapter 115 of Atharva Veda describes the plurality, asserting that a hundred Lakshmis are born with the body of a mortal at birth, some good and auspicious, while others bad and unfortunate; the good are welcomed. The concept and spirit of Lakshmi and her association with fortune and the good is significant enough that Atharva Veda mentions it in multiple books: for example, in Book 12, Chapter 5 as punya Lakshmi.
In some chapters of Atharva Veda, Lakshmi connotes the good, an auspicious sign, good luck, good fortune, prosperity and happiness. Lakshmi is referred to as the goddess of fortune, identified with Sri and regarded as wife of Viṣṇu. For example, in Shatapatha Brahmana, variously estimated to be composed between 800 BCE and 300 BCE, Sri is part of one of many theories, in ancient India, about the creation of universe. In Book 9 of Shatapatha Brahmana, Sri emerges from Prajapati, after his intense meditation on creation of life and nature of universe. Sri is described as a trembling woman at her birth with immense energy and powers; the gods were bewitched, desire her and become covetous of her. The gods approach Prajapati and request permission to kill her and take her powers and gifts. Prajapati refuses, tells the gods that males should not kill females and that they can seek her gifts without violence; the gods approach Lakshmi, deity Agni gets food, Soma gets kingly authority, Varuna gets imperial authority, Mitra acquires martial energy, Indra gets force, Brihaspati gets priestly authority, Savitri acquires dominion, Pushan gets splendour, Saraswati takes nourishment and Tvashtri gets forms.
The hymns of Shatapatha Brahmana thus describe Sri as a goddess born with and personifying a diverse range of talents and powers. According to another legend, she emerges during the creation of universe, floating over the water on the expanded petals of a lotus flower. In the Epics of Hinduism, such as in Mahabharata, Lakshmi personifies wealth, happiness, grace and splendour. In another Hindu legend, about the creation of universe as described in Ramayana, Lakshmi springs with other precious things from the foam of the ocean of milk when it is churned by the gods and demons for the recovery of Amṛta, she appeared with a lotus in her hand and so she is called Padmā. Root of the wordLakshmi in Sanskrit is derived from the root word lakṣ and lakṣa, meaning to perceive, know and goal, objective respectively; these roots give Lakshmi the symbolism: know and understand
Dalal Street in downtown Mumbai, India, is the address of the Bombay Stock Exchange and several related financial firms and institutions. When Bombay Stock Exchange was moved to this new location at the intersection of Bombay Samāchār Marg and Hammam Street, the street next to the building was renamed as Dalal Street; the Marathi word dalāl means "a broker", "a go-between". Similar to Wall Street in the New York City, it is used as a metonym for the entire Indian financial industry. Bombay Stock Exchange Phiroze Jeejeebhoy Towers Phiroze Jamshedji Jeejeebhoy Fort Economy of India Economy of Mumbai Bombay Stock Exchange — official web site National Stock Exchange official web site Dalalstock.in - official web site
National Stock Exchange of India
The National Stock Exchange of India Limited is the leading stock exchange of India, located in Mumbai. The NSE was established in 1992 as the first demutualized electronic exchange in the country. NSE was the first exchange in the country to provide a modern automated screen-based electronic trading system which offered easy trading facility to the investors spread across the length and breadth of the country. Vikram Limaye is Managing Director & Chief Executive Officer of NSE. National Stock Exchange has a total market capitalization of more than US$2.27 trillion, making it the world's 11th-largest stock exchange as of April 2018. NSE's flagship index, the NIFTY 50, the 50 stock index is used extensively by investors in India and around the world as a barometer of the Indian capital markets. Nifty 50 index was launched in 1996 by the NSE. However, Vaidyanathan estimates that only about 4% of the Indian economy / GDP is derived from the stock exchanges in India. Unlike countries like the United States where nearly 70% of the GDP is derived from larger companies and the corporate sector, the corporate sector in India accounts for only 12-14% of the national GDP.
Of these only 7,800 companies are listed of which only 4000 trade on the stock exchanges at BSE and NSE. Hence the stocks trading at the BSE and NSE account for only around 4% of the Indian economy, which derives most of its income related activity from the so-called unorganized sector and households. Economic Times estimated that as of April 2018, 60 million retail investors had invested their savings in stocks in India, either through direct purchases of equities or through mutual funds. Earlier, the Bimal Jalan Committee report estimated that 1.3% of India's population invested in the stock market, as compared to 27% in USA and 10% in China. NSE is set up in the early 1990s to bring in transparency in the markets. Instead of trading membership being confined to a group of brokers, NSE ensured that anyone, qualified and met minimum financial requirements was allowed to trade. In this context, NSE was ahead of its times when it separated ownership and management in the exchange under SEBI's supervision.
The price information which could earlier be accessed only by a handful of people could now be seen by a client in a remote location with the same ease. The paper-based settlement was replaced by electronic depository-based accounts and settlement of trades was always done on time. One of the most critical changes was that a robust risk management system was set in place, so that settlement guarantees could protect investors against broker defaults. NSE was set up by a group of leading Indian financial institutions at the behest of the government of India to bring transparency to the Indian capital market. Based on the recommendations laid out by the Pherwani committee, NSE has been established with a diversified shareholding comprising domestic and global investors; the key domestic investors include Life Insurance Corporation of India, State Bank of India, IFCI Limited, IDFC Limited and Stock Holding Corporation of India Limited. And the key global investors are Gagil FDI Limited, GS Strategic Investments Limited, SAIF II SE Investments Mauritius Limited, Aranda Investments Pte Limited and PI Opportunities Fund I.
The exchange was incorporated in 1992 as a tax-paying company and was recognized as a stock exchange in 1993 under the Securities Contracts Act, 1956, when P. V. Narasimha Rao was the Prime Minister of India and Manmohan Singh was the Finance Minister. NSE commenced operations in the Wholesale Debt Market segment in June 1994; the capital market segment of the NSE commenced operations in November 1994, while operations in the derivatives segment commenced in June 2000. NSE offers trading and settlement services in equity, equity derivatives and currency derivatives segments, it was the first exchange in India to introduce electronic trading facility thus connecting together the investor base of the entire country. NSE has 3000 leased lines spread over more than 2000 cities across India. NSE was instrumental in creating the National Securities Depository Limited which allows investors to securely hold and transfer their shares and bonds electronically, it allows investors to hold and trade in as few as one share or bond.
This not only made holding financial instruments convenient but more eliminated the need for paper certificates and reduced the incidents of forged or fake certificates and fraudulent transactions that had plagued the Indian stock market. The NSDL's security, combined with the transparency, lower transaction prices and efficiency that NSE offered increased the attractiveness of the Indian stock market to domestic and international investors. NSE offers trading and investment in the following segments EquityEquities Indices Mutual Funds Exchange Traded Funds Initial Public Offerings Security Lending and Borrowing Scheme etc. DerivativesEquity Derivatives Currency Derivatives Interest Rate FuturesDebtCorporate BondsEquity DerivativesThe National Stock Exchange of India Limited commenced trading in derivatives with the launch of index futures on 12 June 2000; the futures and options segment of NSE has made a global mark. In the Futures and Options segment, trading in NIFTY 50 Index, NIFTY IT index, NIFTY Bank Index, NIFTY Next 50 index and single stock futures are available.
Trading in Mini Nifty Futures & Options and Long term Options on NIFTY 50 are available. The average daily turnover in the F&O Segment of the Exchange during the financial year April 2013 to March 2014 stood at ₹1.52236 trillion. On 29 August