Utrecht is the fourth-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands and most populous city of the province of Utrecht. It is located in the eastern corner of the Randstad conurbation, in the centre of mainland Netherlands, had a population of 345,080 in 2017. Utrecht's ancient city centre features many buildings and structures several dating as far back as the High Middle Ages, it has been the religious centre of the Netherlands since the 8th century. It remains the main religious centre in the country. Utrecht was the most important city in the Netherlands until the Dutch Golden Age, when it was surpassed by Amsterdam as the country's cultural centre and most populous city. Utrecht is host to Utrecht University, the largest university in the Netherlands, as well as several other institutions of higher education. Due to its central position within the country, it is an important transport hub for both rail and road transport, it has the second highest number of cultural events after Amsterdam.
In 2012, Lonely Planet included Utrecht in the top 10 of the world's unsung places. Although there is some evidence of earlier inhabitation in the region of Utrecht, dating back to the Stone Age and settling in the Bronze Age, the founding date of the city is related to the construction of a Roman fortification built in around 50 CE. A series of such fortresses was built after the Roman emperor Claudius decided the empire should not expand north. To consolidate the border, the Limes Germanicus defense line was constructed along the main branch of the river Rhine, which at that time flowed through a more northern bed compared to today; these fortresses were designed to house a cohort of about 500 Roman soldiers. Near the fort, settlements would grow housing artisans and soldiers' wives and children. In Roman times, the name of the Utrecht fortress was Traiectum, denoting its location at a possible Rhine crossing. Traiectum became Dutch Trecht. In 11th-century official documents, it was Latinized as Ultra Traiectum.
Around the year 200, the wooden walls of the fortification were replaced by sturdier tuff stone walls, remnants of which are still to be found below the buildings around Dom Square. From the middle of the 3rd century, Germanic tribes invaded the Roman territories. Around 275 the Romans could no longer maintain the northern border and Utrecht was abandoned. Little is known about the next period 270–650. Utrecht is first spoken of again several centuries. Under the influence of the growing realms of the Franks, during Dagobert I's reign in the 7th century, a church was built within the walls of the Roman fortress. In ongoing border conflicts with the Frisians, this first church was destroyed. By the mid-7th century and Irish missionaries set out to convert the Frisians. Pope Sergius I appointed Saint Willibrordus, as bishop of the Frisians; the tenure of Willibrordus is considered to be the beginning of the Bishopric of Utrecht. In 723, the Frankish leader Charles Martel bestowed the fortress in Utrecht and the surrounding lands as the base of the bishops.
From on Utrecht became one of the most influential seats of power for the Roman Catholic Church in the Netherlands. The archbishops of Utrecht were based at the uneasy northern border of the Carolingian Empire. In addition, the city of Utrecht had competition from the nearby trading centre Dorestad. After the fall of Dorestad around 850, Utrecht became one of the most important cities in the Netherlands; the importance of Utrecht as a centre of Christianity is illustrated by the election of the Utrecht-born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens as pope in 1522. When the Frankish rulers established the system of feudalism, the Bishops of Utrecht came to exercise worldly power as prince-bishops; the territory of the bishopric not only included the modern province of Utrecht, but extended to the northeast. The feudal conflict of the Middle Ages affected Utrecht; the prince-bishopric was involved in continuous conflicts with the Counts of Holland and the Dukes of Guelders. The Veluwe region was seized by Guelders, but large areas in the modern province of Overijssel remained as the Oversticht.
Several churches and monasteries were built inside, or close to, the city of Utrecht. The most dominant of these was the Cathedral of Saint Martin, inside the old Roman fortress; the construction of the present Gothic building was begun in 1254 after an earlier romanesque construction had been badly damaged by fire. The choir and transept were finished from 1320 and were followed by the ambitious Dom tower; the last part to be constructed was the central nave, from 1420. By that time, the age of the great cathedrals had come to an end and declining finances prevented the ambitious project from being finished, the construction of the central nave being suspended before the planned flying buttresses could be finished. Besides the cathedral there were four collegiate churches in Utrecht: St. Salvator's Church, on the Dom square, dating back to the early 8th century. Saint John, originating in 1040. Besides these churches, the city housed St. Paul's Abbey, the 15th-century beguinage of St. Nicholas, a 14th-century chapter house of the Teutonic Knights.
Maria Tesselschade Visscher
Maria Tesselschade Roemers Visscher called Maria Tesselschade Roemersdochter Visscher or Tesselschade was a Dutch poet and engraver. Tesselschade was born in Amsterdam, the youngest of three daughters of poet and humanist Roemer Visscher, she was given the name Tesselschade, because her father lost ships near the Dutch island Texel on Christmas Eve 1593, three months before her birth, to remember that'worldly wealth could be gone instantly.' She and her sister Anna Visscher were the only women members of the Muiderkring, the group of Dutch Golden Age intellectuals who met at Muiden Castle. She is characterised as a muse of the group and attracted the admiration of its members, such as its organiser Hooft, Barlaeus, Heinsius and Jacob Cats. In their correspondence, she is described as attractive, musically talented, a skilled translator and commentator from French and Italian, they praised her skill at singing, carving, etching on glass and tapestry work. The Rijksmuseum Amsterdam has an example of her engraving work, a römer drinking glass engraved with the motto Sic Soleo Amicos.
In 1623, she married Allard Crombalch. After he died in 1634, Huygens and Barlaeus proposed marriage to her, offers she rejected. In remembrance of Tesselschade there are several streets named after her, such as the Tesselschadestraat or Tesselschadelaan in Alkmaar, Amsterdam, Zwolle and Leeuwarden. Lennep, J, Herman F. C. Kate, W P. Hoevenaar. Galerij Van Beroemde Nederlanders Uit Het Tijdvak Van Frederik Hendrik. Utrecht: L. E. Bosch en Zoon, 1868. Maria Tesselschade Visscher - digital version of all her poems Visscher, Tesselschade Roemersdr. Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; the concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization, philosophy and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society. In the humanities, one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in the arts, education, or manners; the level of cultural sophistication has sometimes been seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are found in class-based distinctions between a high culture of the social elite and a low culture, popular culture, or folk culture of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to cultural capital.
In common parlance, culture is used to refer to the symbolic markers used by ethnic groups to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as body modification, clothing or jewelry. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of consumer culture that emerged in the 20th century; some schools of philosophy, such as Marxism and critical theory, have argued that culture is used politically as a tool of the elites to manipulate the lower classes and create a false consciousness, such perspectives are common in the discipline of cultural studies. In the wider social sciences, the theoretical perspective of cultural materialism holds that human symbolic culture arises from the material conditions of human life, as humans create the conditions for physical survival, that the basis of culture is found in evolved biological dispositions; when used as a count noun, a "culture" is the set of customs and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. Culture is the set of knowledge acquired over time.
In this sense, multiculturalism values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes "culture" is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society, a subculture, or a counterculture. Within cultural anthropology, the ideology and analytical stance of cultural relativism holds that cultures cannot be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is situated within the value system of a given culture; the modern term "culture" is based on a term used by the Ancient Roman orator Cicero in his Tusculanae Disputationes, where he wrote of a cultivation of the soul or "cultura animi," using an agricultural metaphor for the development of a philosophical soul, understood teleologically as the highest possible ideal for human development. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection, his use, that of many writers after him, "refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, through artifice, become human."In 1986, philosopher Edward S.
Casey wrote, "The word culture meant'place tilled' in Middle English, the same word goes back to Latin colere,'to inhabit, care for, worship' and cultus,'A cult a religious one.' To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it caringly." Culture described by Richard Velkley:... meant the cultivation of the soul or mind, acquires most of its modern meaning in the writings of the 18th-century German thinkers, who were on various levels developing Rousseau's criticism of "modern liberalism and Enlightenment". Thus a contrast between "culture" and "civilization" is implied in these authors when not expressed as such. In the words of anthropologist E. B. Tylor, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices and material expressions, over time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common.
The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is "the way of life the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." Terror management theory posits that culture is a series of activities and worldviews that provide humans with the basis for perceiving themselves as "person of worth within the world of meaning"—raising themselves above the physical aspects of existence, in order to deny the animal insignificance and death that Homo sapiens became aware of when they acquired a larger brain. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively; this ability arose with the evolution of behavioral modernity in humans around 50,000 years ago, is thought to be unique to humans, although some other species have demonstrated similar, though much less complex, abilities for social learning. It is used to denote the co
Gerbrand Adriaenszoon Bredero was a Dutch poet and playwright in the period known as the Dutch Golden Age. Gerbrand Adriaenszoon Bredero was born on 16 March 1585 in Amsterdam in the Dutch Republic, where he lived his whole life, he called himself "G. A. Bredero, Amstelredammer", sometimes he is called Breero or Brederode, he was the third child of Marry Gerbrants and Adriaen Cornelisz Bredero, a shoemaker and a successful real estate agent. Bredero was born in the Nes, nowadays number 41, in 1602 he and his family moved to a house on Oudezijds Voorburgwal, now number 244, which his father had bought. Bredero lived in this house for the rest of his life. Both houses are now restaurants in Amsterdam's famous red light district. At school Bredero learned French and also some English and Latin, he was educated as an artist by the Antwerp painter Francesco Badens, but none of his paintings have survived. In 1611 he became a member of the rederijkerskamer d'Eglantier, where he was an active member and became friends with Roemer Visscher and P.
C. Hooft. Together with Hooft he joined Costers Nederduytsche Academie. Around this time he wrote the play "De Spaanschen Brabander Ierolimo"; the only public position Bredero achieved was as vaandrig or standard bearer of the civic guard. On 23 August 1618, at the age of 33, Bredero died, shortly after he had recovered from pneumonia that he had contracted after falling through ice, he never married. Rodd'rick ende Alphonsus Griane Klucht van de Koe Klucht van de Molenaer Moortje Lucelle Spaansen Brabander G. A. Bredero – digital versions of a major part his oeuvre Bredero song text page – English translations of several songs of Bredero G. A. Bredero 1585–1618 – pictures of Bredero Newly discovered poems of Bredero and Starter – digital versions of in 2004 discovered poems
Joost van den Vondel
Joost van den Vondel was a Dutch poet and playwright. He is considered playwright of the 17th century, his plays are the ones from that period that are still most performed, his epic Joannes de Boetgezant, on the life of John the Baptist, has been called the greatest Dutch epic. Vondel's theatrical works were performed until the 1960s; the most visible was the annual performance, on New Year's Day from 1637 to 1968, of Gijsbrecht van Aemstel. Vondel remained productive until a old age. Several of his most notable plays like Lucifer and Adam in Exile were written after 1650, when he was 65, his final play Noah, written at the age of eighty, is considered one of his finest. Vondel was born on 17 November 1587 on the Große Witschgasse in Holy Roman Empire, his parents were Mennonites of Antwerpian descent. In 1595 because of their religious conviction, they fled to Utrecht, from there, they moved to Amsterdam in the newly formed Dutch Republic. At the age of 23, Vondel married Mayken de Wolff. Together they had four children.
After the death of his father in 1608, Vondel managed the family hosiery shop on the Warmoesstraat in Amsterdam. In the meantime, he began to learn Latin and became acquainted with famous poets such as Roemer Visscher. Around the year 1641, he converted to Catholicism; this was a great shock to most of his fellow countrymen because the main conviction and de facto state religion in the Republic was Calvinist Protestantism. It is still unclear why he became a Catholic although his love for a Catholic lady may have played a role in this. During his life, he became one of the main advocates for religious tolerance. After the arrest and the immediate beheading of the most important civilian leader of the States of the Netherlands, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, at the command of his enemy, Prince Maurits of Nassau, the Synod of Dort, the Calvinists had become the decisive religious power in the Republic. Public practice of Catholicism and Arminianism was from on forbidden but worship in clandestine houses of prayer was tolerated.
Vondel wrote many satires extolling Oldenbarnevelt. That, together with his new faith, made him an unpopular figure in Calvinist circles, he died a bitter man though he was honoured by many fellow poets, on 5 February 1679. George Borrow called him "by far the greatest that Holland produced." His plays included: The Passover or the Redemption of Israel from Egypt, Jerusalem Destroyed, Hecuba, Gijsbrecht van Aemstel, The Maidens, The Brothers, Joseph in Dothan, Joseph in Egypt and Paul, Mary Stuart or Tortured Majesty, Lion Fallers, Lucifer, Jephthah, David in Exile, David Restored, Samson or Holy Revenge, The Sigh of Adonis, The Batavian Brothers or Oppressed Freedom, Adam in Exile from Eden, The Destruction of the Sinai Army and the Fall of the First World. It has been suggested that John Milton drew inspiration from Lucifer and Adam in Ballingschap for his Paradise Lost. In some respects the two works have similarities: the focus on Lucifer, the description of the battle in heaven between Lucifer's forces and Michael's, the anti-climax as Adam and Eve leave Paradise.
One example of similarity is the following: "Here may we reign secure, in my choice To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell. Better to reign in hell than serve in heaven." Milton's Paradise Lost"Is ’t noodlot, dat ick vall’, van eere en staet berooft, Laet vallen, als ick vall’, met deze kroone op ’t hooft, Dien scepter in de vuist, dien eersleip van vertrouden, En zoo veel duizenden als onze zyde houden. Dat valle streckt tot eer, en onverwelckbren lof: En liever d’ eerste Vorst in eenigh laeger hof, Dan in ’t gezalight licht de tweede, of noch een minder Zoo troost ick my de kans, en vrees nu leet noch hinder." Translation:Is it fate that I will fall, robbed of honour and dignity,Then let me fall, if I were to fall, with this crown upon my headThis sceptre in my fist, this company of loyals,And as many as are loyal to our side. This fall would honour one, give unwilting praise:And rather foremost king in any lower court,Than rank second in most holy light, or lessThus I justify my revolt, will now fear pain nor hindrance.
Vondel's Lucifer Amsterdam's biggest park, the Vondelpark, bears his name. There is a statue of Vondel in the northern part of the park. There is a Vondel Street in Cologne, the Vondelstraße in the Neustadt-Süd-district; the Dutch five guilder banknote bore Vondel's portrait from 1950 until it was discontinued in 1990. Works by Joost van den Vondel at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Joost van den Vondel at Internet Archive Reinder P. Meijer. "The golden age – Seventeenth century". Literature of the Low Countries. Joost van den Vondel at the Project Laurens Janszoon Coster Joost van den Vondel at the Digital library for Dutch literature Joost van den Vondel: Profiel at the National Library of the Netherlands Complete digitized copy of Lucifer, 1654
Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area; the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of 8.1 million. Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, as a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built.
The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of the municipality of Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten, dating to the 9th century; as the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha- world city by the Globalization and World Cities study group. The city is the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, including Philips, AkzoNobel, TomTom and ING. Many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber and Tesla. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer; the city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report, 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.
The Port of Amsterdam to this day remains the second in the country, the fifth largest seaport in Europe. Famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, philosopher Baruch Spinoza; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city centre. Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops, they draw more than 5 million international visitors annually. The city is well known for its nightlife and festival activity, it is one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme".
The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated 27 October 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges and dams; the certificate describes the inhabitants. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam. Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century; this does not mean that there was a settlement since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as fuel. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306. From the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished from trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the adoption of the Protestant faith.
The Miracle devotion was kept alive. In the 19th century after the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics; the Stille Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant Netherlands since the late 19th century. In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to 90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has reduced to about 5000. In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of his successors; the main reasons for the uprising were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, the religious persecution of Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which led to Dutch independence. Pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, economic and religious refugees
Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft
Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft - Knight in the Order of Saint Michael - was a Dutch historian and playwright from the period known as the Dutch Golden Age. Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft abbreviated to P. C. Hooft, was born in Amsterdam as the son of the mayor, Cornelis Hooft. Hooft was the uncle of Cornelis and Andries de Graeff. In 1598, his father sent him to Italy in order to get prepared for a career as merchant. However, Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft was more interested in art. In particular, he was impressed by the Italian renaissance. In 1609, he was appointed bailiff of the Gooiland, he founded the Muiderkring, a literary society located at his home, the Muiderslot, the castle of Muiden, in which he got to live due to his appointment as sheriff of Muiden. Among the members were the poets and playwrights Constantijn Huygens, Maria Tesselschade, G. A. Bredero and Joost van den Vondel, as well as the Portuguese singer Francisca Duarte. Hooft and Vondel were founders of the First Nederduytsche Academy. Hooft was a prolific writer of plays and letters, but he concentrated from 1618 onwards on writing his history of the Netherlands, inspired by Roman historian Tacitus.
His focus was on the Eighty Years' War between the Netherlands and Spain. Though he tried in this work to give a report of the events, as impartial as possible, he did not succeed in doing so; as a poet, he was influenced by his Renaissance contemporaries in Italy. Geeraerdt van Velsen Achilles en Polyxena Theseus en Ariane Granida Warenar Baeto, oft oorsprong der Holanderen Emblemata amatoria: afbeeldingen van minne Nederduytsche Historiën In present-day Amsterdam Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft gives his name to P. C. Hooftstraat, the city's main destination for expensive designer clothes shopping; the south-western end of P. C. Hooftstraat runs into the city's main park, the Vondelpark, named for his friend Joost van den Vondel. In many other Dutch cities, there are other streets named after Hooft, many of them called P. C. Hooftstraat or Pieter C. Hooftstraat. In 1947, 300 years after P. C. Hooft died, a literary prize in his name was instituted by the Dutch government. An independent foundation annually awards the prize.
It was awarded for specific works, but in recent years it is awarded based on the entire collection of a writer. Works of Hooft in the Laurens Janszoon Coster project P. C. Hooft - pictures of P. C. Hooft Works by Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft at Internet Archive Works by Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft at LibriVox