This article describes the practice of mummification by the Muisca. The Muisca inhabited the Altiplano Cundiboyacense in the Colombian Andes before the arrival of the Spanish and were an advanced civilisation, they mummified the higher social class members of their society the zipas, caciques and their families. The mummies were not buried. Many mummies from the Chibcha-speaking indigenous groups have been found to date from the Muisca and Guane. In 1602 the early Spanish colonisers found 150 mummies in a cave near Suesca, that were organised in a scenic circular shape with the mummy of the cacique in the centre of the scene; the mummies were surrounded by pots. In 2007 the mummy of a baby was discovered in a cave near Gámeza, Boyacá, together with a small bowl, a pacifier and cotton cloths; the process of mummification continued into the colonial period. The youngest mummies have been dated to second half of the 18th century; the early Spanish chroniclers Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, Pedro Simón, Pedro de Aguado, Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés and others have provided the first historical data on the Muisca mummies.
Modern researchers who contributed to the knowledge of the Muisca mummies have been 19th century scholars Ezequiel Uricoechea and Liborio Zerda. In the 20th and 21st century Eliécer Silva Celis and Abel Fernando Martínez Martín have been analysing various Muisca mummies. In the centuries before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca in 1537, the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, high plateau of the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes, was inhabited by the Muisca people, they were an advanced civilisation of farmers and traders. The Muisca did not construct stone architecture, as the Maya and Inca did, they were called "Salt People" because of their extraction of halite from various salt mines on the Altiplano, predominantly in Zipaquirá, Nemocón and Tausa. Mummification was a common practice in South American cultures; the Nazca and Chachapoya of Peru conducted mummifications. The oldest evidence of mummification in the Americas is known from the Chinchorro culture in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile and has been dated at 7000 years BP.
The practice was performed by various pre-Columbian cultures in Colombia. Of the cultures to the southwest of the Altiplano, the Calima and Quimbaya practiced mummification. On and close to the Altiplano the Muisca and Lache mummified their dead and north of the Altiplano the Chitarero and Zenú executed the mummification process; the indigenous groups inhabiting the jungles of the Darién mummified their caciques. The Muisca started their mummification practices in the Late Herrera Period from the 5th century AD onwards; the use of substances to balm the body and the extraction of the organs has been described by franciscan Estebán de Asencio in 1550. The process took eight hours to dry the body with a dusty balm. While the exact composition of the balm has not been determined, the moque was a type of resin, used in other rituals and practices around the mummification. Another method of preparation of the mummies was more frequent; the body would be dried using fire and smoke and no extraction of organs would be performed.
The heat of the fire not only dried the body the phenol liberated by the smoke would conserve the body and prevent it from decomposing. This process, that the Guane performed to prepare their mummies, has been described by Pedro Simón; the dried bodies were wrapped in various layers of cotton cloths painted. Emeralds were put in the mouths and to cover the eyes and bellybutton of the deceased and sometimes cloths were inserted in their rectum; the ears and nose were covered with cotton cloths as well. During the mummification rituals, the Muisca drank chicha for various days in a row; as the Muisca believed in an afterlife, the mummies were buried surrounded by pots with food as beans and chicha, mantles and golden figures for their stay in another world, similar to ours. The mummies of the higher classes were decorated with golden earrings or noserings and with golden feathered crowns and emeralds; the discovery of a cave in Gámeza, Boyacá in 2007, proved children were mummified. In the temples and places reserved for the mummies, the bodies were put on a platform of reed, as an elevated bed, called barbacoas.
Other mummies were placed on small wooden stools. The mummies were left there without being buried. All the mummies found were in a similar sitting position with the arms and legs folded towards the torso. Ezequiel Uricoechea described in 1854 that the fingers of the mummified persons were strapped together with cotton cords; some of the mummies those of the warriors, were found with golden arms in their hands. The fighters were richly decorated with emeralds and fine cloths and bags of cotton. According to Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada who made the first contact with the Muisca, during the conquest, the guecha warriors carried mummies on their backs to serve as an example and to impress their enemies in their warfare; when his soldiers Miguel Sánchez and Juan Rodríguez Parra raided the Sun Temple in Sogamoso in September 1537, they found mummies decorated with golden crowns and other objects sitting on raised platforms. Although the Muisca society was egalitarian, differences in the burial processes indicate the distinction of the social classes.
The higher class people and their families were mummif
The Muisca cuisine describes the food and preparation the Muisca elaborated. The Muisca were an advanced civilization inhabiting the central highlands of the Colombian Andes before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca in the 1530s, their diet and cuisine consisted of many endemic fauna of Colombia. Main product of the Muisca was maize, in various forms; the advantage of maize was that it could be grown in the various climatic zones the Muisca territories experienced. It was the basis for their diet and the alcoholic drink, made from fermented maize and sugar. In the Muisca religion their agriculture and celebration of harvests, conducted along the complex Muisca calendar, were protected by Chaquén and Nencatacoa; the Muisca ate a variety of roots and tubers and had a specific word in their Chibcha language for eating those: bgysqua. The Muisca cultivated many different crops in their own regions, part of the Muisca Confederation, obtained more exotic culinary treats through trade with neighbouring indigenous peoples, with as most important.
The climatic variation of the Muisca territories allowed for the agriculture of different crops. Javier Ocampo López describes the Muisca diet as predominantly vegetarian: potatoes, beans, tomatoes, calabazas and numerous fruits; the Muisca used grains known today as quinoa. Main base for the Muisca cuisine was maize; the Muisca roasted corn, converted it into popcorn. Main meat was the guinea pig, endemic to South America. In special cases they ate llamas, deer and fish from the rivers and lakes of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense and Magdalena and Llanos through trade; the Muisca drank a lot of chicha, a fermented alcoholic drink of maize and sugar, served in ceramic pots called urdu or aryballus. Paleodietary studies performed on the Bogotá savanna, where 18 Muisca skeletons ranging in historical age from 8th to 10th century AD and 26 skeletons from the 12th and 13th century AD, together with analysis of 10 mummies of the Guane and Muisca were analysed, have shown that about 60% of the food of the people consisted of vegetary products and 40% of meat and fish.
After the Spanish conquest, the access to meat was drastically reduced changing the diet of the Muisca and other indigenous groups of central Colombia. Studies from Tunja, called Hunza in the time of the Muisca, have shown the people did not suffer from malnutrition though; as maize was the most important crop and food for the Muisca, their language had many different words for maize, parts of the plant and the different processes and eating habits. Note: for the pronunciation, it helps to think Spanish. Main plants to be cultivated were: Canna edulis or achira, one of the first plants cultivated in the Andes Arracacia xanthorrhiza or arracacha, ideally grown at altitudes of 1,800 metres and above, used in soups, boiled, fried or baked Tropaeolum tuberosum, ideally grown at high altitudes exceeding 3,000 metres Oxalis tuberosa, although this root is not native to Colombia, it was used by pre-Columbian societies in Cundinamarca and Boyacá, after being introduced from its place of origin in Peru, where the majority of varieties are found Ullucus tuberosum or ulluco, used in various traditional dishes, still today Polymnia edulis, eaten raw with a bit of salt eaten traditionally today Solanum tuberosum, Solanum colombianum, Solanum andigens, Solanum rybinii and Solanum boyacense, the different types of potatoes were a lesser part of the Muisca diet.
This article describes the astronomy of the Muisca. The Muisca, one of the four advanced civilisations in the Americas before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca, had a thorough understanding of astronomy, as evidenced by their architecture and calendar, important in their agriculture. Various astronomical sites have been constructed on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, the territories of the Muisca in the central Colombian Andes, but few remain today. Many archaeoastronomical places have been destroyed by the Spanish conquistadores and replaced by their catholic churches. El Infiernito, outside Villa de Leyva, is the best known of the remaining sites; the Temple of the Sun in sacred City of the Sun Sugamuxi has been reconstructed. Important scholars who have contributed to the knowledge of the Muisca astronomy were José Domingo Duquesne and Alexander von Humboldt in the late 18th and early 19th century and modern researchers as Eliécer Silva Celis, Manuel Arturo Izquierdo Peña, Carl Henrik Langebaek and Juan David Morales.
The Muisca were an advanced civilisation, who inhabited the Altiplano Cundiboyacense and as southeastern part of that the Bogotá savanna before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca, of what became known as Colombia today. The onset of the Muisca Period is set at 800 AD, following the Herrera Period, the reign of the Muisca lasted until the arrival of the Spanish in 1537. On the fertile plains of the Andean high plateau the Muisca developed a rich economy consisting of agricultural technologies of drainage and irrigation, fine crafts of gold and ceramics and textiles and a religious and mythological society; the political organisation was rather loose. Trading and pilgrimage routes were built through the hills of the Altiplano; the most important and still remaining archaeological site of the Muisca, dates to the pre-Muisca Herrera Period. It is an astronomical site where at solstices the Sun lines up the shadows of the stone pillars with the sacred Lake Iguaque, where according to the Muisca religion the mother goddess Bachué was born.
Additionally, the site used to be a place of pilgrimage where the Muisca gathered and interchanged goods. Archaeologist Carl Henrik Langebaek noted that the festivities performed at El Infiernito date back to the Early Muisca Period and that no evidence was found those celebrations existed in the Herrera Period; the true alignments of the pillar shadows are 271 degrees. The eastern alignment points to the Morro Negro hill. El Infiernito at the equinoxes announced the rainy seasons on the Altiplano. Astronomy was an important factor in the organisation of the Muisca, both in terms of cycles of harvest and sowing and in the construction of their architecture; the temples and houses were built with an east–west orientation. In the textiles of the people, the symbols for the Sun and Moon are visible, it is probable that the deities in the religion of the Muisca represented weavers of the Earth and the terrain. The Muisca used gold for their art and rituals and the gold was considered "Semen of the Sun".
At the ritual of the installation of the new zipa in Lake Guatavita, depicted in the famous Muisca raft, the new zipa would cover his naked body with gold dust and jump in the lake. Music was played and he was surrounded by four priests, representing two children of the Sun and two children of the Moon; the religion of the Muisca contained various deities who were based on cosmological and environmental factors. The supreme being of the Muisca, Chiminigagua represented the birth of the Universe who had sent two birds to create light and shape the Earth, his children were the god of the Sun. Both deities served as the basis for the complex lunisolar Muisca calendar, having different divisions for synodic and sidereal months; the days were equal to the Gregorian calendar days and the three different years were composed of sets of different months. One of the most important religious figures in the Muisca religion was Bochica, the bearded messenger god. According to the myths, Bochica walked from Pasca to Iza.
The line connecting those two places in the southeastern part of the Altiplano with the northwestern part has an azimuth of 45 degrees. The line between the city of Bacatá with the constructed Temple of the Sun in Sugamuxi has an azimuth of 45 degrees; the length between the two places is 110 kilometres which equals to one degree of the circumference of the Earth. Continuing this trajectory to the northeast, it lines up with the highest peak of the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. Throughout the territories of the Muisca Confederation there have existed numerous temples and other sites of the Muisca. Today few of those remain. A reconstruction of the Sun Temple of Sugamuxi has been built in the Archaeology Museum, the Moon Temple of Chía has been destroyed, El Infiernito exists still from pre-Muisca times and the Cojines del Zaque are two stones located in Tunja; the Cojines were built aligned like the Goranchacha Temple. On the sites of the temples, the Spanish colonisers built their churches; the Cojines are aligned with an azimuth of 106 degrees to the cross quarter of the Sun, passing over the present-day San Francisco church to the sacred hill of Romiquira.
Seen from Bolívar Square in Bogotá, the Sun at the June solstice rises over Monserrate, called by the Muisca quijicha caca or "grandmother's foo
This article describes the art produced by the Muisca. The Muisca established one of the four grand civilisations of the pre-Columbian Americas on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense in present-day central Colombia, their various forms of art have been described in detail and include pottery, body art and rock art. While their architecture was modest compared to the Inca and Maya civilisations, the Muisca are best known for their skilled goldworking; the Museo del Oro in the Colombian capital Bogotá houses the biggest collection of golden objects in the world, from various Colombian cultures including the Muisca. The first art in the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes goes back several millennia. Although this predates the Muisca civilisation, whose onset is set at 800 AD some of these styles persevered through the ages. During the preceramic era, the people of the highlands produced petrographs and petroglyphs representing their deities, the abundant flora and fauna of the area, abstract motives and anthropomorphic or anthropo-zoomorphic elements.
The self-sufficient sedentary agricultural society developed into a culture based on ceramics and the extraction of salt in the Herrera Period defined as 800 BC to 800 AD. During this time, the oldest existing form of constructed art was erected; the Herrera Period marked the widespread use of pottery and textiles and the start of what would become the main motive for the Spanish conquest. The golden age of Muisca metallurgy is represented in the Muisca raft, considered the masterpiece of this technology and depicts the initiation ritual of the new zipa of Bacatá, the southern part of the Muisca Confederation; this ceremony, performed by xeques and caciques wearing feathered golden crowns and accompanied by music and dance, took place on a raft in Lake Guatavita, in the northern part of the flat Bogotá savanna. Accounts of such ceremonies created the legend of El Dorado among the Spanish, leading them on a decades-long quest for this mythical place; the rich art elaborated by the Muisca has inspired modern designers in their creativity.
Muisca motives are represented as murals, in clothing and as objects found all over the former Muisca territories as well as in animated clips and video games. The art of the indigenous inhabitants of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense is well studied by many different researchers who published their work right from the beginning of colonial times; the conquistador who made first contact with the Muisca, Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, wrote in his memoires about a skilled and well-organised civilisation of traders and farmers. Friar Pedro Simón described the relation between art and the religion and contributions in the analysis of the various artforms have been made by Alexander von Humboldt, Joaquín Acosta and Liborio Zerda in the 19th century, Miguel Triana, Eliécer Silva Celis and Sylvia M. Broadbent in the 20th century and modern research is dominated by the work of Carl Henrik Langebaek Rueda, Javier Ocampo López and many others; the central highlands of the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes, called Altiplano Cundiboyacense, was inhabited by indigenous groups from 12,500 BP, as evidenced from archaeological finds at rock shelter El Abra, presently part of Zipaquirá.
The first human occupation consisted of hunter-gatherers who foraged in the valleys and mountains of the Andean high plateau. Settlement in the early millennia of this Andean preceramic age was restricted to caves and rock shelters, such as Tequendama in present-day Soacha, Piedras del Tunjo in Facatativá and Checua, part of the municipality Nemocón. Around 3000 BC, the inhabitants of the Andean plains started to live in open space areas and constructed primitive circular houses where they elaborated the stone tools used for hunting, food preparation and primitive art rock art; the type site for this transition is the archaeological site Aguazuque, in the northwest of Soacha, close to Bogotá. Abundant evidence for the domestication of guinea pigs has been found at Tequendama and Aguazuque where the small rodents formed part of the diet of the people, who consumed white-tailed deer, hunted on the plains surrounding the various lakes and rivers; the diet was expanded when early agriculture was introduced influenced by migrations from the south.
The main cultivated product was maize in various forms and colours, while tubers formed a significant other part of the food source. The fertile soils of the Bogotá savanna proved advantageous for the development of this agriculture, still evidenced today by the widespread farmfields outside the Colombian capital; the first forms of art recognised on the Altiplano are petrographs and petroglyphs in various locations on the Altiplano at the rock shelters of the Bogotá savanna. El Abra, Piedras del Tunjo and Tequendama are among the oldest sites where rock art has been discovered; the Herrera Period defined from 800 BC to 800 AD, was the age of the first ceramics. The oldest Herrera pottery has been discovered in Tocarema and dates to 800 BC. Herrera art is represented by the archaeoastronomical site, called El Infiernito by the Spanish. On a field outside Villa de Leyva, menhirs in the shape of aligned phalluses were erected; this site, the oldest remaining of constructed art, dated at 500 BC, formed an important place for religious rituals and festivities where great quantities of the alcoholic drink chicha was consumed.
The evidence for festivities at this site are from a date in the Muisca Period. The goldworking in the northern parts of South America
Zipaquirá is a municipality and city of Colombia in the department of Cundinamarca. Its neighboring municipalities are Cogua to the north, its seat of municipal government is 49 kilometers from Santa Fe de Bogotá. It is part of the Greater Bogotá Metropolitan Area, is the capital of the province, it is the headquarters of the diocese of the same name and that includes much of the Department of Cundinamarca, extending to the centre of Bogotá, the region of Rionegro, the Ubaté Valley, the region of Guavio. The town is known for its Salt Cathedral, an underground church built inside a salt mine in a tunnel made as result of the excavation of the salinas. Zipaquirá has an original architecture, the old city centre is a tourist attraction, its main square is surrounded by old buildings in the Spanish Colonial style. This small city can be reached by train from Bogotá. In Chibcha, the language of the Muisca, who inhabited the Altiplano Cundiboyacense before the Spanish conquest, the name means "The Land of the zipa".
Zipa was the ruler of this territory. Another origin is "City of our father". In the Abra Valley between Zipaquirá and Tocancipá were found some of the most ancient human remains of South America; the lithic strata reveal animal bones and carbon fragments, analysed with carbon 14 dating to be around 12,500 years old, which makes it the oldest evidence of human settlement on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense. There are two possible origins of its name. One of them is taken from the indigenous people who inhabited the foot of the Zippa mountain range, "Chicaquicha", which means "our large wall" or according to other sources, "city of our father", until the 19th century the name was written beginning with the letter C; the other possibility refers to the name "zipa", a title conferred to the governor of the village and to his wife, the latter known by the title of "Quira", thus "Zipa-Quirá". The native people who lived there settled in the upper part of the mine called "Puebla Viejo", now known as Santiago Pérez 200 meters above the present site of the city, where early Spanish descriptions speak of "seeing a few hundred dwellings with a population of 12,000 people".
These lands were part of the domain of the zipa of Bacatá, the leader of the southern part of the Muisca. This area of the Bogotá plain had at that time a series of small lakes and canyons which made possible the transportation of its inhabitants by canoe, by means of which the inhabitants of Nemocón, Gachancipá, Tocancipá reached Chicaquicha in order to seek supplies of salt which they traded for pottery and tiles. Salt was traded with peoples throughout the Andean region of Colombia, including the Panche, Pantágora in the present department of Tolima, the Muzo of the present-day department of Boyacá. On July 18, 1600, Don oidor Luis Henríquez established a settlement on the site with workers and their families, named it the "Village of Zipaquirá". On August 2, 1600, Henríquez contracted Juan de Robles to construct the Church of Zipaquirá, reconstructed by Pedro de Tovar y Buendía, when the parish priest was Fernando de Buenaventura y Castillo. In 1605 the area was removed to its original location.
In 1623, the Spanish official Don Francisco de Sosa named as wards the 321 native inhabitants in the "Old Town", according to the declaration of Alfredo Tinoco. On October 5, 1638, Gabriel de Carvajal became the guardian of 771 natives in the region and 125 in Tibitó. In 1778, by order of the Viceroy Manuel Antonio Flórez, the natives who lived in Zipaquirá were transported to Nemocón in order to prevent constant rebellions of previous owners of the salt deposits. On August 3, 1779, Zipaquirá saw the creation of the Holy San Antonio de Padua parish. In 1852 Zipaquirá changed its status and became the "Autonomous Province of Zipaquirá". During the Spanish reconquest, on August 3, 1816, the so-called Zipaquirá Martyrs were executed in the city square. With the Constitution of Cundinamarca of 1815, the city became the capital of the province of the same name. On July 10, 1863, it was designated the capital of the Sovereign State of Cundinamarca, although subsequently it was named Funza by decree of president Morales.
Law number 46 of April 29, 1905, created the Department of Quesada, the capital of, Zipaquirá, which remained so until 1910. Zipaquirá is located 48 kilometres north of Bogotá, linked by road and by train; the most famous of its salt mines has been exploited since pre-Columbian times by the Muisca, in, located the famous Salt Cathedral. Gonzales Forero Square is the center of the city, surrounded by beautiful buildings that have conserved their colonial style and are considered to be national monuments; the square contains a cathedral constructed between 1760 and 1870, with its stone façade, as well as the city hall and the Salinas administration building, with their green republican-style roofs. The city has undergone recent changes, having transformed streets in the center to pedestrian walkways, limiting vehicle traffic in the area in an attempt at preservation and conservation, lending a more cordial aspect for tourists; as part of this strategy, the city has carried out a project of restructuring the Sabana Station, next to it the construction of Parque La Esperanza.
The Bogotá - Chía - Cajic
Tunja is a city on the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes, in the region known as the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, 130 km northeast of Bogotá. In 2012 it had an estimated population of 181,407 inhabitants, it is the capital of the Central Boyacá Province. Tunja is an important educational centre of well-known universities. In the time before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca, Tunja was called Hunza and was conquered by the Spanish conquistadors on August 20, 1537 upon zaque Quemuenchatocha and founded by the Spanish on August 6, 1539 one year after the former southern capital Bacatá; the city hosts the most remaining Muisca architecture: Hunzahúa Well, Goranchacha Temple and Cojines del Zaque. Tunja is a tourist destination for religious colonial architecture, with the Casa Fundador Gonzalo Suárez Rendón as oldest remnant. In addition to its religious and historical sites it is host to several internationally known festivals and is a jumping-off point for regional tourist destinations such as Villa de Leyva and Sierra Nevada del Cocuy.
It is a stop on the Pan American Highway which connects Tunja to Bogotá and Santa Marta and to the northern and southernmost parts of South America. Tunja has a population of 180,000 inhabitants and is located in central Colombia; the city centre is at an elevation of 2,820 metres above sea level. Tunja's climate is influenced by its altitude. At 3000 m it is one of the higher cities in Colombia; as a result, the city features a subtropical highland climate with little variation in temperature throughout the year but a distinct dry season from December to February. The earliest evidence of human population on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense has been dated to 12.000 years ago. Homus Tequendama inhabited the area by 6375 BCE. Archeologists have found human skeletons including arm bones in the area. Many archaeological discoveries were found in the area of the present-day city, dated to 150 BCE. During the 1st millennium AD, the territory was inhabited by the Muisca, who spoke Chibcha and emigrated from Central America through Panama to the Andean Region.
The Muisca developed their own religion and mythology. According to those myths, it was the brutal cacique and prophet Goranchacha who moved the capital for the northern Muisca from Ramiriquí to Tunja called Hunza. An era when frequent battles among cacicazgos took place, peace was proposed for the region and an agreement was made among caciques to choose a supreme chief to rule them all. Hunzahúa, who came from Ramiriqui, was elected; the capital of his confederation was named Hunza. Hunzahúa took the title of zaque, reign over the lands from the Chicamocha to Fusagasugá and from the Llanos de San Juan to Panche and Muzo frontiers, including Vélez territory; this helped to unify the Muisca with respect to their language and religion, until zipa Saguamanchica broke this unity due to differences with the cacique of Guatavita. Saguamanchica, with 50,000 soldiers, decided on a massive attack on zaque Michuá, crossing Guatavita and Chocontá, after which the Battle of Chocontá is named. Michuá dealt with him, supported by an army which doubled Saguamanchica, battling around three hours and killing both chiefs.
A new zaque, was installed, during the tense truce between Bacatá and Hunza. In 1514, Quemuenchatocha found out about the expansionist intentions of the new zipa Nemequene, he asked the caciques of Gámeza, Tundama and Sáchica to help him to reinforce his army. A battle was fought in Ventaquemada and, when Nemequene was about to become the victor, he was fatally wounded and his troops retreated. Iraca retracted his support and Quemuenchatocha got a truce whose terms would end when the Spanish arrived; when Quemuenchatocha found out the Europeans were around his lands, he decided to stay in Hunza and avoided any aggression against the invaders. He forbade under strict penalties to show the invaders the path to his headquarters and when he knew they were reaching him, he sent them gifts and peacemakers, hoping to stop them while he was hiding his treasures. Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada parted from Santa Marta in April 1536, on the first main expedition into the Andes, his main goal was to conquer El Dorado.
After months of traveling, he found many Muisca cacicazgos in the Altiplano Cundiboyacense. In his search, he acquired information about emerald discoveries and other treasures in Somondoco and the Llanos. On August 20, 1537, the conquerors arrived, with dogs. Jiménez de Quesada arrived at the headquarters of Quemuenchatocha, finding him in a chair, dressed in gold in the same way as his companions who ran off, leaving him alone; the gold, the emeralds and the fancy fabrics were taken. This conquest took place where the San Agustin Convent was built. Quemuenchatocha was taken to Suesca, with the hope he would reveal where he hid the rest of his treasure, he retired to Ramiriquí where he died. Modern Tunja was founded nearly two years on August 6, 1539, by captain Gonzalo Suárez Rendón, sent by Hernán Pérez de Quesada, brother of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Tunja has the lowest homicide rate in Colombia and is below average in Latin America according to the report from the International Centre of the Prevention of Crime for 2010.
2 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants in 2015 makes the city one of the safest in the Americas. According to other sources, this value is four times lower than the national average. Tunja is an example of a safe city; the streets are named according to 472 and Google Maps nomenclatures —, (K: carr
The Inca Empire known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Its political and administrative structure is considered by most scholars to have been the most developed in the Americas before Columbus' arrival; the administrative and military center of the empire was located in the city of Cusco. The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands sometime in the early 13th century, its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods. At its largest, the empire joined Peru, southwest Ecuador and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, northern Chile and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia, its official language was Quechua. Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the sun worship of Inti – their sun god – and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama.
The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the "son of the sun."The Inca Empire was unique in that it lacked many features associated with civilization in the Old World. In the words of one scholar, The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles, they lacked animals to ride and draft animals that could pull wagons and plows... lacked the knowledge of iron and steel... Above all, they lacked a system of writing... Despite these supposed handicaps, the Incas were still able to construct one of the greatest imperial states in human history. Notable features of the Inca Empire include its monumental architecture stonework, extensive road network reaching all corners of the empire, finely-woven textiles, use of knotted strings for record keeping and communication, agricultural innovations in a difficult environment, the organization and management fostered or imposed on its people and their labor; the Incan economy has been described in contradictory ways by scholars:... feudal, socialist The Inca empire functioned without money and without markets.
Instead, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals and Inca rulers. "Taxes" consisted of a labour obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca rulers reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food and drink in celebratory feasts for their subjects; the Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, "the four suyu". In Quechua, tawa is four and -ntin is a suffix naming a group, so that a tawantin is a quartet, a group of four things taken together, in this case representing the four suyu whose corners met at the capital; the four suyu were: Chinchaysuyu, Antisuyu and Kuntisuyu. The name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces; the Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyu. The term Inka means "ruler" or "lord" in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family; the Incas were a small percentage of the total population of the empire numbering only 15,000 to 40,000, but ruling a population of around 10 million people.
The Spanish adopted the term as an ethnic term referring to all subjects of the empire rather than the ruling class. As such, the name Imperio inca referred to the nation that they encountered and subsequently conquered; the Inca Empire was the last chapter of thousands of years of Andean civilizations. The Andean civilization was one of five civilizations in the world deemed by scholars to be "pristine", indigenous and not derivative from other civilizations; the Inca Empire was preceded by two large-scale empires in the Andes: the Tiwanaku, based around Lake Titicaca and the Wari or Huari centered near the city of Ayacucho. The Wari occupied the Cuzco area for about 400 years. Thus, many of the characteristics of the Inca Empire derived from earlier multi-ethnic and expansive Andean cultures. Carl Troll has argued that the development of the Inca state in the central Andes was aided by conditions that allows for the elaboration of the staple food chuño. Chuño, which can be stored for long periods, is made of potato dried at the freezing temperatures that are common at nighttime in the southern Peruvian highlands.
Such link between the Inca state and chuño may be questioned as potatoes and other crops such as maize can be dried with only sunlight. Troll did argue that llamas, the Inca's pack animal, can be found in its largest numbers in this same region, it is worth considering the maximum extent of the Inca Empire coincided with the greatest distribution of llamas and alpacas in Pre-Hispanic America. The link between the Andean biomes of puna and páramo and the Inca state is a matter of research; as a third point Troll pointed out irrigation technology as advantageous to the Inca state-building. While Troll theorized environmental influences on the Inca Empire he opposed environmental determinism arguing that culture lay at the core of the Inca civilization; the Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. Incan oral history tells an origin story of three caves; the center cave at Tampu T'uqu was named Qhapaq T'uqu. The other