The Panche or Tolima were an indigenous group of people in what is now Colombia. Their language is unclassified – and unclassifiable – but may have been Cariban, they inhabited the southwestern parts of the department of Cundinamarca and the northeastern areas of the department of Tolima, close to the Magdalena River. At the time of the Spanish conquest, more than 30,000 Panche were living in what would become the New Kingdom of Granada. Early knowledge about the Panche has been compiled by scholar Pedro Simón. According to the latter, the word panche in their own Panche language means "cruel" and "murderer"; the Panche were inhabiting the lower altitude southwestern areas of the Cundinamarca department, close to the Magdalena River. Their northern neighbours were the Muzo in the northeast and the Pantágora in the northwest, in the east the Muisca, in the southeast the Sutagao and to the south and southwest the Pijao; the northern limits were defined by the Río Negro and the Guarinó River and the southern limits the Coello and Fusagasugá Rivers.
The Panche people were organized in a loose confederation with different subgroups whose names still remain as municipalities of Cundinamarca. The Panche were a strong group of warriors, they walked naked and were ornamented with earrings and golden pieces. The Panche fought wars with their enemies using sticks and clubs and poisoned arrows, they used poison of snakes for their arrows. Petroglyphs of the Panche were discovered in Tibacuy, Viotá, El Colegio, Albán, Sasaima. Rock paintings have been found in Tibacuy. Like other indigenous peoples of the Americas, such as the Guane, the Panche performed cranial deformation. According to Pedro Simón, the Panche performed cannibalism on parts of their conquered enemies; some sources state. However research by various researchers has found no evidence for cannibalism and attribute the cannibalistic ideas to the Spanish conquistadores. In terms of their burial practices the Panches differed from their neighbours that the dead were not oriented in a fixed position, like the Muisca with their heads to the east and the Muzo with their heads to the west.
The Panche civilization has been described from 300 AD onwards. Around the year 1000 migrations from the Caribbean coast of Colombia happened inward. After the Spanish conquest and the installation of the New Kingdom of Granada, the Panche diminished due to their resistance against the Spanish conquistadores; the first Spanish conquerors who invaded the Panche territories were Juan de Céspedes and Alonso de San Martín. Conquest was performed by Hernán Venegas Carrillo. More than 2000 artefacts from the Panche are stored in the Museo del Oro in Bogotá. Muisca Muzo Pijao, Sutagao Francis, John Michael. 1993. "Muchas hipas, no minas" The Muiscas, a merchant society: Spanish misconceptions and demographic change, 1-118. University of Alberta. Martínez, Ángel. 2005. Los Panches - Los inconquistables Panches del Magdalena - The Panche - the unconquerable Panches of the Magdalena River, 1-207. Liliana Pérez Illera, Ángel Martínez T & MJ Editores. Accessed 2016-07-08. De Perdomo, Lucia R.. 1975. Excavacaciones arqueológicas en zona Panche - Guaduas, Cundinamarca - Archaeological excavations in the Panche area - Guaduas, Cundinamarca, 247-289.
This article describes the practice of mummification by the Muisca. The Muisca inhabited the Altiplano Cundiboyacense in the Colombian Andes before the arrival of the Spanish and were an advanced civilisation, they mummified the higher social class members of their society the zipas, caciques and their families. The mummies were not buried. Many mummies from the Chibcha-speaking indigenous groups have been found to date from the Muisca and Guane. In 1602 the early Spanish colonisers found 150 mummies in a cave near Suesca, that were organised in a scenic circular shape with the mummy of the cacique in the centre of the scene; the mummies were surrounded by pots. In 2007 the mummy of a baby was discovered in a cave near Gámeza, Boyacá, together with a small bowl, a pacifier and cotton cloths; the process of mummification continued into the colonial period. The youngest mummies have been dated to second half of the 18th century; the early Spanish chroniclers Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, Pedro Simón, Pedro de Aguado, Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés and others have provided the first historical data on the Muisca mummies.
Modern researchers who contributed to the knowledge of the Muisca mummies have been 19th century scholars Ezequiel Uricoechea and Liborio Zerda. In the 20th and 21st century Eliécer Silva Celis and Abel Fernando Martínez Martín have been analysing various Muisca mummies. In the centuries before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca in 1537, the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, high plateau of the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes, was inhabited by the Muisca people, they were an advanced civilisation of farmers and traders. The Muisca did not construct stone architecture, as the Maya and Inca did, they were called "Salt People" because of their extraction of halite from various salt mines on the Altiplano, predominantly in Zipaquirá, Nemocón and Tausa. Mummification was a common practice in South American cultures; the Nazca and Chachapoya of Peru conducted mummifications. The oldest evidence of mummification in the Americas is known from the Chinchorro culture in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile and has been dated at 7000 years BP.
The practice was performed by various pre-Columbian cultures in Colombia. Of the cultures to the southwest of the Altiplano, the Calima and Quimbaya practiced mummification. On and close to the Altiplano the Muisca and Lache mummified their dead and north of the Altiplano the Chitarero and Zenú executed the mummification process; the indigenous groups inhabiting the jungles of the Darién mummified their caciques. The Muisca started their mummification practices in the Late Herrera Period from the 5th century AD onwards; the use of substances to balm the body and the extraction of the organs has been described by franciscan Estebán de Asencio in 1550. The process took eight hours to dry the body with a dusty balm. While the exact composition of the balm has not been determined, the moque was a type of resin, used in other rituals and practices around the mummification. Another method of preparation of the mummies was more frequent; the body would be dried using fire and smoke and no extraction of organs would be performed.
The heat of the fire not only dried the body the phenol liberated by the smoke would conserve the body and prevent it from decomposing. This process, that the Guane performed to prepare their mummies, has been described by Pedro Simón; the dried bodies were wrapped in various layers of cotton cloths painted. Emeralds were put in the mouths and to cover the eyes and bellybutton of the deceased and sometimes cloths were inserted in their rectum; the ears and nose were covered with cotton cloths as well. During the mummification rituals, the Muisca drank chicha for various days in a row; as the Muisca believed in an afterlife, the mummies were buried surrounded by pots with food as beans and chicha, mantles and golden figures for their stay in another world, similar to ours. The mummies of the higher classes were decorated with golden earrings or noserings and with golden feathered crowns and emeralds; the discovery of a cave in Gámeza, Boyacá in 2007, proved children were mummified. In the temples and places reserved for the mummies, the bodies were put on a platform of reed, as an elevated bed, called barbacoas.
Other mummies were placed on small wooden stools. The mummies were left there without being buried. All the mummies found were in a similar sitting position with the arms and legs folded towards the torso. Ezequiel Uricoechea described in 1854 that the fingers of the mummified persons were strapped together with cotton cords; some of the mummies those of the warriors, were found with golden arms in their hands. The fighters were richly decorated with emeralds and fine cloths and bags of cotton. According to Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada who made the first contact with the Muisca, during the conquest, the guecha warriors carried mummies on their backs to serve as an example and to impress their enemies in their warfare; when his soldiers Miguel Sánchez and Juan Rodríguez Parra raided the Sun Temple in Sogamoso in September 1537, they found mummies decorated with golden crowns and other objects sitting on raised platforms. Although the Muisca society was egalitarian, differences in the burial processes indicate the distinction of the social classes.
The higher class people and their families were mummif
Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives or stories that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans. Stories of everyday human beings, although of leaders of some type, are contained in legends, as opposed to myths. Myths are endorsed by rulers and priests or priestesses, are linked to religion or spirituality. In fact, many societies group their myths and history together, considering myths and legends to be true accounts of their remote past. In particular, creation myths take place in a primordial age when the world had not achieved its form. Other myths explain how a society's customs and taboos were established and sanctified. There is a complex relationship between recital of myths and enactment of rituals; the study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and revived by Renaissance mythographers.
Today, the study of myth continues in a wide variety of academic fields, including folklore studies and psychology. The term mythology may either refer to the study of myths in general, or a body of myths regarding a particular subject; the academic comparisons of bodies of myth is known as comparative mythology. Since the term myth is used to imply that a story is not objectively true, the identification of a narrative as a myth can be political: many adherents of religions view their religion's stories as true and therefore object to the stories being characterised as myths. Scholars now speak of Christian mythology, Jewish mythology, Islamic mythology, Hindu mythology, so forth. Traditionally, Western scholarship, with its Judaeo-Christian heritage, has viewed narratives in the Abrahamic religions as being the province of theology rather than mythology. Labelling all religious narratives as myths can be thought of as treating different traditions with parity. Definitions of myth to some extent vary by scholar.
Finnish folklorist Lauri Honko offers a cited definition: Myth, a story of the gods, a religious account of the beginning of the world, the creation, fundamental events, the exemplary deeds of the gods as a result of which the world and culture were created together with all parts thereof and given their order, which still obtains. A myth expresses and confirms society's religious values and norms, it provides a pattern of behavior to be imitated, testifies to the efficacy of ritual with its practical ends and establishes the sanctity of cult. Scholars in other fields use the term myth in varied ways. In a broad sense, the word can refer to any traditional story, popular misconception or imaginary entity. However, while myth and other folklore genres may overlap, myth is thought to differ from genres such as legend and folktale in that neither are considered to be sacred narratives; some kinds of folktales, such as fairy stories, are not considered true by anyone, may be seen as distinct from myths for this reason.
Main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans, while legends feature humans as their main characters. However, many exceptions or combinations exist, as in the Iliad and Aeneid. Moreover, as stories spread between cultures or as faiths change, myths can come to be considered folktales, their divine characters recast as either as humans or demihumans such as giants and faeries. Conversely and literary material may acquire mythological qualities over time. For example, the Matter of Britain and the Matter of France, seem distantly to originate in historical events of the fifth and eighth-centuries and became mythologised over the following centuries. In colloquial use, the word myth can be used of a collectively held belief that has no basis in fact, or any false story; this usage, pejorative, arose from labeling the religious myths and beliefs of other cultures as incorrect, but it has spread to cover non-religious beliefs as well. However, as used by folklorists and academics in other relevant fields, such as anthropology, the term myth has no implication whether the narrative may be understood as true or otherwise.
In present use, mythology refers to the collected myths of a group of people, but may mean the study of such myths. For example, Greek mythology, Roman mythology and Hittite mythology all describe the body of myths retold among those cultures. Folklorist Alan Dundes defines myth as a sacred narrative that explains how the world and humanity evolved into their present form. Dundes classified a sacred narrative as "a story that serves to define the fundamental worldview of a culture by explaining aspects of the natural world and delineating the psychological and social practices and ideals of a society". Anthropologist Bruce Lincoln defines myth as "ideology in narrative form." The compilation or description of myths is sometimes known as mythography, a term which can be used of a scholarly anthology of myths. Key mythographers in the Classical tradition include Ovid, whose tellings of myths have been profoundingly influential.
Sogamoso is a city in the department of Boyacá of Colombia. It is the capital of the Sugamuxi Province, named after the original Sugamuxi. Sogamoso is nicknamed "City of the Sun", based on the original Muisca tradition of pilgrimage and adoring their Sun god Sué at the Sun Temple; the city is located at an altitude of 2,569 metres on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense in the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Sogamoso is named after Sugamuxi or Suamox, the original name in Chibcha for the city and Sugamuxi, the last iraca of the sacred City of the Sun. Suamuxi means "Dwelling of the Sun". Knowledge about Sugamuxi has been provided by Pedro Simón and the German countess Gertrud von Podewils Dürniz, in her work Chigys Mie. Sogamoso limits with the following municipalities: north: Nobsa and Tópaga east: Tópaga, Monguí and Aquitania - 3030 m south: Aquitania, Cuítiva and Iza west: Tibasosa, Firavitoba Sogamoso has a temperate climate with an average temperature of 20 °C. Before the Spanish conquest, Suamox, as it was called, was ruled by the iraca of which the last ruler was called Sugamuxi.
The city was a place of pilgrimage and the iraca was both priest and ruler housed in the Sun Temple, a richly ornamented temple honouring Sué, the Sun god in the Muisca religion. Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada was the conquistador of the Muisca Confederation, arriving in Suamox territories in September 1537. Soldiers of De Quesada -according to Spanish chroniclers accidentally- set the Sun Temple on fire. Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita narrates about the march of De Quesada to Suamox, the looting of the city and the fire of the temple of the Sun. Soon after the conquest, the missionaries began the construction of a chapel that would open the way to the first Catholic church of the time, located on the central square. Natural scientist Alexander von Humboldt who visited the New Kingdom of Granada at the beginning of the 19th century, wrote about Sogamoso in his chronicles. According to the political Map – administrative Number 41ª, del Plan of Territorial Classification 1999–2010, in February of the year 2000, the city was conformed by 18 veredas: Sogamoso is composed of 70 neighbourhoods.
L. Alamos del sur 2. Álvaro González Santana 3. Angelmar 4. Benjamín Herrera 5. Campoamor 6. Centro 7. Chapinero 8. Chicamocha 9. Colombia 10. El Cortez 11. El Diamante 12. El Durazno 13. El Jardín 14. El Laguito 15. El Nogal 16. El Oriente 17. El Prado 18. El Recreo 19. El Rosario 20. El Sol 21. El Carmen 22. Gustavo Jiménez Jiménez 23. Jorge Eliécer Gaitán 24. José Antonio Galán 25. Juan José Rondón 26. La Castellana 27. La Esmeralda 28. La Florida 29. La Isla 30. La Pradera 31. La Villita 32. Las Acacias 33. Las Américas 34. Los Alisos 35. Los Alpes 36. Los Arrayanes 37. Los Libertadores 38. Los Rosales 39. Los Sauces 40. Lunapark 41. Magdalena 42. Monquirá 43. Enrique Olaya Herrera 44. Prado Norte 45. Rafael Uribe Uribe 46. San Andresito 47. San Cristóbal 48. San Martín 49. San Martín- Centro 50. Santa Ana- Mochacá 51. Santa Bárbara 52. Santa Catalina 53. Santa Helena 54. Santa Inés 55. San Rafael 56. Santa Isabel 57. Santa Marta 58. Siete de Agosto 59. Simón Bolívar 60. Sucre 61. Sugamuxi 62. Universitario 63. Rafael Valdés Tavera 64. Veinte de Julio 65.
Venecia 66. Villa Blanca 67. Villa del Sol 68. Asodea 69. Villa del Lago 70. Valdez Tavera The economy of Sogamoso is centered around agriculture, the steel industry and construction materials, in the exploitation of limestones and coal. During the years 2007 and 2008, the city had a quick development in urban construction. Sogamoso is served by Alberto Lleras Camargo Airport. Aerocivil lifted the restriction of air operations in September 2009. Due to the increase of economic relationships with Bogotá and the rest of the region, the government realised the need to build a highway; as of 2016, Sogamoso has seven universities: Sogamoso Faculty of Pedagogical and Technological University Of Colombia, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia Open National University at Distance University Corporation Remington Polytechnic Grancolombiano University of Pamplona Superior school of Public Administration E. S. A. P. Sogamoso Faculty of the University of Boyacá The city hosts historical places as: Archaeology Museum Sogamoso, with a reconstruction of the Sun Temple Central park 6 September square The Pile-Mochacá, from the ancient city "the old Sogamoso" Morca, where the Virgin Of Morca is venerated Nearby Lake Tota, largest lake of Colombia and sacred site of the Muisca September 6: Anniversary of the city July: Festivities of the Sun and of the Steel Huán Festival, recreation of the indigenous ceremony of the adoration of the Sun September: International Festival of The Culture October: Festival of the corn October: Festival of the mud Rumba Stereo 106.1 FM Tropicana Stereo 107.3 FM Sun Stereo 99.1 FM RCN Basic Radio 1200 AM Caracol Radio 1090 AM RCN Antenna 2 1440 AM 96.1 FM Elkin Barrera, former professional cyclist Henry Cárdenas, former professional cyclist Edgar Corredor, former professional cyclist Camilo Gómez, professional cyclist Chepe González, former professional cyclist Luis Alfredo López, former professional cyclist Fabio Parra, former professional cyclist Humberto Parra, former professional cyclist Iván Parra, former professional cyclist Alfonso Patiño Rosselli, Colombian diplomat Álvaro Sierra, former professional cyclist Íkaro Valderrama, Latin-Siberian folk musician Camargo Pérez, Gabriel.
1961. Of the Mud to the Steel in the Rome of the Chibchas. Camargo Pérez, Gabriel. 1936. Villa de Leyva was about to be born twice, 2, 8. Camargo Pérez, Gabriel. 1925. Historical Geography of Sogamoso. Sugamuxi. N. N.. 1955. Prints of Sogamoso. Historical and geographical guide. General information on Sogamoso
The Bogotá savanna is a montane savanna, located in the southwestern part of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense in the center of Colombia. The Bogotá savanna has an extent of 4,251.6 square kilometres and an average altitude of 2,550 metres. The savanna is situated in the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes; the Bogotá savanna is crossed from northeast to southwest by the 375 kilometres long Bogotá River, which at the southwestern edge of the plateau forms the Tequendama Falls. Other rivers, such as the Subachoque, Bojacá, Fucha and Tunjuelo Rivers, tributaries of the Bogotá River, form smaller valleys with fertile soils dedicated to agriculture and cattle-breeding. Before the Spanish conquest of the Bogotá savanna, the area was inhabited by the indigenous Muisca, who formed a loose confederation of various caciques, named the Muisca Confederation; the Bogotá savanna, known as Bacatá, was ruled by the zipa. The people specialised in agriculture, the mining of emeralds and the extraction of rock salt from rocks in Zipaquirá, Nemocón, Tausa and other areas on the Bogotá savanna.
The salt extraction, a task of the Muisca women, gave the Muisca the name "The Salt People". In April 1536, a group of around 800 conquistadors left the relative safety of the Caribbean coastal city of Santa Marta to start a strenuous expedition up the Magdalena River, the main fluvial artery of Colombia. Word got around among the Spanish colonisers that deep in the unknown Andes, a rich area with an advanced civilisation must exist; these tales bore the -not so much- legend of El Dorado. The Muisca, skilled goldworkers, held a ritual in Lake Guatavita where the new zipa would cover himself in gold dust and jump from a raft into the cold waters of the 3,000 metres high lake to the northeast of the Bogotá savanna. After a journey of a year, where the Spanish lost over 80% of their soldiers, the conquistadors following the Suárez River, reached the Bogotá savanna in March 1537; the zipa who ruled the Bogotá savanna at the arrival of the Spanish was Tisquesusa. The Muisca posed little resistance to the Spanish strangers and Tisquesusa was defeated in April 1537 in Funza, in the centre of the savanna.
He fled towards the western hills and died of his wounds in Facatativá, on the southwestern edge of the Bogotá savanna. The Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada established the New Kingdom of Granada with capital Santa Fe de Bogotá on August 6, 1538; this started a process of colonisation and submittance of the Muisca to the new rule. Between 65 and 80% of the indigenous people perished due to European diseases as smallpox and typhus; the Spanish introduced new crops. Over the course of the 16th to early 20th century, the Bogotá savanna was sparsely populated and industrialised; the rise in population during the twentieth century and the expansion of agriculture and urbanisation reduced the biodiversity and natural habitat of the Bogotá savanna severely. Today, the Metropolitan Area of Bogotá on the Bogotá savanna hosts more than ten million people. Bogotá is the biggest city worldwide at altitudes above 2,500 metres; the many rivers on the savanna are contaminated and efforts to solve the environmental problems are conducted in the 21st century.
Bogotá savanna is named after Bogotá, derived from Muysccubun Bacatá, which means " outside of the farm fields". The Bogotá savanna is the southwestern part of the larger Andean plateau, the Altiplano Cundiboyacense; the savanna is a montane savanna, bordered to the east by the Eastern Hills, the Sumapaz mountains in the south, the hills of Tausa and Suesca in the north and western hills of Cundinamarca in the west. The total surface area is 4,251.6 square kilometres. The average temperature of the plateau is 14 °C, but this can fluctuate between 0 and 24 °C; the dry and rainy seasons alternate during the year. The driest months are December, January and March. During the rainy months, the temperature tends to be more stable with variations between 9 and 20 °C. June and August are the months that present the largest variations of temperature, during the morning frost in the higher terrains surrounding the savanna is possible. Sometimes ground frost is present, which has a negative impact on agriculture.
Hail is a common phenomenon on the savanna. Bogotá River - 375 kilometres Bojacá River Fucha River Teusacá River Juan Amarillo River Tunjuelo River Soacha River Neusa River Río Frío Subachoque River Lake Guatavita - overlooking the northeastern part of the savanna Lake Herrera Tominé Reservoir - northeast, biggest waterbody on the Bogotá savanna - 690 cubic megametres Neusa Reservoir - north - 102 cubic megametres El Muña Reservoir - south - 42 cubic megametres Lake Herrera Tequendama Falls - southwestern limit There is a system of wetlands that regulate the soil moisture acting like sponges for the rain waters. Fifteen wetlands have a protected status, with various wetlands as unprotected. In 1950, the total surface area of the wetlands amounted to 150,000 hectares, but due to the urbanisation of the Colombian capital the total area has been reduced to 1,500 hectares. Despite the continuous urbanisation and industrial activities, the Bogotá savanna is a rich biodiverse area with many bird species registered.
The diversity of mammals and reptiles is much lower. Before the arrival of the European colonisers, the savanna was populated predominantly by white-tailed deer, the main ingre
Nemocón is a municipality and town of Colombia in the Central Savanna Province, part of the department of Cundinamarca. Nemocón, famous for its salt mine, was an important village in the Muisca Confederation, the country in the central Colombian Andes before the arrival of the Spanish; the municipality is situated in the northern part of the Bogotá savanna, part of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense with its urban centre at an altitude of 2,585 metres and 65 kilometres from the capital Bogotá. Nemocón is the northeasternmost municipality of the Metropolitan Area of Bogotá and the Bogotá River originates close to Nemocón; the median temperature of Nemocón is 12.8 °C. The municipality borders Tausa in the north, Suesca in the east, Gachancipá and Zipaquirá in the south and in the west the rivers Checua and Neusa and the municipality of Cogua. Nemocón is derived from Enemocón and means "The cry or sadness of the warrior" in the Chibcha language. Another etymology is. Archaeological evidence surfaced by Gonzalo Correal Urrego in 1979 and Ana María Groot in 1992 has shown that Nemocón was inhabited early in the history of inhabitation of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense.
One of the oldest evidence of human settlement. The inhabitants of the area lived under rock shelters, similar to Tequendama; the archaeological site Checua, at 7 kilometres north from the urban centre of Nemocón, provided evidence carbon dated at around 6500 BCE. First researcher of Checua is archaeologist Ana María Groot. In years other archaeological sites have been found. Rock art has been discovered at various sites among others at the border with Suesca; this lithic period, part of the Andean preceramic, predates the Herrera Period of which archaeological evidence has been found by Marianne Cardale de Schrimpff in 1975, 1976 and the 1980s. Remains of deer, guinea pigs, pecaris, howler monkeys and armadillos have been discovered in Nemocón and formed an important part of the diet of the people. Ceramics of Nemocón date to the 4th century BC and showed that Nemocón in those ages was important in the extraction of salt. Excavations in Nemocón have revealed the use of needles; the Herrera Period was followed by the culturally advanced civilisation of the Muisca, organised in their loose Muisca Confederation.
The Muisca Period commenced in 800 AD and the people were named Pueblo de la Sal. Ceramics of this period found in Nemocón originated from farther away on the Altiplano and ceramics of Nemocón and Zipaquirá found elsewhere on the Bogotá savanna are related to the salt trade. Of the central Colombian indigenous peoples, only the Lache and U'wa were the other miners of salt; the Muisca exploited halite in various locations in their territories, among others in Nemocón, Zipaquirá, Sesquilé, Tausa, Gámeza, Guachetá. Nemocón was a market town. A smaller salt mine was located in Sopó. Early evidence of salt extraction dates back to the end of the first millennium BC; the Muisca women extracted the salt from a brine in large pots. According to chronicler Juan de Santa Gertrudis, used the mineral to dry and preserve their fish and meat. During the Spanish colonial period, the salt was exploited by hand labour of the surviving Muisca. Modern Nemocón was founded on July 1600 by Luis Henríquez; as of 1614, wheat was cultivated in Nemocón.
In modern times the extraction of salt continued and the economical activity of the town has expanded to the cultivation of flowers and the extraction of kaolin. Famous for its salt mine and museum, Nemocón is a touristic village and linked by train from Bogotá; the salt mine is the second-largest of Colombia, after the Salt Cathedral in neighbouring Zipaquirá. Sunday is market day in Nemocón. Festival del floricultor September: Festival de Danzas December: Festival del macramé and Christmas lighting Julio Rubiano, former professional cyclist Remains of a mastodont have been found in Nemocón Scenes of the movie The 33 were filmed in the salt mine of Nemocón Muisca salt mining Zipaquirá, Muisca women, Nemequene Argüello García, Pedro María. 2015. Subsistence economy and chiefdom emergence in the Muisca area. A study of the Valle de Tena, 1–193. University of Pittsburgh. Accessed 2016-07-08. Cardale de Schrimpff, Marianne. 1985. En busca de los primeros agricultores del Altiplano Cundiboyacense - Searching for the first farmers of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, 99–125.
Banco de la República. Accessed 2016-07-08. Cooke, Richard. 1998. Human settlement of Central America and northernmost South America. Quaternary International 49/50. 177-190. Correal Urrego, Gonzalo. 1990. Aguazuque: Evidence of hunter-gatherers and growers on the high plains of the Eastern Ranges, 1-316. Banco de la República: Fundación de Investigaciones Arqueológicas Nacionales. Accessed 2016-07-08. Correal Urrego, Gonzalo. 1990. Evidencias culturales durante el Pleistocene y Holoceno de Colombia - Cultural evidences during the Pleistocene and Holocene of Colombia. Revista de Arqueología Americana 1. 69–89. Accessed 2016-07-08. Daza, Blanca Ysabel. 2013. Historia del proceso de mestizaje alimentario entre Colombia y España - History of the integration process of foods between Colombia and Spain, 1-494. Universitat de Barcelona. Espejo Olaya, Maria Bernarda. 1999. Notas sobre toponimia en algunas coplas colombianas - Notes about toponomy of some Colombian ballads - Thesaurus, 1102-1157. Tomo LIV, Núm. 3.. Groot de Mahecha, Ana María.
2014. Sal y poder en el altiplano de Bogotá, 1537-1640, 1-174
Muisca religion describes the religion of the Muisca who inhabited the central highlands of the Colombian Andes before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca. The Muisca formed a confederation of holy rulers and had a variety of deities and rituals incorporated in their culture. Supreme being of the Muisca was Chiminigagua who created the Earth, he was not directly honoured, yet, done through Chía, goddess of the Moon, her husband Sué, god of the Sun. The representation of the two main celestial bodies as husband and wife showed the complementary character of man and woman and the sacred status of marriage; the Muisca worshipped their gods at sacred sites, both natural, such as Lake Guatavita, the Siecha Lakes and Lake Tota and constructed. During these rituals the priests, performed sacrifices, sometimes human in character; the last public religious ceremony of the Muisca was performed in Ubaque on December 27, 1563. Knowledge about the Muisca religion was brought to Europe by conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada and soldier Juan de Castellanos in the 16th century and by bishop Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita and friar Pedro Simón in the 17th century.
Modern Muisca scholars who wrote about the religion of the inhabitants of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense are Javier Ocampo López and Eduard Londoño. The Muisca were religious people and their rulers had a double role both as political and as religious leaders; the people fasted and consumed coca and yopo with their rituals. Yopo was extracted from Anadenanthera trees, growing in the Llanos Orientales, to the east of the Muisca territories; the psychoactive seeds of the tree were traded with the Achagua and Tegua and grinded and inhaled using a hollow bird bone or a spoon. The plates from which the yopo was inhaled were made of gold and tumbaga and well elaborated and decorated. Many of them are on display in the Museo del Oro. Coca was used in rituals of predictions; the coca was combined with cal to increase the efficiency of the substance. The cal was saved in poporos made of gold or tumbaga. A variety of deities have been described by the chroniclers. Chiminigagua was the creator god of the Muisca who made the Earth.
At the beginning of time it was all dark and Chiminigagua sent two large black birds into the skies. From their beaks the light was created and the cosmos illuminated. Chía was one of the two gods through which Chiminigagua was honoured, she represented fertility of the people. Chía was married to Súe. Súe was the god of the Sun, important for the agriculture of the Muisca, he and his wife Chía followed each other across the skies, forming the perfect couple in conjunction at New Moon and during solar and lunar eclipses. The ancestor of all the Muisca was Bachué, mother of mankind who emerged from Lake Iguague with a three-year-old boy in her arms; when the boy grew up, Bachué traveled around the Muisca territories. Everytime she was pregnant, she bore four to six children; the Muisca believed all the people could be traced back to Bachué. When her children got old, Bachué returned to Lake Iguague with her son and after a final speech they turned into two giant snakes who submerged in the water, making the site sacred for the Muisca.
Bochica was holy teacher of the Muisca. He was an old bearded man sent from heaven to educate the people in weaving, mantle making, ceramics production and social and political values, he settled in Suamox. In the religion of the Muisca, Bochica created the Tequendama Falls, a waterfall west of southern capital Bacatá. Huitaca was the goddess of happiness and sexual liberation who rebelled against Bochica, she used to be a beautiful woman teaching the people a long life full of dances. When Bochica found out about her rebellion against his power, he turned Huitaca into a white owl. God Chibchacum represented rain and thunder and protected the traders and the working people in general, he was the patron of Bacatá. His revenge upon the people who disobeyed was flooding the Bogotá savanna. Bochica stepped in and ordered Chibchacum to carry the Earth on his shoulders, like Atlas in Ancient Greece. Chibchacum was the god of the numerous earthquakes in the central Andes; the rainbow was represented by Cuchavira, born when Bochica created the Tequendama Falls.
He was honoured with gold and other sacrifices. Chaquén was the god of fertility of sports, he trained the Muisca to prepare them for wars and the guecha warriors and farmers honoured him to win battles and acquire good harvests. Sexual rituals where the people dressed up in coloured feathered costumes were guarded by Chaquén, he was the creator of the Colombian national sport: tejo. Nencatacoa was the Muisca god and protector of artists, painters and drunkenness; the people in the Muisca territories worshipped him in large festivities where they got drunk of chicha. Nencatacoa was represented by a bear, dressed in gold, he helped. To honour the gods, the Muisca organised pilgrimages to other sacred sites; the pilgrimages were accompanied by dances as well as sacrifices. The pilgrimages were led by a group of priests; the priests were trained from childhood to become the religious leaders of the Muisca. An important site for the pilgrimages of the Muisca wer