The dutar is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Iran and Central Asia. Its name comes from the Persian word for "two strings", دوتار do tār, although the Herati dutar of Afghanistan has fourteen strings; when played, the strings are plucked by the Uyghurs of Western China and strummed and plucked by the Tajiks, Uzbeks. Related instruments include the Kazakh dombra; the Dutar is an important instrument among the Kurds of Khorasan amongst whom Haj Ghorban Soleimani of Quchan was a noted virtuoso. In Kormanji one who plays the dutar is known as a bakci. Khorasan bakhshi music is recognized on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. At the time of the Dutar's humble origins in the 15th century as a shepherd's instrument its strings were made from gut. However, with the opening up of the Silk Road, catgut gave way to strings made from twisted silk imported from China. To this day some instruments still feature silk strings, although nylon strings are commonly used.
The dutar has a dulcet tone. Typical sizes for the pear-shaped instrument range from one to two meters. Turgun Alimatov Abdurahim Hamidov Haj Ghorban Soleimani Alireza Soleimani Sultan Reza Bakci Haj Mohammad Hossein Yeganeh Saied Tehranizadeh Abd Allah Amini Zolfaghar Askarian Gholam Ali Poor Ataa Aliia Gholi Yeganeh Abdurehim Heyit Osman Mohammadparast Abdollah Alijani Ardeshir Shashmaqam Turgun Alimatov Music of Iran Music of Afghanistan Music of Tajikistan Music of Turkmenistan Music of Central Asia Dotara Bağlama Çiftelia Listen famous Dutar tunes Encyclopedia of Persian Music Instruments Dutar Music of Turkmenistan Youtube video of dutar music Picture of a Dutar
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones. A musician who plays the flute can be referred to as a flute player, flutist or, less fluter or flutenist. Flutes are the earliest extant musical instruments, as paleolithic instruments with hand-bored holes have been found. A number of flutes dating to about 43,000 to 35,000 years ago have been found in the Swabian Jura region of present-day Germany; these flutes demonstrate that a developed musical tradition existed from the earliest period of modern human presence in Europe. The word flute first entered the English language during the Middle English period, as floute, or else flowte, flote from Old French flaute and from Old Provençal flaüt, or else from Old French fleüte, flaüte, flahute via Middle High German floite or Dutch fluit.
The English verb flout has the same linguistic root, the modern Dutch verb fluiten still shares the two meanings. Attempts to trace the word back to the Latin flare have been pronounced "phonologically impossible" or "inadmissable"; the first known use of the word flute was in the 14th century. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, this was in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Hous of Fame, c.1380. Today, a musician who plays any instrument in the flute family can be called a flutist, or flautist, or a flute player. Flutist dates back to at least 1603, the earliest quotation cited by the Oxford English Dictionary. Flautist was used in 1860 by Nathaniel Hawthorne in The Marble Faun, after being adopted during the 18th century from Italy, like many musical terms in England since the Italian Renaissance. Other English terms, now obsolete, are fluter and flutenist; the oldest flute discovered may be a fragment of the femur of a juvenile cave bear, with two to four holes, found at Divje Babe in Slovenia and dated to about 43,000 years ago.
However, this has been disputed. In 2008 another flute dated back to at least 35,000 years ago was discovered in Hohle Fels cave near Ulm, Germany; the five-holed flute is made from a vulture wing bone. The researchers involved in the discovery published their findings in the journal Nature, in August 2009; the discovery was the oldest confirmed find of any musical instrument in history, until a redating of flutes found in Geißenklösterle cave revealed them to be older with an age of 42,000 to 43,000 years. The flute, one of several found, was found in the Hohle Fels cavern next to the Venus of Hohle Fels and a short distance from the oldest known human carving. On announcing the discovery, scientists suggested that the "finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe". Scientists have suggested that the discovery of the flute may help to explain "the probable behavioural and cognitive gulf between" Neanderthals and early modern human.
A three-holed flute, 18.7 cm long, made from a mammoth tusk was discovered in 2004, two flutes made from swan bones excavated a decade earlier are among the oldest known musical instruments. A playable 9,000-year-old Gudi was excavated from a tomb in Jiahu along with 29 defunct twins, made from the wing bones of red-crowned cranes with five to eight holes each, in the Central Chinese province of Henan; the earliest extant Chinese transverse flute is a chi flute discovered in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng at the Suizhou site, Hubei province, China. It dates from 433 BC, of the Zhou Dynasty, it is fashioned of lacquered bamboo with closed ends and has five stops that are at the flute's side instead of the top. Chi flutes are mentioned in Shi Jing and edited by Confucius, according to tradition; the earliest written reference to a flute is from a Sumerian-language cuneiform tablet dated to c. 2600–2700 BCE. Flutes are mentioned in a translated tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem whose development spanned the period of 2100–600 BCE.
Additionally, a set of cuneiform tablets knows as the "musical texts" provide precise tuning instructions for seven scale of a stringed instrument. One of those scales is named embūbum, an Akkadian word for "flute"; the Bible, in Genesis 4:21, cites Jubal as being the "father of all those who play the ugab and the kinnor". The former Hebrew term is believed by some to refer to some wind instrument, or wind instruments in general, the latter to a stringed instrument, or stringed instruments in general; as such, Jubal is regarded in the Judeo-Christian tradition as the inventor of the flute. Elsewhere in the Bible, the flute is referred to as "chalil", in particular in 1 Samuel 10:5, 1 Kings 1:40, Isaiah 5:12 and 30:29, Jeremiah 48:36. Archeological digs in the Holy Land have discovered flutes from both the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, the latter era "witness the creation of the Israelite kingdom and its separation into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judea."Some early flutes were made out of tibias.
A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity with a sound hole or opening in the body. More the term "lute" can refer to an instrument from the family of European lutes; the term refers to any string instrument having the strings running in a plane parallel to the sound table. The strings are attached to pegs or posts at the end of the neck, which have some type of turning mechanism to enable the player to tighten the tension on the string or loosen the tension before playing, so that each string is tuned to a specific pitch; the lute is plucked or strummed with one hand while the other hand "frets" the strings on the neck's fingerboard. By pressing the strings on different places of the fingerboard, the player can shorten or lengthen the part of the string, vibrating, thus producing higher or lower pitches; the European lute and the modern Near-Eastern oud descend from a common ancestor via diverging evolutionary paths. The lute is used in a great variety of instrumental music from the Medieval to the late Baroque eras and was the most important instrument for secular music in the Renaissance.
During the Baroque music era, the lute was used as one of the instruments which played the basso continuo accompaniment parts. It is an accompanying instrument in vocal works; the lute player either improvises a chordal accompaniment based on the figured bass part, or plays a written-out accompaniment. As a small instrument, the lute produces a quiet sound; the player of a lute is called a lutenist, lutanist or lutist, a maker of lutes is referred to as a luthier. The words lute and oud derive from Arabic al-ʿoud, it may refer to the wooden plectrum traditionally used for playing the oud, to the thin strips of wood used for the back, or to the wooden soundboard that distinguished it from similar instruments with skin-faced bodies. Many theories have been proposed for the origin of the Arabic name. A music scholar by the name of Eckhard Neubauer suggested that oud may be an Arabic borrowing from the Persian word rōd or rūd, which meant string. Another researcher, archaeomusicologist Richard J. Dumbrill, suggests that rud came from the Sanskrit rudrī and transferred to Arabic and European languages by way of a Semitic language.
However, another theory according to Semitic language scholars, is that the Arabic ʿoud is derived from Syriac ʿoud-a, meaning "wooden stick" and "burning wood"—cognate to Biblical Hebrew'ūḏ, referring to a stick used to stir logs in a fire. Henry George Farmer notes the similarity between al-ʿawda. Lutes are made entirely of wood; the soundboard is a teardrop-shaped thin flat plate of resonant wood. In all lutes the soundboard has a single decorated sound hole under the strings called; the sound hole is not open, but rather covered with a grille in the form of an intertwining vine or a decorative knot, carved directly out of the wood of the soundboard. The geometry of the lute soundboard is complex, involving a system of barring that places braces perpendicular to the strings at specific lengths along the overall length of the belly, the ends of which are angled to abut the ribs on either side for structural reasons. Robert Lundberg, in his book Historical Lute Construction, suggests ancient builders placed bars according to whole-number ratios of the scale length and belly length.
He further suggests the inward bend of the soundboard is a deliberate adaptation by ancient builders to afford the lutenist's right hand more space between the strings and soundboard. Soundboard thickness varies, but hovers between 1.5 and 2 mm. Some luthiers tune the belly as they build, removing mass and adapting bracing to produce desirable sonic results; the lute belly is never finished, but in some cases the luthier may size the top with a thin coat of shellac or glair to help keep it clean. The belly joins directly to the rib, without a lining glued to the sides, a cap and counter cap are glued to the inside and outside of the bottom end of the bowl to provide rigidity and increased gluing surface. After joining the top to the sides, a half-binding is installed around the edge of the soundboard; the half-binding is half the thickness of the soundboard and is made of a contrasting color wood. The rebate for the half-binding must be precise to avoid compromising structural integrity; the back or the shell is assembled from thin strips of hardwood called ribs, joined edge to edge to form a deep rounded body for the instrument.
There are braces inside on the soundboard to give it strength. The neck is made of light wood, with a veneer of hardwood to provide durability for the fretboard beneath the strings. Unlike most modern stringed instruments, the lute's fretboard is mounted flush with the top; the pegbox for lutes before the Baroque era was angled back from the neck at 90° to help hold the low-tension strings against the nut which, traditionally, is not glued in place but is held in place by string pressure only. The tuning pegs are simple pegs of hardwood, somewhat tapered, that are held in place by friction in holes drilled through the pegbox; as with other instru
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. General definitions of music include common elements such as pitch, rhythm and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. Different styles or types of music may de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; the word derives from Greek μουσική. See glossary of musical terminology. In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form or cultural activity include the creation of works of music, the criticism of music, the study of the history of music, the aesthetic examination of music. Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres" and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, for example, "There is no noise, only sound."The creation, performance and the definition of music vary according to culture and social context.
Indeed, throughout history, some new forms or styles of music have been criticized as "not being music", including Beethoven's Grosse Fuge string quartet in 1825, early jazz in the beginning of the 1900s and hardcore punk in the 1980s. There are many types of music, including popular music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies and work songs such as chanteys. Music ranges from organized compositions–such as Classical music symphonies from the 1700s and 1800s, through to spontaneously played improvisational music such as jazz, avant-garde styles of chance-based contemporary music from the 20th and 21st centuries. Music can be divided into genres and genres can be further divided into subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are subtle, sometimes open to personal interpretation, controversial. For example, it can be hard to draw the line between heavy metal. Within the arts, music may be classified as a fine art or as an auditory art.
Music may be played or sung and heard live at a rock concert or orchestra performance, heard live as part of a dramatic work, or it may be recorded and listened to on a radio, MP3 player, CD player, smartphone or as film score or TV show. In many cultures, music is an important part of people's way of life, as it plays a key role in religious rituals, rite of passage ceremonies, social activities and cultural activities ranging from amateur karaoke singing to playing in an amateur funk band or singing in a community choir. People may make music as a hobby, like a teen playing cello in a youth orchestra, or work as a professional musician or singer; the music industry includes the individuals who create new songs and musical pieces, individuals who perform music, individuals who record music, individuals who organize concert tours, individuals who sell recordings, sheet music, scores to customers. The word derives from Greek μουσική. In Greek mythology, the nine Muses were the goddesses who inspired literature and the arts and who were the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, song-lyrics, myths in the Greek culture.
According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the term "music" is derived from "mid-13c. Musike, from Old French musique and directly from Latin musica "the art of music," including poetry." This is derived from the "... Greek mousike " of the Muses," from fem. of mousikos "pertaining to the Muses," from Mousa "Muse". Modern spelling from 1630s. In classical Greece, any art in which the Muses presided, but music and lyric poetry." Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. When music was only available through sheet music scores, such as during the Classical and Romantic eras, music lovers would buy the sheet music of their favourite pieces and songs so that they could perform them at home on the piano. With the advent of sound recording, records of popular songs, rather than sheet music became the dominant way that music lovers would enjoy their favourite songs. With the advent of home tape recorders in the 1980s and digital music in the 1990s, music lovers could make tapes or playlists of their favourite songs and take them with them on a portable cassette player or MP3 player.
Some music lovers create mix tapes of their favorite songs, which serve as a "self-portrait, a gesture of friendship, prescription for an ideal party... an environment consisting of what is most ardently loved."Amateur musicians can compose or perf
Azerbaijanis or Azeris known as Azerbaijani Turks, are a Turkic people living in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign Republic of Azerbaijan. They are the second-most numerous ethnic group among the Turkic peoples after Anatolian Turks, they are predominantly Shi'i Muslims. They comprise the largest ethnic group in the Republic of Azerbaijan and the second-largest ethnic group in neighboring Iran and Georgia; the world's largest number of ethnic Azerbaijanis live in Iran, followed by the Republic of Azerbaijan. In spite of being speakers of a Turkic language, Iranian Azerbaijanis are believed to be descended from the earlier Iranian speakers of the region as historical research and genetic tests have proven, they are the possible descendants of the Medes, an Ancient Iranian ethnic group which inhabited the current region. Close genetics with the Kurds, an Iranian ethnic group, have supported this idea. Thus, due to their historical and cultural ties to the Iranians, Iranian Azerbaijanis are often associated with the Iranian peoples.
Genetic studies observed that they are genetically related to the Iranian peoples. The Azerbaijanis of the Republic of Azerbaijan are of Caucasian and Iranian origin and are said to be the descendants of inhabitants of Caucasian Albania. There is evidence that, despite repeated invasions and migrations, aboriginal Caucasians may have been culturally assimilated, first by Iranians, such as the Alans, Ancient Persians and by the Oghuz Turks. Considerable information has been learned about the Caucasian Albanians including their language, early conversion to Christianity, close ties to the Armenians. Many academics believe that the Udi language, still spoken in Azerbaijan, is a remnant of the Albanians' language. Genetic testing has proven that the region has a mixed population with relationships, in order of greatest similarity, with the Caucasus and Near Easterners and Turkmen. Following the Russo-Persian Wars of 1813 and 1828, the territories of the Sublime State of Iran in the Caucasus were ceded to the Russian Empire and the treaties of Gulistan in 1813 and Turkmenchay in 1828 finalized the borders between Russia and Qajar Iran.
The formation of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918 established the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Differences in the Azerbaijani language have arisen after centuries of separation from Iran with there being significant differences in the grammatical and lexical structures of the language. Additionally and Azeri are mutually intelligible to a high enough degree that their speakers can have simple conversation without prior knowledge of the other, which prompted some Turkic linguists to classify their relationship as a Western Oghuz dialect continuum. Azerbaijan is believed to be named after Atropates, a Persian satrap who ruled in Atropatene circa 321 BC; the name Atropates is the Hellenistic form of Aturpat which means'guardian of fire'. Present-day name Azerbaijan is the Arabicized form of Azarbaigān; the latter is derived from Ādurbādagān, itself from Āturpātakān meaning'the land associated with Aturpat'. The modern ethnonym "Azerbaijani" or "Azeri" refers to the Turkic peoples of Iranian Azerbaijan and Republic of Azerbaijan.
They called themselves or were referred to by others as Muslims, Turkmens, Persians, or Ajams –, to say that religious identification prevailed over ethnic identification. When the Southern Caucasus became part of the Russian Empire in the nineteenth century, the Russian authorities, who traditionally referred to all Turkic people as Tatars, defined Tatars living in the Transcaucasus region as Caucasian or Aderbeijanskie Tatars in order to distinguish them from other Turkic groups; the Russian Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, written in the 1890s referred to Tatars in Azerbaijan as Aderbeijans, but noted that the term had not been adopted. This ethnonym was used by Joseph Deniker: grouping coincide with the somatological grouping: thus the Aderbeijani of the Caucasus and Persia, who speak a Turkic language, have the same physical type as the Hadjemi-Persians, who speak an Iranian tongue. In Azerbaijani language publications, the expression "Azerbaijani nation" referring to those who were known as Tatars of the Caucasus first appeared in the newspaper Kashkul in 1880.
Ancient residents of the area spoke Old Azeri from the Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. In the 11th century AD with Seljukid conquests, Oghuz Turkic tribes started moving across the Iranian plateau into the Caucasus and Anatolia; the influx of the Oghuz and other Turkmen tribes was further accentuated by the Mongol invasion. Here, the Oghuz tribes divided into various smaller groups, some of whom – Sunni – moved to Anatolia and became settled, while others remained in the Caucasus region and – due to the influence of the Safaviyya – converted to the Shia branch of Islam; the latter were to keep the name "Turkmen" or "Turcoman" for a long t