The tambourine is a musical instrument in the percussion family consisting of a frame of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called "zills". Classically the term tambourine denotes an instrument with a drumhead, though some variants may not have a head at all. Tambourines are used with regular percussion sets, they can be mounted, for example on a stand as part of a drum kit, or they can be held in the hands and played by tapping or hitting the instrument. Tambourines come in many shapes with the most common being circular, it is found in many forms of music: Turkish folk music, Greek folk music, Italian folk music, classical music, Persian music, gospel music, pop music, country music, rock music. Tambourines originated in Egypt, where they were known as the tof to the Hebrews, in which the instrument was used in religious contexts; the word tambourine finds its origins in French tambourin, which referred to a long narrow drum used in Provence, the word being a diminutive of tambour "drum," altered by influence of Arabic tunbur "drum".
From the Middle Persian word tambūr "lute, drum". The tambourine can be held in the hand or mounted on a stand, can be played in numerous ways, from stroking or shaking the jingles to striking it with the hand or a stick or using the tambourine to strike the leg or hip. There are several ways to achieve a tambourine roll; the easiest method is to rotate the hand holding the tambourine back and forth, pivoting at the wrist. An advanced playing technique is known as the thumb roll; the finger or thumb is moved over the skin or rim of the tambourine, producing a fast roll from the jingles on the instrument. This takes more experience to master; the thumb or middle finger of the hand not holding the tambourine is run around the head of the instrument one centimeter from the rim with some pressure applied. If performed the thumb should bounce along the head producing the roll; the end of the roll is articulated using the heel of the hand or another finger. In the 2000s, the thumb roll may be performed with the use of wax or resin applied to the outside of the drum head.
This resin allows the thumb or finger to bounce more and forcefully across the head producing an sound. A continuous roll can be achieved by moving the thumb in a "figure of 8" pattern around the head. In rock music, a tambourine is most played: By lead singers who shake it while they play – Lead singers such as Mick Jagger, Freddie Mercury, George Michael, Mike Love, Jon Anderson, Jim Morrison, Robert Plant, Peter Gabriel, Liam Gallagher, Gene Clark, Ray Thomas, Trent Reznor, Ian Astbury, Stevie Nicks, Roger Daltrey, Jon Davison, Tyler Joseph, Gerard Way, Florence Welch, Tim Booth, Taylor Momsen, Davy Jones and Ryan Tedder have all been known to use a tambourine while singing. By drummers/percussionists – Drummers such as Larry Mullen, Jr. of U2 mount a tambourine above the cymbals of their hi-hat stand. Other drummers and percussionists who have played the tambourine include Ringo Starr, Roger Taylor, Hal Blaine, Phil Collins, Charlie Watts, Maureen Tucker, Bev Bevan, Ralph MacDonald, Danny Seraphine, Laudir de Oliveira, Mick Fleetwood, Milt Holland, Paulinho da Costa, Sheila E. Steve Gadd, Airto Moreira, Bobbye Hall, Russ Kunkel, Liberty DeVitto, Nigel Olsson, Luis Conte, Dave Weckl, Steve Jordan, Jeff Porcaro, Neil Peart, Graeme Edge, Dallas Taylor, Don Henley, Emil Richards, Ray Cooper, Crystal Taliefero, Angus MacLise, Alex Acuna, Joe Lala, Nick Mason, John Bonham, Billy Cobham, Ian Paice, Frank Ricotti, Carl Palmer, Bobby Colomby, Tré CoolTambourines in rock music are most headless, a ring with jangles but no drum skin.
The Rhythm Tech crescent-shaped tambourine and its derivatives are popular. The original Rhythm Tech tambourine is displayed in the Museum of Modern Art. Jack Ashford's distinctive tambourine playing was a dominant part of the rhythm section on Motown records; the tambourine was featured in "Green Tambourine", a busking-oriented song with which The Lemon Pipers, a 1960s musical group, notched a chart selection. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was among the earliest western composers to include the tambourine in his compositions. Since the late eighteenth century it has become a more permanent element of the western orchestral percussion section, as exemplified in some of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's dance pieces from The Nutcracker Suite. Gustav Holst's seven-movement orchestral suite The Planets features the tambourine in several places throughout the suite in the "Jupiter" movement. Buben is a musical instrument of the percussion family similar to a tambourine. A buben consists of a wooden or metal hoop with a tight membrane stretched over one of its sides.
Certain kinds of bubens are equipped with clanking metal rings, cymbals, or little bells. It is held in the hand and can be played in numerous ways, from stroking or shaking the jingles to striking it with hand, it is used for rhythmical accompaniment during soloist or choral singing. Buben is used by some folk and professional bands, as well as orchestras; the name is related to Greek language βόμβος and βομβύλη and related to Indo-Aryan bambharas and English bee. Buben is known to have existed in many countries since time immemorial in the East. There are many kinds of bubens, including def, daf, or qaval, daf or khaval, doira, daire or def, pandero. In Kievan Rus and milita
Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi
Abu ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Khalīl ibn Aḥmad ibn ‘Amr ibn Tammām al-Farāhīdī al-Azdī al-Yaḥmadī, known as Al-Farahidi, or Al-Khalīl, he was a philologist and leading grammarian of Basra, Iraq. He produced the first dictionary of the Arabic language - the oldest extant dictionary - Kitab al-'Ayn - "The Source", introduced the now standard harakat system, was instrumental in the early development of ʿArūḍ, musicology and poetic metre, his linguistic theories were influential in the development of Persian and Urdu prosody. The "Shining Star" of the Basran school of Arabic grammar, a polymath and scholar, he was a man of genuinely original thought. Al-Kʰalīl b. ˀAḫmad al-Farāhīdī was the first scholar to subject the prosody of Classical Arabic poetry to a detailed phonological analysis. The primary data he listed and categorized in meticulous detail was complex to master and utilize and theorists have developed simpler formulations with greater coherence and general utility. Born in 718 in Oman, southern Arabia, to Azdi parents of modest means al-Farahidi became a leading grammarian of Basra in Iraq.
In Basra, he studied Islamic traditions and philology under Abu'Amr ibn al-'Ala' with Aiyūb al-Sakhtiyāni, ‘Āṣm al-Aḥwal, al-‘Awwām b. Ḥawshab, etc. His teacher Ayyub persuaded him to convert to Sunni orthodoxy. Shumail, al-Layth b. al-Muẓaffar b. Naṣr. Known for his piety and frugality, he was a companion of Jābir ibn Zayd, the founder of ibadism, it was said his parents were converts to Islam, that his father was the first to be named "Ahmad" after the time of Prophet Muhammad. His nickname, "Farahidi", derived from an ancestor named Furhud; the descendants of his tribe are the modern-day Zahran tribe residing in the Al Bahah Province of Saudi Arabia. He refused lavish gifts from rulers, or to indulge in the slander and gossip his fellow Arab and Persian rival scholars were wont and he performed annual pilgrimage to Mecca, he lived in a small reed house in Basra and once remarked that when his door was shut, his mind did not go beyond it. He taught linguistics, some of his students became wealthy teachers.
Al-Farahidi's main income was falconry and a garden inherited from his father. Two dates of death are cited, 786 and 791 CE; the story goes. On the particular day, while he was absorbed in contemplation of a system of accounting to save his maidservant from being cheated by the green grocer, he wandered into a mosque and there he absent-mindedly bumped into a pillar and was fatally injured. Al-Farahidi's eschewing of material wealth has been noted by a number of biographers. In his old age, the son of Habib ibn al-Muhallab and reigning governor of the Muhallabids offered al-Farahidi a pension and requested that the latter tutor the former's son. Al-Farahidi declined, stating that he was wealthy though possessing no money, as true poverty lay not in a lack of money, but in the soul; the governor reacted by rescinding the pension, an act to which al-Farahidi responded with the following lines of poetry: "He, Who formed me with a mouth, engaged to give me nourishment till such a time as He takes me to Himself.
Thou hast refused me a trifling sum, but that refusal will not increase thy wealth."Embarrassed, the governor responded with an offer to renew the pension and double the rate, which al-Farahidi still greeted with a lukewarm reception. Al-Farahidi's apathy about material wealth was demonstrated in his habit of quoting Akhtal's famous stanza: "If thou wantest treasures, thou wilt find none equal to a virtuous conduct."Al-Farahidi distinguished himself via his philosophical views as well. He reasoned that a man's intelligence peaked at the age of forty - the age when the Islamic prophet Muhammad began his call - and began to diminuish after sixty, the point at which Muhammad died, he believed that a person was at their peak intelligence at the clearest part of dawn. In regard to the field of grammar, al-Farahidi held the realist views common among early Arab linguists yet rare among both and modern times. Rather than holding the rules of grammar as he and his students described them to be absolute rules, al-Farahidi saw the Arabic language as the natural, instinctual speaking habits of the Bedouin.
Al-Farahidi was distinguished, however, in his view that the Arabic alphabet included 29 letters rather than 28 and that each letter represented a fundamental characteristic of people or animals. His classification of 29 letters was due to his consideration of the combination of Lamedh and Aleph as a separate third letter from the two individual parts. In the Arab world al-Farahidi had become a household name by the time he died, become as mythic a figure as Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali in Arabic philology; the first to codify the complex metres of Arabic poetry, an outstanding genius of the Muslim world. Sibawayh and Al-Asma'i were among his students, with the former having been more indebted to al-Farahidi than to any other teacher. Al-Nadim the 10th century bibliophile biographer from Basra, reports that in fact Sibawayh's "Kitab", was a collaborative work of forty-two authors, but that the principles and subjects were based on those of al-Farahidi, he is quoted by Sibawayh 608 times, mo
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān ibn al-Ḥakam was the fifth Umayyad caliph, ruling from 685 until his death. At the time of his accession, Umayyad authority had disintegrated throughout the caliphate and had begun to be reconstituted in Syria and Egypt during the short reign of his father, Caliph Marwan I. Abd al-Malik's early focus was to consolidate Syria before attempting to reconquer the remainder of the caliphate from his principal rival, the Mecca-based caliph Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr. To that end, he concluded an unfavorable truce with a reinvigorated Byzantine Empire in 689, fended off a coup attempt in Damascus by his kinsman the following year and reincorporated the disaffected Qaysi tribes of Upper Mesopotamia into the army in 691, he subsequently conquered Zubayrid Iraq and dispatched one of his generals, al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, to Mecca where he killed Ibn al-Zubayr and restored Umayyad rule in Arabia by late 692. Al-Hajjaj became the caliph's viceroy in the east and established Abd al-Malik's authority in Iraq and Khurasan, having stamped out opposition by the Kharijites and the Arab tribal nobility by 702.
In the west, Abd al-Malik's brother, Abd al-Aziz, maintained peace and stability in Egypt while his troops retook Qayrawan, which served as the launchpad for the conquests of western North Africa and Hispania under the caliph's sons and successors. In a significant departure from his predecessors, rule over the caliphate was centralized under Abd al-Malik, following the elimination of his rivals. Loyalist Arab troops from Syria were tasked with maintaining order in the provinces as dependence on less reliable, localized Arab garrisons receded. In tandem, the traditional military stipends to veterans of the early Muslim conquests and their descendants were abolished, with salaries being restricted to those in active service. Furthermore, Abd al-Malik introduced a single Islamic currency in place of Byzantine and Sasanian coins and established Arabic as the language of the bureaucracy, replacing Greek and Persian in Syria and Iraq, respectively; these measures led to renewed war with this time ending in Umayyad advances into Armenia.
Conflict with external and domestic Christian forces and rival claimants to Islamic leadership, along with his Muslim upbringing, influenced Abd al-Malik's aforementioned efforts to proscribe a distinctly Islamic character to the Umayyad state. Another manifestation of this initiative was his founding of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, the earliest known religious structure built by a Muslim ruler and the possessor of the earliest epigraphic proclamations of Islam and the prophet Muhammad. Abd al-Malik was succeeded by his eldest son al-Walid I, who extensively relied on al-Hajjaj and whose reign was a continuation of his father's policies. Abd al-Malik was born in 646/647 in the house of his father Marwan ibn al-Hakam in Medina, his mother was a daughter of Mu'awiya ibn al-Mughira. Both of his parents belonged to the Banu Umayya, one of the strongest and wealthiest clans of the Quraysh tribe; the latter had been ardent opponents of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, a member of the Quraysh, but embraced Islam in 630 and dominated Muslim politics.
Abd al-Malik belonged to the first generation of born-Muslims and his upbringing and adult life in Medina, Islam's political center at the time, was described as morally rigorous by historian Hugh N. Kennedy, he took a deep interest in Islam and memorized the Qur'an. His father was a senior aide of Caliph Uthman. In 656, Abd al-Malik witnessed Uthman's assassination in Medina. Six years Abd al-Malik was appointed by Caliph Mu'awiya I, founder of the Umayyad Caliphate, to command a Medinese army unit participating in a campaign against the Byzantines. Afterward, he returned to Medina, where he operated as an assistant of his father, who had become governor of the city; as with the rest of the Umayyads in the Hejaz, Abd al-Malik lacked close ties with Mu'awiya, who ruled from his power base in Damascus. Mu'awiya belonged to the Abu Sufyan line of the Umayyad clan, while Abd al-Malik belonged to the larger Abu al-'As line; when a revolt broke out in Medina against Mu'awiya's son and successor, Caliph Yazid I, the Umayyads, including Abd al-Malik, were expelled from the city.
The revolt was part of the wider anti-Umayyad rebellion that became known as the Second Muslim Civil War. On the way to the Umayyad capital in Syria, Abd al-Malik encountered the army of Muslim ibn Uqba, sent by Yazid to subdue the rebels in Medina, he subsequently provided Ibn Uqba intelligence about Medina's defenses. The rebels were defeated at the Battle of al-Harra in August 683, but nonetheless the army withdrew to Syria after Yazid's death that year; the deaths of Yazid and his son and successor Mu'awiya II in quick succession in 683–684 precipitated a leadership vacuum in Damascus and the consequent collapse of Umayyad authority across the caliphate. Most provinces declared their allegiance to the rival Mecca-based caliphate of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr. In parts of Syria, Arab tribes that had secured a privileged position in the Umayyad court and military, in particular the Banu Kalb and its allies, scrambled to preserve Umayyad rule. Marwan and his family, including Abd al-Malik, had since relocated to Syria, where Marwan met the pro-Umayyad stalwart Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, who had just been expelled by the Zubayrids from his governorship in Iraq.
Ibn Ziyad persuaded Marwan to forward his candidacy for the caliphate during a summit of pro-Umayyad tribes in Jabiya hosted by the Kalbi chieftain Ibn Bahdal. The tribal nobility elected Marwan as caliph and the latter subseque
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian politician and marja. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the end of 2,500 years of Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death, he was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989. Khomeini was born in 1902 in what is now Iran's Markazi Province, his father was murdered in 1903. He began studying the Quran and the Persian language from a young age and was assisted in his religious studies by his relatives, including his mother's cousin and older brother. Khomeini was a marja in Twelver Shia Islam, a Mujtahid or faqih and author of more than 40 books, but he is known for his political activities.
He spent more than 15 years in exile for his opposition to the last Shah. In his writings and preachings he expanded the theory of welayat-el faqih, the "Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist", to include theocratic political rule by Islamic jurists; this principle, was appended to the new Iranian constitution after being put to a referendum. According to The New York Times, Khomeini called democracy the equivalent of prostitution. Whether Khomeini's ideas are compatible with democracy and whether he intended the Islamic Republic to be democratic is disputed, he was Time magazine's Man of the Year in 1979 for his international influence, Khomeini has been described as the "virtual face of Shia Islam in Western popular culture". In 1982, he survived one military coup attempt. Khomeini was known for his support of the hostage takers during the Iran hostage crisis, his fatwa calling for the murder of British Indian novelist Salman Rushdie, for referring to the United States as the "Great Satan" and Soviet Union as the "Lesser Satan."
Khomeini has been criticized for human rights violations of Iranians. He has been lauded as a "charismatic leader of immense popularity", a "champion of Islamic revival" by Shia scholars, who attempted to establish good relations between Sunnis and Shias, a major innovator in political theory and religious-oriented populist political strategy. Khomeini held the title of Grand Ayatollah and is known as Imam Khomeini inside Iran and by his supporters internationally, he is referred to as Ayatollah Khomeini by others. In Iran, his gold-domed tomb in Tehrān's Behesht-e Zahrāʾ cemetery has become a shrine for his adherents, he is considered "inviolable", with Iranians punished for insulting him. Ruhollah Khomeini's ancestors migrated towards the end of the 18th century from their original home in Nishapur, Khorasan Province, in northeastern part of Iran, for a short stay, to the kingdom of Awadh – a region in the modern state of Uttar Pradesh, India – whose rulers were Twelver Shia Muslims of Persian origin.
During their rule they extensively invited, received, a steady stream of Persian scholars, jurists and painters. The family settled in the small town of Kintoor, near Lucknow, the capital of Awadh. Ayatollah Khomeini's paternal grandfather, Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi, was born in Kintoor, he left Lucknow in 1830, on a pilgrimage to the tomb of Imam Ali in Najaf, Ottoman Iraq and never returned. According to Moin, this migration was to escape from the spread of British power in India. In 1834 Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi visited Persia, in 1839 he settled in Khomein. Although he stayed and settled in Iran, he continued to be known as Hindi, indicating his stay in India, Ruhollah Khomeini used Hindi as a pen name in some of his ghazals. There are claims that Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi departed from Kashmir, instead of Lucknow. Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, whose first name means "spirit of Allah", was born on 24 September 1902 in Khomeyn, Markazi Province, he was raised by his mother, Hajieh Agha Khanum, his aunt, following the murder of his father, Mustapha Musavi, five months after his birth in 1903.
Ruhollah began to study the Qur'an and elementary Persian at the age of six. The following year, he began to attend a local school, where he learned religion, noheh khani, other traditional subjects. Throughout his childhood, he continued his religious education with the assistance of his relatives, including his mother's cousin, Ja'far, his elder brother, Morteza Pasandideh. After World War I arrangements were made for him to study at the Islamic seminary in Esfahan, but he was attracted instead to the seminary in Arak, he was placed under the leadership of Ayatollah Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi. In 1920, Khomeini commenced his studies; the following year, Ayatollah Haeri Yazdi transferred to the Islamic seminary in the holy city of Qom, southwest of Tehran, invited his students to follow. Khomeini accepted the invitation and took up residence at the Dar al-Shafa school in Qom. Khomeini's studies included Islamic law and jurisprudence, but by that time, Khomeini had acquired an interest in poetry and philosophy.
So, upon arriving in Qom, Khomeini sought the guidance of Mirza Ali Akbar Yazdi, a scholar of philos
A fatwā is a nonbinding legal opinion on a point of Islamic law given by a qualified jurist in response to a question posed by a private individual, judge or government. A jurist issuing fatwas is called a mufti and the act of issuing fatwas is called iftāʾ. Fatwas have played an important role throughout Islamic history, taking on new forms in the modern era. Resembling jus respondendi in Roman law and rabbinic responsa issued fatwas served to inform Muslim populations about Islam, advise courts on difficult points of Islamic law, elaborate substantive law. In times and political fatwas were issued to take a stand on doctrinal controversies, legitimize government policies or articulate grievances of the population. During the era of European colonialism, fatwas played a part in mobilizing resistance to foreign domination. Muftis acted as independent scholars in the classical legal system. Over the centuries, Sunni muftis were incorporated into state bureaucracies, while Shia jurists in Iran progressively asserted an autonomous authority starting from the early modern era.
In the modern era, fatwas have reflected changing political and economic circumstances, addressed concerns arising in varied Muslim communities. The spread of codified state laws and Western-style legal education in the modern Muslim world has displaced muftis from their traditional role of clarifying and elaborating the laws applied in courts. Instead, modern fatwas have served to advise the general public on other aspects of sharia questions regarding religious rituals and everyday life. Modern public fatwas have addressed and sometimes sparked controversies in the Muslim world, some fatwas in recent decades have gained worldwide notoriety; the legal methodology of modern ifta diverges from pre-modern practice so in the West. Emergence of modern media and universal education has transformed the traditional institution of ifta in various ways. While the proliferation of contemporary fatwas attests to the importance of Islamic authenticity to many Muslims, little research has been done to determine how much these fatwas affect the beliefs or behavior of the Muslim public.
The word fatwa comes from the Arabic root f-t-y, whose meanings include "youth, clarification, explanation." A number of terms related to fatwa derive from the same root. A jurist issuing fatwas is called a mufti; the person who asks for a fatwa is known as mustafti. The act of issuing fatwas is called iftāʾ; the term futyā refers to issuing fatwas. The origins of the fatwa can be traced back to the Quran. On a number of occasions, the Quranic text instructs the Islamic prophet Muhammad how to respond to questions from his followers regarding religious and social practices. Several of these verses begin with the phrase "When they ask you concerning... say..." In two cases this is expressed with verbal forms of the root f-t-y, which signify asking for or giving an authoritative answer. In the hadith literature, this three-way relationship between God and believers, is replaced by a two-way consultation, in which Muhammad replies directly to queries from his Companions. According to Islamic doctrine, with Muhammad's death in 632, God ceased to communicate with mankind through revelation and prophets.
At that point, the expanding Muslim community turned to Muhammad's Companions, as the most authoritative voices among them, for religious guidance, some of them are reported to have issued pronouncements on a wide range of subjects. The generation of Companions was in turn replaced in that role by the generation of Successors; the concept of fatwa thus developed in Islamic communities under a question-and-answer format for communicating religious knowledge, took on its definitive form with development of the classical theory of Islamic law. The legal theory of the fatwa was formulated in the classical texts of usul al-fiqh, while more practical guidelines for muftis were found in manuals called adab al-mufti or adab al-fatwa. Fatwas are issued in response to a query, they can range from a simple yes/no answer to a book-length treatise. A short fatwa may state a well-known point of law in response to a question from a lay person, while a "major" fatwa may give a judgment on an unprecedented case, detailing the legal reasoning behind the decision.
Queries to muftis were supposed to address real and not hypothetical situations and be formulated in general terms, leaving out names of places and people. Since a mufti was not supposed to inquire into the situation beyond the information included in the query, queries regarding contentious matters were carefully constructed to elicit the desired response. A mufti's understanding of the query depended on their grasp of local customs and colloquial expressions. In theory, if the query was unclear or not sufficiently detailed for a ruling, the mufti was supposed to state these caveats in their response. Fatwas were solicited by women from all social classes. A mufti could be an obscure scholar, who replied to queries arising in his neighborhood, or, at the other extreme, a famous jurist or a powerful state official; the level of technical detail supplied in a fatwa, such as citations of sources or specification of legal methodologies employed, depended on the technical level of the petitioner.
In theory, a petitioner was supposed to verify the mufti's scholarly reputation, but mufti manuals recognized that it would be difficult for a lay person to do so, advised the petitioner to trust their sense of the mufti's piety and ideally follow the advice o
The Rashidun Caliphate was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs of Muhammad after his death in 632 CE; these caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam as the Rashidun. This term is not used in Shia Islam as Shia Muslims do not consider the rule of the first three caliphs as legitimate; the Rashidun Caliphate is characterized by a twenty-five year period of rapid military expansion, followed by a five-year period of internal strife. The Rashidun Army at its peak numbered more than 100,000 men. By the 650s, the caliphate in addition to the Arabian Peninsula had subjugated the Levant, to the Transcaucasus in the north; the caliphate arose out of the death of Muhammad in 632 CE and the subsequent debate over the succession to his leadership. Abu Bakr, a close companion of Muhammad from the Banu Taym clan, was elected the first Rashidun leader and began the conquest of the Arabian Peninsula.
He ruled from 632 to his death in 634. Abu Bakr was succeeded by Umar, his appointed successor from the Banu Adi clan, who began the conquest of Persia from 642 to 651, leading to the defeat of the Sassanid Empire. Umar was assassinated in 644 and was succeeded by Uthman, elected by a six-person committee arranged by Umar. Under Uthman began the conquest of Armenia and Khorasan. Uthman was assassinated in 656 and succeeded by Ali, who presided over the civil war known as the First Fitna; the war was between those who supported Uthman's cousin and governor of the Levant and those who supported the caliph Ali. The civil war permanently consolidated the divide between Sunni and Shia Muslims, with Shia Muslims believing Ali to be the first rightful caliph and Imam after Muhammad. A third faction in the war supported the governor of Egypt; the war was decided in favour of the faction of Muawiyah, who established the Umayyad Caliphate in 661. After Muhammad's death in 632 CE, his Medinan companions debated which of them should succeed him in running the affairs of the Muslims while Muhammad's household was busy with his burial.
Umar and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah pledged their loyalty to Abu Bakr, with the Ansar and the Quraysh soon following suit. Abu Bakr thus became the first Khalīfaṫu Rasūli l-Lāh, or Caliph, embarked on campaigns to propagate Islam. First he would have to subdue the Arabian tribes which had claimed that although they pledged allegiance to Muhammad and accepted Islam, they owed nothing to Abu Bakr; as a caliph, Abu Bakr never claimed such a title. Rather, their election and leadership were based upon merit. Notably, according to Sunnis, all four Rashidun Caliphs were connected to Muhammad through marriage, were early converts to Islam, were among ten who were explicitly promised paradise, were his closest companions by association and support and were highly praised by Muhammad and delegated roles of leadership within the nascent Muslim community. According to Sunni Muslims, the term Rashidun Caliphate is derived from a famous hadith of Muhammad, where he foretold that the caliphate after him would last for 30 years and would be followed by kingship.
Furthermore, according to other hadiths in Sunan Abu Dawood and Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, towards the end times, the Rightly Guided Caliphate will be restored once again by God. Shortly before his death, Muhammad called all the Muslims who had accompanied him on the final Hajj to gather around at a place known as Ghadir Khumm. Muhammad gave a long sermon; the Muslims responded, "Allah and His messenger." Muhammad said: Behold! Whosoever I am his master, this Ali is his master. O Allah! Stay firm in supporting those who stay firm in following him, be hostile to those who are hostile to him, help those who help him, forsake those who forsake him. O people! This Ali is my brother, the executor of my, the container of my knowledge, my successor over my nation, over the interpretation the Book of Allah, the mighty and the majestic, the true inviter to its, he is the one who acts according to what pleases Him, fights His enemies, causes to adhere to His obedience, advises against His disobedience. He is the successor of the Messenger of Allah, the commander of the believers, the guiding Imam, the killer of the oath breakers, the transgressors, the apostates.
I speak by the authority of Allah. The word with me shall not be changed; this event has been narrated by both Shia and Sunni sources. Further, after the sermon, Abu Bakr and Uthman are all said to have given their allegiance to Ali, a fact, reported by both Shia and Sunni sources. In Medina, after the Farewell Pilgrimage and the event of Ghadir Khumm, Muhammad ordered an army to be mustered under the command of Usama bin Zayd, he commanded all the companions, except for his family, to go with Usama to Syria to avenge the Muslims’ defeat at the Battle of Mu'tah. Muhammad gave Usama the banner of Islam on the 18th day of the Islamic month of Safar in the year 11 A. H. Abu Bakr and Umar were among those. However, Abu Bakr and Umar resisted going under the command of Usama because they thought that he
Henna known as Mehndi is a dye prepared from the plant Lawsonia inermis known as hina, the henna tree, the mignonette tree, the Egyptian privet, the sole species of the genus Lawsonia. Henna can refer to the temporary body art resulting from the staining of the skin from the dyes. Henna has been used since antiquity to dye skin and fingernails, as well as fabrics including silk and leather. Henna was used in the Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent and Middle East, other parts of North Africa and the Horn of Africa; the name is used in other skin and hair dyes, such as black henna and neutral henna, neither of, derived from the henna plant. The English name "henna" comes from the Arabic حِنَّاء or, colloquially حنا, loosely pronounced as /ħinna/. It's known as mehndi in South Asia. Whole, unbroken henna leaves will not stain the skin. Henna will not stain skin. However, dried henna leaves will stain the skin; the lawsone will migrate from the henna paste into the outer layer of the skin and bind to the proteins in it, creating a stain.
Since it is difficult to form intricate patterns from coarsely crushed leaves, henna is traded as a powder made by drying and sifting the leaves. The dry powder is mixed with one of a number of liquids, including water, lemon juice, strong tea, other ingredients, depending on the tradition. Many artists use sugar or molasses in the paste to improve consistency to keep it stuck to the skin better; the henna mix must rest between 1 to 48 hours before use in order to release the lawsone from the leaf matter. The timing depends on the crop of henna being used. Essential oils with high levels of monoterpene alcohols, such as tea tree, cajeput, or lavender, will improve skin stain characteristics. Other essential oils, such as eucalyptus and clove, are useful but are too irritating and should not be used on skin; the paste can be applied with many traditional and innovative tools, starting with a basic stick or twig. In Morocco, a syringe is common. A plastic cone similar to those used to pipe icing onto cakes is used in the Indian culture.
In the Western world, a cone is common, as is a Jacquard bottle, otherwise used to paint silk fabric. A light stain may be achieved within minutes, but the longer the paste is left on the skin, the darker and longer lasting the stain will be, so it needs to be left on as long as possible. To prevent it from drying or falling off the skin, the paste is sealed down by dabbing a sugar/lemon mix over the dried paste or adding some form of sugar to the paste. After time the dry paste is brushed or scraped away; the paste should be kept on the skin for a minimum of 4 to 6 hours. But longer times and wearing the paste overnight is a common practice. Removal should not be done with water, as water interferes with the oxidation process of stain development. Cooking oil may be used to loosen dry paste. Henna stains are orange when the paste is first removed, but darken over the following three days to a deep reddish brown due to oxidation. Soles and palms have the thickest layer of skin and so take up the most lawsone, take it to the greatest depth, so that hands and feet will have the darkest and most long-lasting stains.
Some believe that steaming or warming the henna pattern will darken the stain, either during the time the paste is still on the skin, or after the paste has been removed. It is debatable. After the stain reaches its peak color, it holds for a few days gradually wears off by way of exfoliation within one to threeweeks. Natural henna pastes containing only henna powder, a liquid and an essential oil are not "shelf stable," meaning they expire and cannot be left out on a shelf for over one week without losing their ability to stain the skin; the leaf of the henna plant contains a finite amount of Lawsone molecule. As a result, once the powder has been mixed into a paste, this leaching of dye molecule into the mixture will only occur for an average of 2-6 days. If a paste will not be used within the first few days after mixing, it can be frozen for up to 4 months to halt the dye release, for thawing and use at a time. Commercially packaged pastes that remain able to stain the skin longer than 7 days without refrigeration or freezing contain other chemicals besides henna that may be dangerous to the skin.
After the initial 7 day release of lawsone dye, the henna leaf is spent, therefore any dye created by these commercial cones on the skin after this time period is the result of other compounds in the product. These chemicals are undisclosed on packaging, have a wide range of colors including what appears to be a natural looking color stain produced by dyes such as Sodium Picramate; these products do not contain any henna. There are many adulterated henna pastes such as these, others, for sale today that are erroneously marketed as "natural", "pure", or "organic", all containing dangerous undisclosed additives; the length of time a premanufactured paste takes to arrive in the hands of consumers is longer than the 7-day dye release window of henna, therefore one can reasonably expect that any premade mass produced cone, not shipped frozen is a harmful adulterated chemical variety. Henna only stains the skin one color, a variation of reddish brown, at full maturity 3 days after application. Powdered fresh henna, unlike premixed paste, can be shipped all over the world