The Dnieper–Bug Canal, or the Dneprovsko-Bugsky Canal is the longest inland ship canal in Belarus. It connects the Pina River; the canal was named the Royal Canal, after the King of Poland Stanisław August Poniatowski, who initiated its construction. It forms an important part of the transportation artery linking the Black Sea; the total length of the canal system from Brest to Pinsk is 196 km, including the artificial waterway 105 km long. The canal system comprises: the western slope from Brest to Kobrin a 64 km stretch of the Mukhavets River with regulated water-level a 58 km summit pound the eastern slope, 47 km stretch of the canal a 27 km stretch of the Pina River with regulated water-levelThe drainage area of the canal system totals 8.5 thousand km². Canal building flourished in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the late 18th century, yet many of the early canals are no longer in active service, having been superseded by railroads and highways. The Dnieper–Bug Canal after several enlargements is still providing a convenient inland waterway.
Till the 18th century there was a portage between Kobrin and Pinsk as it was a part of the important long-distance trade route from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea. The names of the Voloka River and the village of Mukhovloki near Kobrin remind of the ancient portage. People settled along the portage route since ancient times. In the mid-17th century, Jerzy Ossoliński, Crown Court Treasurer of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was the first to suggest the idea of upgrading the portage to a canal with locks, yet the work started only 120 years later. In 1770, the canal was planned by the prominent cartographer Franciszek Florian Czaki, it was built in 1775-1784 during the reign of Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was named Kanał Królewski, after the Polish king, since he was the initiator of the project. Additional work was carried out starting in 1837 by Russian Empire and completed around 1846-1848. To supply the canal system with water the canal pound and Orekhovski watercourses were started in 1839 and completed in 1843.
The number of movable weirs between Brest and Pinsk reached 22. As a result, the canal became navigable for bigger vessels, steamers at any time from spring till autumn. In 1847, the Kanał Królewski was renamed into the Dneprovo-Bugski Canal. After the construction of the railway along the canal in the late 19th century the canal was used for rafting lumber, exported to western countries. During World War 1 the canal was not in use. During the 1920s it was rebuilt anew for the Riverine Flotilla of the Polish Navy, better known as the Pinsk Flotilla; the Flotilla was the inland branch of the Polish Navy operating in the area of the Pinsk Marshes between the Polish-Bolshevik War and World War II. During the 1920s 2 locks were built. In 1940, the Soviet authorities initiated a large-scale reconstruction of the canal. A 23 km long stretch of the canal was built near Kobrin to straighten the old canal. 8 locks were built replacing movable weirs. Navigation on the Dnieper–Bug Canal is interrupted by weirs on the rivers Mukhavets and Bug near Brest, the border town.
That is the only place that makes impossible, for the time being, the navigation from Western Europe to Belarus and Ukraine through inland waterways. The waterways from the German-Polish border once used to link the Belarus and Ukrainian inland waterways via Mukhavets River, Dnieper–Bug Canal, Pripyat River and Dnieper River), thus connecting north-western Europe with the Black Sea; the dam in the Bug, making it impossible for ships to pass, has led to a considerable neglect of the most western part of the Mukhavets. More efforts have been undertaken to restore the canal to a class IV inland waterway of international importance. In 2003 the Government of the Republic of Belarus adopted the inland water transport and sea transport development program to rebuild the Dnieper–Bug Canal shipping locks to meet the standards of a class Va European waterway. According to the Belarus government, four sluice dams and one shipping lock have been rebuilt which allow for the passage of vessels 110 meters long, 12 meters wide with a draught of 2.2 meters.
It is expected. Report regarding rebuilding Canal Archived version 2008 report on the canal website in Russian of the company that operates the canal
Belarus the Republic of Belarus known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital and most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres is forested, its major economic sectors are manufacturing. Until the 20th century, different states at various times controlled the lands of modern-day Belarus, including the Principality of Polotsk, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Russian Empire. In the aftermath of the 1917 Russian Revolution, Belarus declared independence as the Belarusian People's Republic, conquered by Soviet Russia; the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union in 1922 and was renamed as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Belarus lost half of its territory to Poland after the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921.
Much of the borders of Belarus took their modern shape in 1939, when some lands of the Second Polish Republic were reintegrated into it after the Soviet invasion of Poland, were finalized after World War II. During WWII, military operations devastated Belarus, which lost about a third of its population and more than half of its economic resources; the republic was redeveloped in the post-war years. In 1945 the Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR; the parliament of the republic proclaimed the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990, during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Belarus declared independence on 25 August 1991. Alexander Lukashenko has served as the country's first president since 1994. Belarus has been labeled "Europe's last dictatorship" by some Western journalists, on account of Lukashenko's self-described authoritarian style of government. Lukashenko continued a number of Soviet-era policies, such as state ownership of large sections of the economy.
Elections under Lukashenko's rule have been criticized as unfair. Belarus is the last country in Europe using the death penalty. Belarus's Democracy Index rating is the lowest in Europe, the country is labelled as "not free" by Freedom House, as "repressed" in the Index of Economic Freedom, is rated as by far the worst country for press freedom in Europe in the 2013–14 Press Freedom Index published by Reporters Without Borders, which ranks Belarus 157th out of 180 nations. In 2000, Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation. Over 70% of Belarus's population of 9.49 million resides in urban areas. More than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages: Russian; the Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. The second-most widespread religion, Roman Catholicism, has a much smaller following.
Belarus is a member of the United Nations since its founding, the Commonwealth of Independent States, CSTO, EEU, the Non-Aligned Movement. Belarus has shown no aspirations for joining the European Union but maintains a bilateral relationship with the organisation, participates in two EU projects: the Eastern Partnership and the Baku Initiative; the name Belarus is related with the term Belaya Rus', i.e. White Rus'. There are several claims to the origin of the name White Rus'. An ethno-religious theory suggests that the name used to describe the part of old Ruthenian lands within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, populated by Slavs, Christianized early, as opposed to Black Ruthenia, predominantly inhabited by pagan Balts. An alternate explanation for the name comments on the white clothing worn by the local Slavic population. A third theory suggests that the old Rus' lands that were not conquered by the Tatars had been referred to as "White Rus'"; the name Rus is conflated with its Latin forms Russia and Ruthenia, thus Belarus is referred to as White Russia or White Ruthenia.
The name first appeared in Latin medieval literature. In some languages, including German and Dutch, the country is called "White Russia" to this day; the Latin term "Alba Russia" was used again by Pope Pius VI in 1783 to recognize the Society of Jesus there, exclaiming "Approbo Societatem Jesu in Alba Russia degentem, approbo." The first known use of White Russia to refer to Belarus was in the late-16th century by Englishman Sir Jerome Horsey, known for his close contacts with the Russian Royal Court. During the 17th century, the Russian tsars used "White Rus" to describe the lands added from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the term Belorussia first rose in the days of the Russian Empire, the Russian Tsar was styled "the Tsar of All the Russias"
The Dnieper is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising in the Valdai Hills near Smolensk and flowing through Russia and Ukraine to the Black Sea. It is the fourth-longest river in Europe; the total length is 2,200 km with a drainage basin of 504,000 square kilometres. The river is noted for hydroelectric stations; the Dnieper is an important navigable waterway for the economy of Ukraine and is connected via the Dnieper–Bug Canal to other waterways in Europe. In antiquity, the river was part of the Amber Road; the name Dnieper may be derived either from Sarmatian Dānu apara "the river on the far side" or from Scythian Dānu apr "deep river." By way of contrast, the name Dniester either derives from "the close river" or from a combination of Scythian Dānu and Ister, the Thracian name for the Dniester. In the three countries through which it flows it has the same name, albeit pronounced differently: Russian: Днепр older Russian: Днѣпръ; the late Greek and Roman authors called it Δάναπρις - Danapris and Danaper Old East Slavic name used at the time of Kievan Rus' was Slavuta or Slavutych The Huns called it Var, Bulgars - Buri-Chai.
The name in Crimean Tatar: Özü, hence Ochakiv The river is mentioned both by the Ancient Greek historian Herodotus in the 5th century BC as Borysthenes. The total length of the river is variously given as 2,145 kilometres or 2,201 km, of which 485 km are within Russia, 700 km are within Belarus, 1,095 km are within Ukraine, its basin covers 504,000 square kilometres, of which 289,000 km2 are within Ukraine, 118,360 km2 are within Belarus. The source of the Dnieper is the sedge bogs of the Valdai Hills in central Russia, at an elevation of 220 m. For 115 km of its length, it serves as the border between Ukraine, its estuary, or liman, used to be defended by the strong fortress of Ochakiv. On the Dnieper to the south of Komarin urban-type settlement, Braghin District, Gomel Region the southern extreme point of Belarus is situated; the Dnieper has many tributaries with 89 being rivers of 100+ km. The main ones are, from its source to its mouth: Many small direct tributaries exist, such as, in the Kiev area, the Syrets in the north of the city, the significant Lybid passing west of the centre, the Borshahivka to the south.
The water resources of the Dnieper basin compose around 80% out of all Ukraine. Dnieper Rapids were part of trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, first mentioned in the Kiev Chronicle; the route was established in the late eighth and early ninth centuries and gained significant importance from the tenth until the first third of the eleventh century. On the Dnieper the Varangians had to portage their ships round seven rapids, where they had to be on guard for Pecheneg nomads. Along this middle flow of the Dnieper, there were nine major rapids, obstructing the whole width of the river, about 30–40 smaller rapids, obstructing only part of the river, about 60 islands and islets. After Dnieper Hydroelectric Station was built in 1932, they were inundated by Dnieper Reservoir. There are a number of canals connected to the Dnieper: The Dnieper–Donbas Canal; the river is part of the Quagga mussel's native range. The mussel has been accidentally introduced around the world where it has become an invasive species.
From the mouth of the Prypiat River to the Kakhovka Hydroelectric Station, there are six sets of dams and hydroelectric stations, which produce 10% of Ukraine's electricity. The first constructed was the Dnieper Hydroelectric Station near Zaporizhia, built in 1927–1932 with an output of 558 MW, it was destroyed during World War II, but was rebuilt in 1948 with an output of 750 MW. The Dnieper River in different regions Major cities, over 100,000 in population, are in bold script. Cities and towns located on the Dnieper are listed in order from the river's source to its mouth: Arheimar, a capital of the Goths, was located on the Dnieper, according to the Hervarar saga. 2,000 km of the river is navigational. The Dnieper is important for the transport and economy of Ukraine: its reservoirs have large ship locks, allowing vessels of up to 270 by 18 metres to access as far as the port of Kiev and thus create an important transport corridor; the river is used by passenger vessels as well. Inland cruises on the rivers Danube and Dnieper have been a growing market in recent decades.
Upstream from Kiev, the Dnieper receives the water of the Pripyat River. This navigable river connects to the link with the Bug River. A connection with the Western European waterways was possible, but a weir without a
Kobryn is a city in the Brest Region of Belarus and the center of the Kobryn District. The city is located in the southwestern corner of Belarus where the Mukhavets River and Dnepr-Bug Canal meet; the city lies about 52 km east of the city of Brest. Kobryn is located at Latitude 52.12.58N and Longitude 24.21.59E. It is at an altitude of 485 feet, it is a station on the Brest – Homiel railway line. As of 1995, the population was around 51,500. Sometimes the name of the city is written as Kobrin, a transliteration from Russian. In prehistoric times it was inhabited by the ancient Baltic Yotvingian tribe. At various times, the city had belonged to Lithuania and Poland, Imperial Russia, the Byelorussian SSR following World War II. First mentioned in the 11th century, since the late 13th century the town was owned by the princes of Volhynian Vladimir. In the early 14th century the town formed part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. A seat of a powiat authorities, between 1589 and 1766 it was a free city of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, located on Magdeburg Law.
This allowed for a large number of Jews to settle in the area following the 16th century. The Jewish population in 1900 was 6,738. After the Partitions of Poland of 1795, the town was annexed by Imperial Russia. Occupied by Germany during World War I, following the Polish-Bolshevik War it was handed to Poland under the terms of the Treaty of Riga and became a seat of a powiat within the Polesie Voivodeship. During the Polish Defensive War of 1939 the town was the scene of heavy fighting between the Polish 60th Infantry Division of Colonel Adam Epler and the German 19th Panzer Corps of General Heinz Guderian. After three days of fighting, the Poles withdrew southwards. Between 1939 and 1941 the town was occupied by the Soviet Union from 23 June 1941 to 20 July 1944 by Nazi Germany and administered as a part of Reichskommissariat Ukraine. During the latter period, the majority of Jewish inhabitants were first amassed in a ghetto and murdered by the Nazis in their extermination camps. In 1944, the town was occupied once more by the USSR and attached to the Byelorussian SSR.
Since 1991, it is a part of Republic of Belarus. Battle of Kobryń Kobryn T. A. Khvagina POLESYE from the Bug to the Minsk Vysheysha shkola, ISBN 978-985-06-1153-6 Ye. N. Meshechko, A. A. Gorbatsky Belarusian Polesye: Tourist Transeuropean Water Mains, Minsk. Tourist Kobrin Coat of Arms Photos on Radzima.org Jewish Kobrin – Your Virtual Shtetl Pictures of Kobrin Kobryn cemetery A virtual tour of the city Kobrin Kobryn, Belarus at JewishGen
The Bug River is a major river located in Eastern Europe, which flows through three countries with a total length of 774 kilometres. A tributary of the Narew River, the Bug forms part of the border between Ukraine and Poland for 185 kilometres, between Belarus and Poland for 178 kilometres, is the fourth longest Polish river; the name Bug came from the old Germanic word *baug-s, which meant something winding or bent. Slavs adopted the word Baug from the Goths, who lived in large numbers near the river. Traditionally the Bug River was considered to be the ethnographical border between the East and West as well as the border between Polish Orthodox and Catholic peoples; the Bug formed part of the dividing line between German Wehrmacht and Soviet Red Army zones specified in a secret clause of the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty of 28 September 1939 following the September 1939 invasion of Poland in the Second World War. The Bug River is a left tributary of the Narew River, it flows from the Lviv Oblast in the west of Ukraine northwards into the Volyn Oblast, before passing along the Ukraine-Polish and Polish-Belarusian border and into Poland, where it follows part of the border between the Masovian and Podlaskie Voivodeships.
It joins the Narew at Serock, a few kilometers upstream of the artificial Zegrze Lake. This part of the Narew between the confluence and the Vistula River is sometimes referred to as Bugo-Narew but on December 27, 1962, the Prime Minister of Poland's act abolished the name "Bugo-Narew", soon after Zegrze Lake was completed. On the Bug River, a few kilometers from the Vysokaye in Kamenets District of the Brest Region, is the westernmost point of Belarus, it is connected with the Dnieper River via the Mukhavets River, a right-bank tributary, by the Dnieper-Bug Canal. The total basin area of Bug River is 38,712 square kilometres of which half, 19,239 square kilometres or, 50%, is in Poland. Little over a quarter,11,400 square kilometres or 26%, is in Belarus, a quarter, 8,700 square kilometres or 24% lies in Ukraine; the climate of the Bug basin is temperate. The basin experiences annual high-water levels during spring flooding due to thawing snow, after which a low flow period starts and lasts until October or mid-November.
Occasional summer floods occur in the headlands, where mountains influence favorable flash-flood conditions. In Autumn the water level increases are inconsiderable. During the winter the river can have temporary ice-outs that sometimes provoke ice jams, causing an increase of the level up to 2 metres; the resultant water levels are changeable due to the instability of ice cover. Significant floods during the last 60 years in Belarus were registered in 1958, 1962, 1967, 1971 and 1974; the largest spring flood was observed in 1979, when the maximum water discharge was 19.1 cubic metres per second on 24 March 1979, at the village of Chersk. A similar spring flood occurred in 1999, when the spring run-off in March–May exceeded the average annual value by half again; the last time the Bug flooded in Poland and Ukraine was in 2010 and the last time it flooded in Belarus was in 1999. Southern Bug Bug Landscape Park Rivers of Poland Rivers of Ukraine Geography of Poland Geography of Ukraine Bug in the Geographical Dictionary of the Kingdom of Poland
Brest Brest-Litowsk, is a city in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet. It is the capital city of the Brest Region; the city of Brest is a historic site of many cultures. It was the location of important historical events such as the Union of Brest and Treaty of Brest-Litovsk; the Brest Fortress was recognized by the Soviet Union as the Hero Fortress in honor of the defense of Brest Fortress in June 1941. During medieval times, the city was part of the Kingdom of Poland from 1020 until 1319 when it was taken by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, it became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569. As a result of the Partitions of Poland, it was incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1795. After World War I, the city returned to Second Polish Republic. During the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 the city was first captured by the Wehrmacht and soon passed on to the USSR in accordance with German–Soviet Frontier Treaty.
In 1941 it was taken again by the Nazis during Operation Barbarossa. After the war, once the new boundaries between the USSR and Poland were ratified, the city became part of the Belarusian SSR and as such was part of the Soviet Union until the breakup of the USSR in 1991. Brest is now a part of an independent Belarus. Several theories attempt to explain the origin of the city's name, it may have come from the Slavic root beresta meaning "birch", or "bark". The name could originate from the Slavic root berest meaning "elm". Or it could have come from the Lithuanian word brasta meaning "ford". Once a center of Jewish scholarship, the city has the Yiddish name בריסק, hence the term "Brisker" used to describe followers of the influential Soloveitchik family of rabbis. Traditionally, Belarusian-speakers called the city Берасце. Brest became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1319. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth formed in 1569 the town became known in Polish as Brześć Brześć Litewski. Brześć became part of the Russian Empire under the name Brest-Litovsk or Brest-Litovskii in the course of the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795.
After World War I, the rebirth of Poland in 1918, the government of the Second Polish Republic renamed the city as Brześć nad Bugiem on March 20, 1923. After World War II the city became part of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic with the name simplified as Brest. Brest's coat of arms, adopted on January 26, 1991, features an arrow pointed upwards and a bow on a sky-blue shield. An alternative coat of arms has a red shield. Sigismund II Augustus, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, first granted Brest a coat of arms in 1554; the city was founded by the Slavs. As a town, Brest – Berestye in Kievan Rus – was first mentioned in the Primary Chronicle in 1019 when the Kievan Rus took the stronghold from the Poles, it is one of the oldest cities in Belarus. It was hotly contested between the Polish rulers and Kievan Rus princes, laid waste by the Mongols in 1241, was not rebuilt until 1275, it was part of the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1390 Brest became the first city in the lands that now comprise Belarus to receive Magdeburg rights.
Its suburbs were burned by the Teutonic Knights in 1379. In 1409 it was a meeting place of King Władysław II Jagiełło, duke Vytautas and Tatar khan under the archbishop Mikołaj Trąba initiative, to prepare for war with the Teutonic Knights. In 1410 the town mustered a cavalry company that participated in the Polish-Lithuanian victory at the battle of Grunwald. In 1419 it become a seat of the starost in the newly created Trakai Voivodeship. In 1500 it was burned again by Crimean Tatars. In 1566, following king Sigismund II Augustus decree, a new voivodeship was created - Brest Litovsk Voivodeship. After it became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569, it was renamed Brest-Litovsk. During the period of the union of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden under king Sigismund III Vasa, diets were held there. In 1594 and 1596 it was the meeting-place of two remarkable councils of regional bishops of the Roman-Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church; the 1596 council established the Uniate Church.
In 1657, again in 1706, the town and castle were captured by the Swedes during their invasions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In an attack from the other direction, on January 13, 1660 the invading Muscovite Russian army under Ivan Andreyevich Khovansky took the Brest Castle in a surprise early morning attack, the town having been captured earlier, massacred the 1,700 defenders and their families. On July 23, 1792 a battle was fought between the regiments of the Duchy of Lithuania defending the town and the invading Russian Imperial Army. On September 19, 1794 the area between Brest and Terespol was the scene of a victorious battle won by the invading Russian Imperial army under Suvorov over the Kościuszko Uprising army division under general Karol Sierakowski (known in Russian sourc
Pruzhany is a town in Brest Voblast, Belarus. Pruzhany is the center of a district in Brest Region, Belarus, its population is about 18,500 people. The town is located at the confluence of the Mukha River and the Vets Canal, which give the start to Mukhavets River. Pruzhany has been known as Dabuchyn since 1487. In the 16th century, it belonged to queen Bona Sforza of Poland, she brought Renaissance influence and development of trades in this part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1589, her daughter Anna granted the coat of arms of Pruzhany; the coat of arms was borrowed from that of the Sforza family of Milan. Pruzhany was a center of pottery trade at those times. In the mid-19th century, a wealthy Polish landlord, Walenty Szwykowski, laid out a park and built a pretentious palace that houses a museum today, after a restoration; the museum has arts of the region. Another tourist attraction is the landmark at the confluence of the Vets Canal, it presents a statue of a passionate pair rising over waves.
The Catholic Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary was consecrated in 1884. The Jewish population in 1900 was 5,080. During World War II, Pruzhany was occupied by the Germans from 26 June 1941 to 17 July 1944. In 1941, the Nazis herded the Jews of the vicinity here to create a ghetto. In Aktion roundups on 28-31 January 1943, the Nazis deported 10,000 Jews of the Pruzhany ghetto to Auschwitz, via Birkenau, where the men and children were murdered. In 2003, the central part of the town was reconstructed to prepare the town for the national harvest festival “Dozhinki” in autumn 2003. Pruzhany is the birthplace of Joseph B. Soloveitchik, the Torah scholar and Jewish leader. Bielyja Lauki Photos on Radzima.org Biography of Alexandre Okinczyc Pruzhany, Belarus at JewishGen