The Indian Congress occurred from August 4 to October 31, 1898 in Omaha, Nebraska, in conjunction with the Trans-Mississippi International Exposition. Occurring within a decade of the end of the Indian Wars, the Indian Congress was the largest gathering of American Indian tribes of its kind to that date. Over 500 members of 35 different tribes attended, including the Apache chief Geronimo, being held at Fort Sill as a United States prisoner of war. Frank A. Rinehart's photographs of the Indian Congress participants are regarded as one of the best photographic documentations of American Indian leaders around the start of the 20th century. In a report on the Indian Congress published in the American Anthropologist in 1899, its chief ethnological consultant, James Mooney credited the realization of the project to "the grit and determination of the exposition managers, foremost among whom was Edward Rosewater, proprietor of the Omaha Bee; the successful outcome was due chiefly to unfaltering courage.
The ethnologic project was the child of his brain, in spite of serious imperfections, the general result was such—particularly from the practical standpoint of the ticket seller—that we may expect to see ethnology a principal feature at future expositions so long as our aboriginal material holds out." After steady lobbying by Rosewater, an influential Republican and a friend of President William McKinley, other members of the organizing committee of the Trans-Mississippi International Exposition, in December 1897 a bill was introduced in the United States Congress that provided an appropriation of $100,000 to carry out an Indian Congress at the same time as the Expo. After it passed in the Senate, preparations for the Spanish–American War monopolized the United States House of Representatives, preventing a vote on the bill. In July 1898, $40,000 was made available for the event in the Indian Appropriations Act by the President; that was a month. Funding was made available by the Bureau of American Ethnology, a part of the Smithsonian Institution.
In 1898 W. A. Jones, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, sent a letter to each Indian Agency to appeal for attendees; the purpose of the Indian Congress, as he stated, was: It is the purpose of the promoters of the proposed encampment or congress to make an extensive exhibit illustrative of the mode of life, native industries, ethnic traits of as many of the aboriginal American tribes as possible. To that end it is pro posed to bring together selected families or groups from all the principal tribes and camp them in tepees, hogans etc. on the exposition grounds, permit them to conduct their domestic affairs as they do at home, make and sell their wares for their own profit. The entire Indian Congress was managed by ethnologist James Mooney and Army Captain William Mercer of the 8th U. S. Infantry, under the direction of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs acting on behalf of Cornelius Newton Bliss, the United States Secretary of the Interior; the original intention of the organizing committee was to illustrate the daily life and traits of as many tribes as possible.
However, once the congress was open authorities realized that the average person attending the Exposition wanted to see dances, races and sham battles. Soon the main activities of the Indian Congress were the Ghost Dance. According to Captain Mercer's report, the weather "has been trying in the extreme... Most of the time we have had extreme heat accompanied by dry, hot winds, which rendered camp life anything but pleasant, the conditions being rendered somewhat worse by our location. Following close upon the heated period we have just had a week of cold, heavy rains which made the camp and life in it more disagreeable than it was during the hot spell." Ethnologist Mooney sought for the Congress to display customs of the various tribes. Instead, promoters erected a 5,000 seat grandstand, arranged the tribes in re-enactments of battles. There were concerns regarding the Indian Congress hosting a Ghost Dance after the U. S. Army attacked dancers during the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. However, the Ghost Dance was encouraged by the managers of the Exposition.
A local newspaper reported. The Ghost Dance shirt of Big Foot was displayed in another part of the Expo. Mooney contracted with Frank A. Adolph Muhr to take photographs of the attendees. Rinehart made several hundred pictures, regarded as one of the most complete, non-exotifying collections of Native American portraits in existence. Rinehart and Muhr took their photographs in a studio on Expo grounds. Speaking of his photos of the Indian Congress, Merry Foresta, director of the Smithsonian Photography Initiative at the Smithsonian Institution said, "Rinehart's portraits are quite extraordinary and put him above the average workaday photographer who might have made photographs for similar reasons. There were other people working, but he seems to have because of the quality of his work, stood apart." 35 individual tribes were represented by more than 500 Indians. The tribes in attendance included the Apache, Assiniboines, Cheyenne, Crow, Fox, Kiowa, Otoe, Pottawatomie and Fox, Southern Arapaho, Tonkawa and the Winnebago, as well as the Santa Clara Pueblo.
Mooney's above-quoted observation that ethnology would be "a principal feature at future expositions" proved prophetic, for Indian Congresses were convened at the Pan-American Exposition in 1901 and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904. History of Omaha Native American tribes in Nebraska The following pictures were all taken by Frank Rineh
Mussoorie is a hill station and a municipal board in the Dehradun District of the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand. It is about 35 kilometres from the state capital of Dehradun and 290 km north of the national capital of New Delhi; the hill station is in the foothills of the Garhwal Himalayan range. The adjoining town of Landour, which includes a military cantonment, is considered part of'greater Mussoorie', as are the townships of Barlowganj and Jharipani; the pin code for Mussoorie is 248179. Mussoorie is at an average altitude of 1,880 metres. To the northeast are the Himalayan snow ranges, to the south, the Doon Valley and Shiwalik ranges; the second highest point is the original Lal Tibba in Landour, with a height of over 2,275 metres. Mussoorie is popularly known as The Queen of the Hills. Mussoorie was founded by Lt. Frederick Young of East India Company. Lt. Young came to these hills for the purpose of shooting game, he was so enamoured by the beauty that he decided to build a hunting lodge on the Camel's Back Road with FJ Shore, Jt.
Magistrate of Doon in 1823. He planted the first potatoes in the valley, his tenure in Mussoorie ended in 1844 and he further served in Dimapur and Darjeeling and retired as a General and went back to Ireland. There are no memorials to commemorate Young in Mussoorie. However, there is a Young Road in Dehradoon. In 1832 Mussoorie was the intended terminus of the Great Trigonometric Survey of India that began at the southern tip of India. Although unsuccessful, the Surveyor General of India at the time, George Everest wanted to have the new office of the Survey of India based in Mussoorie. A compromise was to have it in Dehradun. In 1850 the first beer brewery in India was built in Mussoorie. By 1894 there were 22 breweries in India producing 6 million gallons a year. By 1901 Mussoorie's population had grown to 6,461. Earlier, Mussoorie was approachable by road from Saharanpur, 58 miles away. Accessibility became easier in 1900 with the railway coming to Dehradun, thus shortening the road trip to 21 miles.
The name Mussoorie is attributed to a derivation of'mansoor', a shrub, indigenous to the area. The town is referred to as'Mansoori' by most Indians; the main promenade in Mussoorie is called, as in the Mall. In Mussoorie, the Mall stretches from Picture Palace at its eastern end to the Public Library at its western end; the Nehru family, including Nehru's daughter Indira were frequent visitors to Mussoorie in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s, stayed at the Savoy Hotel. They spent much time in nearby Dehradun, where Nehru's sister Vijayalakshmi Pandit settled full-time. During the 1959 Tibetan Rebellion, the Central Tibetan Administration of the 14th Dalai Lama was at first established in Mussoorie before being moved to its present location in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh; the first Tibetan school was established in Mussoorie in 1960. Tibetans settled in Happy Valley. Today, some 5,000 Tibetans live in Mussoorie. Mussoorie today has an increased development of hotels and tourist lodges, given its relative proximity to Delhi and Chandigarh, has serious problems of garbage collection, water scarcity and parking shortages during the summer tourist season.
Landour and Barlowganj have fewer such problems. Mussoorie has an average elevation of 4,270 feet; the highest point is'Lal Tibba', at a height of about 5,000 feet or 1,520 metres, although the name Lal Tibba is now used to describe a lookout point, a short distance from the peak. Mussoorie has a typical subtropical highland climate for the mid-altitude Himalaya. Summers are warm and wet, with July and August averaging 660 millimetres or 25.98 inches of rain per month due to orographic lift of the moist monsoonal air. The pre-monsoon seasons in April and May is warm to warm and dry and clear, giving way to heavy rainfall from mid-June, while the post-monsoon season is dry and clear but cooler. In winter, rainfall is a little more frequent than in the pre-and post-monsoon seasons, the general weather cool and cloudy. Mussoorie receives a few spells of snowfall in December and February, although the number of snowy days has come down in recent years due to a combination of local and global factors, such as deforestation, construction activity and global warming.
As of 2011 India census, Mussoorie had a population of 30,118. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Mussoorie has an average literacy rate of 89%, higher than the national average of 75%: male literacy is 94%, female literacy is 84%. In Mussoorie, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age. In Mussoorie Nagar Palika Parishad, female sex ratio is of 812 against state average of 963. Moreover, child sex ratio in Mussoorie is around 918 compared to Uttarakhand state average of 890. Tourism is the most significant segment of Mussoorie's economy, it has a nature walk known as "Camel's Back Road". This road takes its name from a rocky outcrop in the shape of a camel's hump; the road contains hotels and motels, a cemetery is about mid-way on the loop. There is "Gun Hill". Gun Hill is accessible by the cable car on the Mall road; the oldest Christian church in the Himalayas, St Mary's, is above Mall Road and is undergoing restoration. Company Garden a tourist attraction, has a large collection of plants.
At Happy Valley is a small Tibetan temple, constructed in 1960 by the Tibetan r
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh. Occupying 650 square kilometres along the banks of the Musi River, Hyderabad City has a population of about 6.9 million and about 9.7 million in Hyderabad Metropolitan Region, making it the fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration in India. At an average altitude of 542 metres, much of Hyderabad is situated on hilly terrain around artificial lakes, including Hussain Sagar—predating the city's founding—north of the city centre. Established in 1591 by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, Hyderabad remained under the rule of the Qutb Shahi dynasty for nearly a century before the Mughals captured the region. In 1724, Mughal viceroy Asif Jah I declared his sovereignty and created his own dynasty, known as the Nizams of Hyderabad; the Nizam's dominions became a princely state during the British Raj, remained so for 150 years, with the city serving as its capital. The city continued as the capital of Hyderabad State after it was brought into the Indian Union in 1948, became the capital of Andhra Pradesh after the States Reorganisation Act, 1956.
Since 1956, Rashtrapati Nilayam in the city has been the winter office of the President of India. In 2014, the newly formed state of Telangana split from Andhra Pradesh and the city became the joint capital of the two states, a transitional arrangement scheduled to end by 2025. Relics of Qutb Shahi and Nizam rule remain visible. Golconda fort is another major landmark; the influence of Mughlai culture is evident in the region's distinctive cuisine, which includes Hyderabadi biryani and Hyderabadi haleem. The Qutb Shahis and Nizams established Hyderabad as a cultural hub, attracting men of letters from different parts of the world. Hyderabad emerged as the foremost centre of culture in India with the decline of the Mughal Empire in the mid-19th century, with artists migrating to the city from the rest of the Indian subcontinent; the Telugu film industry based in the city is the country's second-largest producer of motion pictures. Hyderabad was known as a pearl and diamond trading centre, it continues to be known as the "City of Pearls".
Many of the city's traditional bazaars remain open, including Laad Bazaar, Begum Bazaar and Sultan Bazaar. Industrialisation throughout the 20th century attracted major Indian research and financial institutions, including Defence Research and Development Organization, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, the National Geophysical Research Institute and the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology. Special economic zones dedicated to information technology have encouraged companies from India and around the world to set up operations in Hyderabad; the emergence of pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries in the 1990s led to the area's naming as India's "Genome Valley". With an output of US$74 billion, Hyderabad is the fifth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product. According to John Everett-Heath, the author of Oxford Concise Dictionary of World Place Names, Hyderabad means "Haydar's city" or "lion city", from haydar and ābād, was named to honour the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib, known as Haydar because of his lion-like valour in battles.
Andrew Petersen, a scholar of Islamic architecture, says the city was called Baghnagar. One popular theory suggests that the founder of the city, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah of the Golconda Sultanate, named it after Bhagmati, a local nautch girl with whom he had fallen in love, she adopted the title Hyder Mahal. The city was named as Hyderabad in her honour. According to German traveller Heinrich von Poser, whose travelogue of the Deccan was translated by Gita Dharampal-Frick of Heidelberg University, there were two names for the city: "On 3 December 1622, we reached the city of Bagneger or Hederabat, the seat of the king Sultan Mehemet Culi Cuttub Shah and the capital of the kingdom". French traveller Jean de Thévenot visited the Deccan region in 1666–1667 refers to the city in his book Travels in India as "Bagnagar and Aiderabad". Archaeologists excavating near the city have unearthed Iron Age sites that may date from 500 BCE; the region comprising modern Hyderabad and its surroundings was known as Golkonda, was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 624 CE to 1075 CE.
Following the dissolution of the Chalukya empire into four parts in the 11th century, Golkonda came under the control of the Kakatiya dynasty from 1158, whose seat of power was at Warangal, 148 km northeast of modern Hyderabad. The Kakatiya dynasty was reduced to a vassal of the Khalji dynasty in 1310 after its defeat by Sultan Alauddin Khalji of the Delhi Sultanate; this lasted until 1321, when the Kakatiya dynasty was annexed by Malik Kafur, Allaudin Khalji's general. During this period, Alauddin Khalji took the Koh-i-Noor diamond, said to have been mined from the Kollur Mines of Golkonda, to Delhi. Muhammad bin Tughluq succeeded to the Delhi sultanate in 1325, bringing Warangal under the rule of the Tughlaq dynasty until 1347 when Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, a governor under bin Tughluq, rebelled against Delhi and established the Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan Plateau, with Gulbarga, 200 km west of Hyderabad, as its capital; the Hyderabad area was under the control of the Musunuri Nayaks at this time, however, were forced to cede it to the Bahmani Sultanate in 1364.
The Bahmani kings ruled the region until 1518 and were the first independent Muslim rulers of the Deccan. Sultan Quli, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bah
Madras Medical College
The Madras Medical College is an educational institution located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It was established on 2 February 1835, it is the third oldest medical college in India, established after Ecole de Médicine de Pondichéry and Medical College Kolkata and is one of the foremost centres of post-graduate medical education in the country with 425 seats. At any point of time, more than 2500 medical and paramedical students study there; the Government General Hospital was established on 16 November 1664 to treat soldiers of the British East India Company. Mary Scharlieb graduated from Madras Medical College in 1878. In 1996, when the metropolis of Madras was renamed as Chennai, the college was renamed the Chennai Medical College, it was re-renamed back to the Madras Medical College, since the college was known worldwide by the older name. The foundation stone for the new building of the college was laid by the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, M. Karunanidhi, on 28 February 2010. In January 2011, the hospital was renamed as Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital.
A red-brick heritage structure known as the "Red Fort" stands to the east of the MMC buildings. Built in 1897, it has been classified as a Grade I heritage building by the Justice E. Padmanabhan Committee on heritage structures, it housed the anatomy department for several decades, moved to the new campus of the MMC at the erstwhile Central Prison campus in 2013. In December 2017, the PWD started restoration of the heritage structure at a cost of ₹ 19.7 million. Once restored, the structure will be converted to a museum, with the ground floor showcasing the history of MMC and the first floor showcasing specimens for comparative anatomy. A new campus with a six-storeyed building for Madras Medical College was built on a land covering 325,000 square feet on the erstwhile central prison premises in 2010 and was completed in 2012; the campus has 400 faculty and staff members. The campus was built at a cost of ₹ 566.3 million and started functioning in 2013. The old MMC buildings presently house the college of pharmacy, school of nursing and accommodate students of the added courses of audiology, speech learning and pathology, radio therapy and radio diagnosis.
Since 1857, the college has been affiliated to the University of Madras and all degrees of Health Sciences were awarded by the same until 1988 when the Tamil Nadu Dr. M. G. R. Medical University Act, 1987 received the assent of the president of India; this affiliating university is governed by the said Act. The college was declared as an independent university called the Madras Medical College and Research Institute; the status as an independent university was withdrawn shortly afterwards and the college was affiliated back to the Tamil Nadu Dr. M. G. R. Medical University, dropping the suffix: "Research Institute" in 2000. Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Park Town, Chennai – 600003 Tamil Nadu Government Dental College, Park Town, Chennai - 600003 Barnard Institute of Radiology, Park Town, Chennai - 600003 Institute of Mental Health, Chennai - 600010 Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Government Hospital for Women and Children, Chennai - 600008 Institute of Child Health and Government Hospital for Children, Chennai - 600008 Regional Institute of Ophthalmology and Government Ophthalmic Hospital, Egmore, Chennai - 600008 Government Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, K.
K. Nagar, Chennai - 600083 Institute of Thoracic Medicine and Chest Diseases, Chennai - 600031 Government Peripheral Hospital, Periyar Nagar, Chennai Communicable Diseases Hospital, Chennai - 600081 Madras Medical College was 11 among medical colleges in India by The Week in 2017; the College of Pharmacy was ranked 41 in India by the National Institutional Ranking Framework pharmacy ranking in 2018. Madras Medical college hosts inter-college cultural extravaganza known as "REVIVALS" and the annual inter-medical sports meet known as "ENCIERRO". Apart from this, it hosts annual intracollege cultural event known by the name " KALAIOMA" and the annual intracollege sports event known by the name "RANADHEERA"; the college and hospital are managed by the state government of Tamil Nadu. The head of the institution is the dean followed by the vice-principal. Dean of institution: Dr. Jayanthi Vice-Principal: Dr. Bharathi Vidhya Jayanthi Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari and President of the Indian National Congress Sivapatham Vittal, Endocrine Surgeon and a recipient of the Padma Shri and Dr. B. C. Roy Award C.
O. Karunakaran and founder of Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram C. U. Velmurugendran,Neurologist and Padma Shri receipient V. Mohan and Padma Shri recipient Guruswami Mudaliar, a noted professor at MMC and doctor in Madras Arjunan Rajasekaran, urologist and a recipient of the Padma Shri and Dr. B. C. Roy Award Kadiyala Ramachandra, professor of medicine and Padma Shri recipient Natesan Rangabashyam, Gastroenterologist and Padma Bhushan recipient Muthulakshmi Reddi, one of the first female doctors in India Yellapragada Subbarow, known for the synthesis of the first chemotherapeutic drug aminopterin, subsequently methotrexate, he is known for the synthesis of folic acid and diethylcarbamazine and the purification of adenosine triphosphate and creatine. Abraham Verghese, teacher and recipient of the U. S. National Humanities Medal Raman Viswanathan, chest physician and Padma Bhushan recipient P. K. R. Warrier, cardiothoracic surgeon and social activist Dr Anbumani Ramadoss, Former Union health minister Dr Kannan Pugazhendi and Director of Indi
London Lock Hospital
The London Lock Hospital was the first voluntary venereal disease clinic and the most famous and first of the Lock Hospitals which were developed for the treatment of syphilis following the end of the use of lazar hospitals, as leprosy declined. The hospital developed maternity and gynaecology services before being incorporated into the National Health Service in 1948, closing in 1952; the hospital was founded by William Bromfeild at Grosvenor Place in London as a hospital for the treatment of venereal disease and opened on 31 January 1747. The religious commentator, Thomas Scott, who published a Commentary on the Whole Bible and who became the founding Secretary of the Church Missionary Society, founded the Lock Asylum for the Reception of Penitent Female Patients as a refuge, for women, treated at the hospital, in 1787; the Lock Asylum opened in Osnaburg Row in 1792 and moved, first to Knightsbridge in 1812 to Lower Eaton Street in 1816 and co-located with the Lock Hospital in 1849. Meanwhile the Lock Hospital had moved to 283 Harrow Road in Westbourne Grove in 1842.
It was renamed the Female Hospital when a new site in Dean Street, opened for male outpatients in 1862. It was expanded as a result of the Contagious Diseases Act 1864 in 1867; the Lock Asylum, which had continued to occupy a wing in the Female Hospital, became known as the'Rescue Home' in 1893. The whole facility became known as the London Lock Rescue Home at that time. A maternity unit opened in 1917, followed by an ophthalmology unit and a genitourinary unit that treated venereal and non-venereal gynecological disorders. A new maternity centre opened at 283A Harrow Road in 1938. During the Second World War the facility was used as a Military Isolation Hospital, it joined the National Health Service in 1948 when it became an out-patients department for Paddington Hospital. After it closed in 1952, the hospital was demolished and the site is now occupied by flats; the Oxford English Dictionary states that the single word term'lock' was used to describe a leper hospital in Southwark, Greater London, where lepers were isolated and treated.
The sources for this usage go back to 1359. A 1375 source states that the foreman, William Cook, was sworn to prevent lepers from entering the City of London; the same source asserts that the term'lock' came to be used attributively, as in'lock hospital'. The memory of the London Lock Hospital hospital continues with the London Lock Hospital Memorial Prize in Sexually Transmitted Diseases at the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, established by bequest in 1965 by an old student and staff member of the school. With subsequent mergers of London medical schools, it is now part of the awards in communicable diseases for final year medical students at the UCL Medical School. "The Lock Hospital" is just one of the many alternative titles for a popular, traditional British folk song, "The Unfortunate Lad", a warning against venereal disease, dating from the late 18th century. The hospital is mentioned by name in the first verse: As I was walking down by the Lock Hospital, As I was walking one morning of late, Who did I spy but my own dear comrade, Wrapped in flannel, so hard is his fate.
The chorus mention the "salts and pills of white mercury" that might have saved the unfortunate youth's life if only his lover had warned him in time. There are many variants of the song in which the protagonist is variously a soldier, a sailor, or a young girl "cut down in their prime". Healthcare in London List of hospitals in England
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua