Potamogeton crispus, the curled pondweed or curly-leaf pondweed, is a species of aquatic plant native to Eurasia but an introduced species and a noxious weed in North America. Curly-leaf pondweed is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing a flattened, branching stem up to a meter long; the leaves are oblong in shape. Only submerged leaves are produced, which are sessile, linear or oblong in shape, 25–95 mm long and 5–12 mm wide; the leaves may be bright green, olive green or brownish and have noticeably serrated margins, a feature that distinguishes them from other pondweeds. The leaves have wavy edges but this is not always apparent on new growth. Turions occur at stem tips; the inflorescence is a short spike of flowers emerging above the water surface. It flowers from May until October; the turions of the plant develop along with the fruits and germinate, leaving the newly sprouted plants to overwinter. Although quite variable, P. crispus is a straightforward plant to identify. Hybrids with various other pondweeds are recorded, but these do not closely resemble P. crispus.
There are described hybrids with Potamogeton trichoides, P.perfoliatus, P. alpinus, P.lucens, P. praelongus, P. ochreatus and P. friesii. Potamogeton crispus is native to a wide range of countries in Asia, it has been introduced to the Americas and New Zealand. Curly pondweed is widespread and common across most of its native range, growing in standing and slow-flowing water including small ponds and ditches, it is a lowland plant and requires fine substrates in standing or slow-flowing calcareous water. However, it is tolerant of significant nutrient pollution, this has allowed it to persist in intensively farmed areas where more sensitive pondweeds have declined, its production of both seed and turions makes it resistant to disturbance such as dredging, in contrast to some of the larger broad-leaved pondweeds. This pondweed is considered an invasive species in much of North America, it was introduced to the Great Lakes and inland lakes within that region. The plant thrives in conditions less habitable to native plant species.
It sometimes displaces it. Curly pondweed may clog waterways, inhibiting aquatic recreation and is considered a nuisance in some areas, it has been introduced to South America and New Zealand. Potamogeton crispus is sometimes cultivated as a pond plant, speaking makes a good garden plant. Since it starts to die back rather early, it is a good idea to cut it back in July after it has flowered. In common with other pondweeds of this group it roots poorly from stem cuttings and is best propagated by division of the rhizomes or from turions; as it has proved invasive in some areas, curly pondweed should not be grown outside its native range. Jepson Manual Treatment Washington Burke Museum Photo gallery GLANSIS Species FactSheet Species Profile- Curly Pondweed, National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Curly Pondweed
The Wisconsin River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. At 430 miles long, it is the state's longest river; the river's name, first recorded in 1673 by Jacques Marquette as "Meskousing", is rooted in the Algonquian languages used by the area's American Indian tribes, but its original meaning is obscure. French explorers who followed in the wake of Marquette modified the name to "Ouisconsin", so it appears on Guillaume de L'Isle's map; this was simplified to "Wisconsin" in the early 19th century before being applied to Wisconsin Territory and the state of Wisconsin. The Wisconsin River originates in the forests of the North Woods Lake District of northern Wisconsin, in Lac Vieux Desert near the border of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, it flows south across the glacial plain of central Wisconsin, passing through Wausau, Stevens Point, Wisconsin Rapids. In southern Wisconsin it encounters the terminal moraine formed during the last ice age, where it forms the Dells of the Wisconsin River.
North of Madison at Portage, the river turns to the west, flowing through Wisconsin's hilly Western Upland and joining the Mississippi 3 miles south of Prairie du Chien. The highest waterfall on the river is Grandfather Falls in Lincoln County; the modern Wisconsin River was formed in several stages. The lower, westward-flowing portion of the river is located in the unglaciated Driftless Area, this section of the river's course predates the rest by several million years; the lower reach of the river is narrower than its upstream valley, leading to the suggestion the upper portions of the ancestor of the river flowed east previous to the Pleistocene. The remaining length of the river was formed as glaciers advanced and retreated over Wisconsin; the stretch of river from Stevens Point north to Merrill was a drainage route for meltwater flowing away from the glaciers which covered northern Wisconsin during the Wisconsin Glaciation. As the glaciers retreated further northward, the river grew in that direction.
South from Stevens Point, the meltwater would have flowed into Glacial Lake Wisconsin, a prehistoric proglacial lake that existed in the central part of the state. As temperatures warmed around 15,000 years ago, the ice dam holding the lake in place burst, unleashing a catastrophic flood that carved the Dells of the Wisconsin River and joined the upper stretches of the river with the pre-existing lower river valley that today flows from Portage to Prairie du Chien. In the summer of 1673, French missionary Jacques Marquette, French-Canadian explorer Louis Joliet, their crew of five Metis arrived near the headwaters of the Fox River. From there, they were told to portage their two canoes a distance of less than two miles through marsh and oak plains to the Wisconsin River. "The river on which we embarked is called Meskousing," wrote Marquette. "It is wide. In his only other reference to the river, Marquette says that the Mississippi is "narrow at the place where Miskous empties." After they returned, Joliet used the name "Miskonsing" on a map that he drew in 1674, when the news of their voyage was first published in 1681 the book's author, Melchisedec Thevenot, called it the "Mescousin" River.
The name used today was born when the explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, misread Marquette's initial M, written by hand in cursive script, "Ou" in 1674. This found its way onto printed maps though in a report written in 1682 La Salle tried to correct himself: "On the east one comes first to the river called by the Savages Ouisconsing, or Misconsing, which flows from the east." Over the next two decades the initial M disappeared as writers and mapmakers always called the river by some version that began with a vowel. For the next 150 years the river, by extension our part of the world was known as "Ouisconsin." Sloppy printers sometimes turned this into Ouriconsing and Ouiskonche, but the "Ouis …" spelling was the one most used by both French and English writers until the mid-19th century. As American soldiers and officials traveled through the area for the first time following the War of 1812, they used the French spelling, but when large numbers of lead miners streamed into the country south of the river in the 1820s, the U.
S. government began to refer to it differently in debates and legislation. These legal documents created by the government in Washington sometimes used the French spelling, but they introduced the uniquely American, "Wisconsin." The U. S. House of Representatives Journal was the first to print it, during discussion of "laying out a town at Helena, on the Wisconsin river, in the Territory of Michigan …" In the five years that followed, the modern spelling was used with increasing frequency in government publications as well as in commercially published books and maps. In 1836, when territorial status was authorized on July 4, the name became "Wisconsin". Oddly, the person who did the most to create Wisconsin Territory didn't like the name. James Duane Doty, who first visited the region in 1820, was the principal advocate for the spelling "Wiskonsan", which shows up dozens of times through the early 1840s. "During all this time, Governor Doty and the legislature were in constant hostility," wrote contemporary observer Theodore Rodolf.
"One of the governor's vagaries had to be settled by a joint resolution. The governor had a fondness f
Myriophyllum spicatum is native to Europe and north Africa, but has a wide geographic and climatic distribution among some 57 countries, extending from northern Canada to South Africa. It is a submerged aquatic plant, grows in still or slow-moving water, is considered to be a invasive species. Eurasian watermilfoil has slender; the submerged leaves are borne in pinnate whorls of four, with numerous thread-like leaflets 4–13 mm long. Plants are monoecious with flowers produced in the leaf axils on a spike 5–15 cm long held vertically above the water surface, each flower is inconspicuous, orange-red, 4–6 mm long. Eurasian water milfoil has 12- 21 pairs of leaflets while northern watermilfoil M. sibiricum only has 5–9 pairs. The two can hybridize and the resulting hybrid plants can cause taxonomic confusion as leaf characters are intermediate and can overlap with parent species. Myriophyllum spicatum is found in disperse regions of North America, Asia and Africa. Myriophyllum spicatum was first introduced to North America in the 1940s where it has become an invasive species in some areas.
By the mid 1970s, watermilfoil had covered thousands of hectares in British Columbia and Ontario and spread some 500 kilometres downstream via the Columbia River system into the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Eurasian watermilfoil is now found across most of Northern America where it is recognized as a noxious weed. In lakes or other aquatic areas where native aquatic plants are not well established, the Eurasian plant can spread quickly, it has been known to crowd out native plants and create dense mats that interfere with recreational activity. Dense growth of Eurasian milfoil can have a negative impact on fisheries by creating microhabitats for juvenile fish and obstructing space for larger fish disrupting normal feeding patterns. Due to the Eurasian milfoil plant's inability to provide the same microhabitat for invertebrates as compared to native aquatic plant species, densely populated areas of Eurasian milfoil create an ecosystem with less food sources for the surrounding fish.
Dense Eurasian milfoil growth can create hypoxic zones by blocking out sun penetration to native aquatic vegetation preventing them from photosynthesizing. Eurasian watermilfoil grows from broken off stems, known as shoot fragments, which increases the rate at which the plant can spread and grow. In some areas, the Eurasian Watermilfoil is an Aquatic Nuisance Species. Eurasian watermilfoil is known to hybridize with the native northern watermilfoil and the hybrid taxon has become invasive in North America; this hybridization has been observed in the Northwest. The aquatic moth Acentria ephemerella, the water veneer moth, feeds upon and damages this water milfoil, it has been used as an agent of biological pest control against the plant in North America. The milfoil weevil has been used as biocontrol. Another method for biocontrol is Grass Carp, which have been bred as sterile, is sometimes released into affected areas, since these fish feed on aquatic plants and have proven effective at controlling the spread.
However, the carp prefer many native species to the milfoil and will decimate preferred species before eating the milfoil. In Washington State the success rate of Grass Carp has been less than expected, they were used in 98 lakes and 39 percent of them had no submerged plant life left after only a short time. Since 2000, hand-harvesting of invasive milfoils has shown much success as a management technique. Several organizations in the New England states have undertaken large scale, lake-wide hand-harvesting management programs with successful results. Acknowledgment had to be made that it is impossible to eradicate the species once it is established; as a result, maintenance must be done once an infestation has been reduced to affordably controlled levels. Well trained divers with proper techniques have been able to control and maintain many lakes in the Adirondack Park in Northern New York where chemicals, mechanical harvesters, other disruptive and unsuccessful management techniques are banned.
After only three years of hand harvesting in Saranac Lake the program was able to reduce the amount harvested from over 18 tons to just 800 pounds per year. Trailering boats has proven to be a significant vector by which Eurasian milfoil is able to spread and proliferate across otherwise disconnected bodies of water. Effective methods for mitigating this spread, are visual inspections with subsequent hand removal or pressure washing upon boat removal. In the Okanagan River Basin of south-central British Columbia, a specially-adapted rototiller is used to dredge shallow water to damage or destroy the root system. Myriophyllum spicatum produces ellagic and pyrogallic acids and -catechin, allelopathic polyphenols inhibiting the growth of blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa. Species Profile- Eurasian Watermilfoil, National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Eurasian Watermilfoil. Flora Europaea: Myriophyllum spicatum Flora of Taiwan: Myriophyllum spicatum Newman, Raymond M..
"Fish predation on Eurasian watermilfoil herbivores and indirect effects on macrophytes". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 63: 1049–1057. D
A killifish is any of various oviparous cyprinodontiform fish. All together, there are some 1270 different species of killifish, the biggest family being Rivulidae, containing more than 320 species; because of living in ephemeral waters, the eggs of most killifish can survive periods of partial dehydration. Many of the species rely on such a diapause, since the eggs would not survive more than a few weeks if submerged in water. Like seeds, the eggs can be sent by mail without water; the adults of some species, such as Kryptolebias marmoratus, can additionally survive out of the water for several weeks. Most killies are small fish, from one to two inches, with the largest species growing to just under six inches; the word killifish is of uncertain origin, but is to have come from the Dutch kil for a kill. Although killifish is sometimes used as an English equivalent to the taxonomical term Cyprinodontidae, some species belonging to that family have their own common names, such as the pupfish and the mummichog.
Killifish are found in fresh or brackish waters in the Americas, as far south as Argentina and as far north as southern Ontario. There are species in southern Europe, in much of Africa as far south as KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in the Middle East and Asia, on several Indian Ocean islands. Killifish are not found in Antarctica, or northern Europe; the majority of killifish are found in permanent streams and lakes, live between two and three years. Such killifish are common in the Americas as well as in southern Europe; some of these habitats can be rather extreme. Some specialized forms live in temporary ponds and flood plains, have a much shorter lifespan; such species, known as "annuals", live no longer than nine months, are used as models for studies on aging. Examples include the African genus Nothobranchius and South American genera ranging from the cold water Austrolebias of Argentina and Uruguay to the more tropical Gnatholebias, Pterolebias and Terranatos. A small number of species will shoal.
Populations can be dense and territories can shift especially for species of the extreme shallows. Many species exist as passive tribes in small streams where dominant males will defend a territory while allowing females and immature males to pass through the area. In the aquarium, territorial behavior is different for every grouping, will vary by individuals. In a large enough aquarium, most species can live in groups as long as there are more than three males. Killifish feed on aquatic arthropods such as insect larvae, aquatic crustaceans and worms, it is reported by the killifish collector Rudolf Koubek that areas in Gabon where the streams lack killifish are rife with malaria, spread by a mosquito. Some species of Orestias from Lake Titicaca are planktonic filter feeders. Others, such as Cynolebias and Megalebias species and Nothobranchius ocellatus are predatory and feed on other fish; the American Flagfish feeds on algae and other plant matter as well as aquatic invertebrates. Nothobranchius furzeri needs much food because it grows so when food supplied is inadequate, bigger fish will eat the smaller fish.
Some strains have a lifespan as short as several months and can thus serve as a model for biogerontological studies. The African turquoise killifish is the shortest-living vertebrate that can be bred in captivity, having a lifespan of between three and nine months. Sexual maturation occurs within 3–4 weeks, with fecundity peaking in 8–10 weeks. Nothobranchius furzeri shows no signs of telomere shortening, reduced telomerase activity, or replicative senescence with age, despite its short lifespan. Nonetheless, lipofuscin accumulates in the brain and liver, there is an increased risk of cancer with age. Calorie restriction reduces these age-related disease conditions. Resveratrol has been shown to increase the mean and maximum life span of Nothobranchius furzeri, but resveratrol has not been shown to have this effect in mammals. Transgenic strains have been made, precise genome editing was achieved in Nothobranchius furzeri using a draft genome and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. By targeting multiple genes, including telomerase, the killifish can now be used as an attractive vertebrate model organism for aging and diseases.
Sequencing the whole killifish genome indicated modification to the IGF-1 receptor gene. Many killifish are lavishly coloured. Specimens can be obtained from specialist associations. Striped panchax are found in pet shops, but caution must be exercised when considering tank mates, since the mouth of the Striped panchax is as wide as the head, much smaller fish will be eaten. Flagfish, native to south Florida, is another species of killifish found in pet stores, they are useful in aquariums for algae control. The Golden topminnow is native to the United States and avail
Lythrum salicaria, or purple loosestrife, is a flowering plant belonging to the family Lythraceae. It should not be confused with other plants sharing the name loosestrife that are members of the family Primulaceae. Other names include purple lythrum. Lythrum salicaria is a herbaceous perennial plant, that can grow 1–2 m tall, forming clonal colonies 1.5 m or more in width with numerous erect stems growing from a single woody root mass. The stems are red to purple and square in cross-section; the leaves are lanceolate, 3–10 cm long and 5–15 mm broad and sessile, arranged opposite or in whorls of three. The flowers are reddish purple, 10–20 mm diameter, with six petals and 12 stamens, are clustered in the axils of bracts or leaves; the flowers are visited by many types of insects, can be characterized by a generalized pollination syndrome. The fruit is a small 3–4 mm capsule containing numerous minute seeds. Flowering lasts throughout the summer; when the seeds are mature, the leaves turn bright red through dehydration in early autumn.
The dead stalks from previous growing seasons are brown. L. salicaria is variable in leaf shape and degree of hairiness, a number of subspecies and varieties have been described, but it is now regarded as monotypic with none of these variants being considered of botanical significance. The species Lythrum intermedium Ledeb. Ex Colla is now considered synonymous. Native to Europe, northwest Africa, southeastern Australia. Found in ditches, wet meadows and marshes and along sides of lakes; the flowers are pollinated by long-tongued insects, including butterflies. A number of insects use Lythrum salicaria as a food resource; the black-margined loosestrife beetle Galerucella calmariensis is a brown beetle with a black line on its thorax. The adult feeds on the leaves of the plant, its larvae strip the tissue from the leaves. The golden loosestrife beetle Galerucella pusilla is nearly identical to G. calmariensis, but lacks the black thoracic line. Its feeding habits are quite similar to the other leaf beetle.
The loosestrife root weevil Hylobius transversovittatus is a large red nocturnal weevil, which spends its nights feeding on leaves and leaf buds. The larvae emerge from their eggs and burrow into the root of the plant, which they feed on continuously for over a year; this root damage stunts the plant's ability to create seeds. If several larvae inhabit the same root, the plant can be killed; the loosestrife flower weevil Nanophyes marmoratus is a tiny weevil which lays a single egg in each flower. When the larvae emerge they eat the flowers' ovaries, the plant is unable to create seeds; the larvae proceed to hollow out the flower buds and use them as safe places to pupate. Caterpillars of the engrailed moth, a polyphagous geometer moth feed on purple loosestrife, it has been used as an astringent medicinal herb to treat dysentery. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens, is associated with damp, poorly drained locations such as marshes and watersides. However, it will tolerate drier conditions.
The flowers are showy and bright, a number of cultivars have been selected for variation in flower colour, including:'Atropurpureum' with dark purple flowers'Brightness' with deep pink flowers'Happy' with red flowers on a short stem'Purple Spires' with purple flowers on a tall stem'Roseum Superbum' with large pink flowers. The cultivars ‘Blush’ with blush-pink flowers, and'Feuerkerze' with rose-red flowers have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit, it has been introduced in many areas of North America by bee keepers, due to its abundance of flowers which provide a large source of nectar. The purple loosestrife has been introduced into temperate New Zealand and North America where it is now naturalised and listed in some controlling agents. Infestations result in dramatic disruption in water flow in rivers and canals, a sharp decline in biological diversity as native food and cover plant species, notably cattails, are crowded out, the life cycles of organisms from waterfowl to amphibians to algae are affected.
A single plant may produce up to 2.7 million tiny seeds annually. Carried by wind and water, the seeds germinate in moist soils after overwintering; the plant can sprout anew from pieces of root left in the soil or water. Once established, loosestrife stands are difficult and costly to remove by mechanical and chemical means. Plants marketed under the name "European wand loosestrife" are the same species despite the different name. In some cases the plants sold are sterile, preferable. In North America, purple loosestrife may be distinguished from similar native plants (e.g. fireweed Chamerion angustifolium, blue vervain Verbena hastata, Liatris Liatris spp. and spiraea by its angular stalks which are square in outline, as well as by its leaves, which are in pairs that alternate at right angle and are not serrated. Purple loosestrife provides a model of successful biological pest control. Research began in 1985 and today the plant is managed well with a number of insects that feed on it. Five species of beetle use purple loosestrife as the
Corbicula fluminea is a species of freshwater clam, an aquatic bivalve mollusk in the family Cyrenidae. This species is confused with Corbicula fluminalis due to the two species' similar colour and texture; the species is regarded as having originated somewhere in Eastern Asia, leading to the common names of Asian clam or Asiatic clam. In the aquarium and koi pond trade, it is called golden clam or golden freshwater clam. In Southeast Asia, it is known as good luck clam. In Korean, the name is 재첩, the species is used for a common dish called jaecheop-guk; the species has been introduced into many parts of the world, including South America, North America and Europe. Right after reaching maturity, these clams produce eggs, followed by sperm, they produce eggs and sperm simultaneously. They can self-fertilize, release up to 2,000 juveniles per day, more than 100,000 in a lifetime. Juveniles are only 1 mm long when discharged, take one to four years to reach maturity. At this time, they are about 1 cm long.
Adults can reach a length of about 5 cm. The outside of the shell is yellow-green with concentric rings; the color can flake. The shells are purple on the inside, they feed on phytoplankton, which they filter from the sandy or muddy bottoms of streams, lakes, or canals. According to the United States Geological Survey, C. fluminea is to continue to expand its North American range until it reaches its lower temperature tolerance. The primary economic and social impact of the invasion of C. fluminea has been billions of dollars in costs associated with clogged water intake pipes of power plants, among others. Ecologically, C. fluminea contributes to declines and replacement of vulnerable threatened native clams.. This clam occurs in freshwater environments of Eastern Asia, including Russia, the Philippines, Taiwan and Japan: C. fluminea occurs in freshwater environments of Africa. C. fluminea was brought to North America at the latest in 1924, by Asian immigrants who used the clams as a food source.
It is abundant in the Albemarle region of North Carolina, as well as other areas along the east coast. In South America it was introduced in the 1960s into the Río de La Plata, spread through most of the continent. Nonindigenous distributions of C. fluminea include: It was first found in the Rhine in the late 1980s and subsequently found its way into the Danube through the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal. It reached the Elbe in 1998 at the latest. Pretty much every freshwater river and lake east of the Mississippi within the continental U. S. Czech Republic - in Elbe in Bohemia since 2000 and it is spreading. Slovakia It is now in rivers of Portugal, such as the Minho River, was first recorded in Ireland in 2010. Cuba Lake Placid, NY, USA Allegheny River, Pittsburgh, PA River Nore & Barrow, Republic of Ireland, first recorded in April 2010 Lake Tahoe, on the borders of California and Nevada, they were first found in 2002, the numbers increased after 2008, they have been blamed for algal blooms and concerns exist they will outcompete and displace native species such as the montane pea clam and the ramshorn snail.
Efforts are underway to smother the clams on the bottom with rubber mats. South America, including Argentina, Brasil, Perú, Venezuela and Ecuador. Two species are present in C. fluminea and C. fluminalis. However, the two species are mixed together; the names themselves are sometimes confused in the literature. Care needs to be taken to properly distinguish the two species; the ratio of width and height in C. fluminea is on average 1.1. In C. fluminalis it is smaller. Most they can be distinguished by the amount of ribs on the shell; this character is clearly recognizable in small specimens. In addition, when viewed from the side, C. fluminalis is rounder heart-shaped, while C. fluminea has a flatter shape like a teardrop with a notched broad end. Small specimens of C. fluminalis are spherical, while those of C. fluminea are decidedly flattened. All these differences except the rib number are a consequence of C. fluminalis having a markedly more swollen and protruding umbo. List of introduced molluscs species of Venezuela 7.
^ Weitere, M. et al. Linking environmental warming to the fitness of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea, Global Change Biology, Volume 15 Issue 12, Pages 2838 - 2851 USGS - Nonindigenous Aquatic Species "Aquatic Immigrants of the Northeast, No. 4: Asian Clam, Corbicula fluminea" Typical specimen of C. fluminea Typical specimen of C. fluminalis Anatomy of Corbicula fluminea Impact of Corbicula fluminea within US waterways GLANSIS Species FactSheet Species Profile- Asian Clam, National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Asian Clam
Mukwonago is a village in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. The population was 7,355 at the 2010 census; the village is located within the Town of Mukwonago in Waukesha County, with a small portion extending into the Town of East Troy in Walworth County. Of its population, 7,254 were in Waukesha County, 101 were in Walworth County; the area was a Native American village and the tribal seat of the Bear Clan of the Potawatomi Indians. The name "Mukwonago" is derived from "mequanego"; the spelling "Mukwonago" was adopted in 1844 because of the similarity to nearby Mequon. Many of the streets and roads are named after the city's founders, such as Ira Blood, Major Jessie Meacham, Sewall Andrews, Thomas Sugden. Mukwonago is located at 42°51′52″N 88°19′50″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 8.11 square miles, of which, 7.90 square miles of it is land and 0.21 square miles is water. It is situated at the southwestern flank of the sprawling Vernon Marsh, encircles Upper and Lower Phantom Lake.
The lakes lie midway along the Mukwonago River from its source springs to its meeting with the Fox River, which travels further southeast through Big Bend and beyond. Mukwonago has a humid continental climate; as of the census of 2010, there were 7,355 people, 2,923 households, 2,003 families residing in the village. The population density was 931.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,104 housing units at an average density of 392.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.4% White, 0.2% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.2% of the population. There were 2,923 households of which 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.9% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.5% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age in the village was 37.9 years. 26.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 51.1 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,162 people, 2,392 households, 1,705 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,313.3 people per square mile. There were 2,502 housing units at an average density of 533.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.21% White, 0.19% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.29% from other races, 0.70% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.90% of the population. There were 2,392 households out of which 35.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.0% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.7% were non-families. 22.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.00. In the village, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.4 males. The median income for a household in the village was $56,250, the median income for a family was $64,354. Males had a median income of $45,824 versus $28,333 for females; the per capita income for the village was $23,993. About 2.6% of families and 3.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.7% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over. Public schools serving the city are Mukwonago High School, Park View Middle School, Rolling Hills Elementary, Section Elementary, Big Bend Elementary, Eagleville Elementary, Prairie View Elementary, Clarendon Avenue Elementary Schools. Private schools include St. John's Lutheran School.
Marvin H. Bovee, politician Timothy T. Cronin and politician James H. Elmore, politician Scott Jensen, politician Nick Pearson, Olympic speedskater 2002 & 2010 Winter Eric Szmanda, actor, CSI John J. Van Buren, United States Navy Laurel E. Youmans, politician Village of Mukwonago