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Muladi

The Muladi were Muslims of local descent or of mixed Arab and Iberian origin who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages. They were called "Musalimah". In broader usage, the word muwallad is used to describe Arabs of mixed parentage those not living in their ancestral homelands; the Spanish and Catalan words muladí, muladi or muladita are derived from the Arabic muwallad. The basic meaning of muwallad is a person of mixed ancestry a descendant of one Arab and one non-Arab parent, who grew up under the influence of an Arabic society and were educated within the Islamic culture. Muladi is the Spanish form of the term muwalladun, referring to Arabic-speaking Muslims of Hispanic origin who showed the same behaviour patterns as those rebels of Arab and Berber origin who rebelled against Arab rule. Muwallad is derived from walad, which means "descendant, scion, son". Muwallad referred to the offspring of foreign, non-Muslim women; the term muwalladin is sometimes used in Arabic to this day to describe the children of Muslim fathers and foreign mothers.

According to Dozy, Muwallad means "anyone who, without being of Muslim origin, is born among the Muslims and has been raised as an Arab". The word, according to him, does not imply Arab ancestry, either paternal or maternal. According to the dictionary of the Real Academia Española, muladí means "Christian who, during the domination of the Arabs in Spain, converted to Islam and lived among the Muslims", while Bernards and Nawas say the plural form of the word seems to be restricted to al-Andalus exclusively to the areas of Mérida, Seville and Jaén. "Muladi" has been offered as one of the possible etymological origins of the still-current Spanish and Portuguese term mulato, denoting a person of white and black ancestry. In Islamic history muwalladun designates in a broader sense non-Arab Muslims or the descendants of converts. In the Muslim-ruled parts of the Iberian Peninsula, parts of the indigenous until-then Christian population converted to Islam in the 8th and 9th centuries. In the 10th century a massive conversion of Christians took place, so that muladies comprised the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the century's end.

However, the majority of Muwallads had converted to Islam early, but retained many pre-Islamic customs and characteristics. Conversion to Islam was encouraged by the Umayyad caliphs and Emirs of Córdoba but it was not directly forced. Many Christians converted to Islam to avoid the Jizya tax. Conversion to Islam opened up new horizons to the native Christians, alleviated their social position, ensured better living conditions, broadened their scope for more technically skilled and advanced work; the Christians who converted to Islam became Mawali, or clients attached to an Arab tribe, as such, were Islamized, adopting the Arabic dress code and language. The Muwallads were called Muslima, elches, in reference to the society from which they sprang, they were denominated Aljamiados because of their non Arabic-tongue, that is, the Mozarabic languages. Through the cultural Arabization of muladies and their increasing inter-marriage with some Berbers and Arabs present in Iberia, the distinctions between the different Muslim groups became blurred in the 11th and 12th centuries.

The populations mixed with such rapidity that it was soon impossible to distinguish ethnically the elements of foreign origin from the natives. Thus they merged into a more homogeneous group of Andalusi Arabs also called Moors; the Muwallads spoke Andalusian Arabic, along with a wide variety of Iberian Romance languages. Andalusian Arabic was a mixture of Iberian languages and Classical Arabic, though derived from Latin; this local dialect of Arabic was spoken by the Berbers and Arabs from the 9th century onwards. In the process of acculturation, Muwallads may well have adopted an agnatic model of descent, but without abandoning the bilaterality of late Roman kinship. According to Abu Jafar ibn Harun of Trujillo a vast but silent majority of Muladi Muslims thrived in the Extremadura region of Spain. Among the Muwalladun were the free-born, the enfranchised, slaves. A significant part of the Muwalladun was formed by freed slaves; these were the Saqaliba, or Slavs who became an important social group in Al-Andalus during the 10th and 11th centuries.

Upon adopting the ethnic name of their patrons, the emancipated slaves forgot their own ethnic origin. The Muslim slaves were the Saqaliba, led by Ali ibn Yusuf, who profited from the progressive crumbling of the Umayyad Caliphate's superstructure to gain control over the province of Denia; the Saqaliba managed to free themselves and gain dominion over the Taifa, which extended its reach as far as the Balearic Islands, their capital, Madina Mayurqa. The intermarriage of foreign Muslims with native Christians made many Muwallads heedless of their Iberian origin; as a result, their descendants and many descendants of Christian converts forgot the descent of their ancestors and assumed forged Arab genealogies. However, there were a few who were proud of their Visigothic origins; these included the Banu Angel

The King & Eye

The King & Eye is an album by the American avant-garde band The Residents, released in 1989. It consists of a series of Elvis Presley songs strung together with a narration exploring what motivated him throughout his career. Most of the album showed up in the Cube-E tour; this album was the last full-length album The Residents released before entering their "Multimedia Era." Through the perspective of a father telling his children fables about a long dead king and his songs, a poignant string of narrative interludes - "The Baby King" - the work hints at a darker side of the Elvis mystique and questions the spiritual nature of his reign. The album "incisively portrays Elvis's life and work as a misguided abandonment of innocence in favor of a sad yet comedic Oedipal journey," writes Jim Green. "Blue Suede Shoes" "The Baby King Part 1" "Don't Be Cruel" "Heartbreak Hotel" "Return to Sender" "The Baby King Part 2" "Teddy Bear" "Devil in Disguise" "Stuck on You" "Big Hunk o' Love" "A Fool Such As I" "The Baby King Part 3" "Little Sister" "His Latest Flame" "Burning Love" "Viva Las Vegas' "The Baby King Part 4" "Love Me Tender" "The Baby King Part 5" "Hound Dog" A remix version of the album featuring a more synthesised, drum n bass-type sound was released in 2004, consisting of a main album plus a three-track bonus e.p.

"The Baby King 1" "Viva Las Vegas" "Jailhouse Rock" "Surrender" "Devil in Disguise" "Heartbreak Hotel" "Big Hunk o' Love" "Little Sister" "Stuck On You" "Burning Love" "All Shook Up" "Don't Be Cruel" "Don't" "A Fool Such as I" "Can't Help Falling in Love" "Blue Suede Shoes" "Hound Dog" "Teddy Bear"Omitted from the remix version were "Return to Sender", "Marie's the Name" and "The Baby King" Parts 2-5

United Nations Security Council Resolution 530

United Nations Security Council resolution 530, adopted unanimously on 19 May 1983, having heard statements from Nicaragua and other Member States on the issue, the Council expressed its deep concern at the situation on the Honduras-Nicaragua border, a possible military confrontation. The Council expressed appreciation for the Contadora Group and its efforts to resolve the situation in Central America; the Foreign Ministers of Mexico, Venezuela and Colombia had expressed concern at foreign interference in conflicts and disputes in Central America, urging the countries themselves, along with the Contadora Group, to solve disputes to establish peace in the region. The resolution urged the Contadora group to "spare no effort" to find solutions and, along with the Secretary-General, to keep the Council informed of developments in the situation. Contras List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 501 to 600 Nicaragua v. United States Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare United Nations Security Council Resolution 562 Works related to United Nations Security Council Resolution 530 at Wikisource Text of the Resolution at undocs.org