Los Angeles Police Department
The Los Angeles Police Department the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the police department of Los Angeles, California. With 9,988 officers and 2,869 civilian staff, it is the third-largest municipal police department in the United States, after the Chicago Police Department and the New York City Police Department; the department operates in a population of 4,030,904 people. The LAPD has been fictionalized in numerous films and television shows throughout its history; the department has been associated with a number of controversies concerned with racism, police brutality, police corruption. The first specific Los Angeles police force was founded in 1853, as the Los Angeles Rangers, a volunteer force that assisted the existing County forces; the Rangers were soon succeeded by another volunteer group. Neither force was efficient and Los Angeles became known for its violence and vice; the first paid force was created in 1869, when six officers were hired to serve under City Marshal William C. Warren.
By 1900, under John M. Glass, there were one for every 1,500 people. In 1903, with the start of the Civil Service, this force was increased to 200; the CBS radio show Calling All Cars hired LAPD radio dispacher Jesse Rosenquist to be the voice of the dispatcher. Rosenquist was famous because home radios could tune in to early police radio frequencies; as the first police radio dispatcher presented to the public ear, he was the voice that actors went to when called upon for a radio dispatcher role. During World War II, under Clemence B. Horrall, the overall number of personnel was depleted by the demands of the military. Despite efforts to maintain numbers, the police could do little to control the 1943 Zoot Suit Riots. Horrall was replaced by retired United States Marine Corps general William A. Worton, who acted as interim chief until 1950, when William H. Parker succeeded him and would serve until his death in 1966. Parker advocated police autonomy from civilian administration. However, the Bloody Christmas scandal in 1951 led to calls for civilian accountability and an end to alleged police brutality.
The iconic television series Dragnet, with LAPD Detective Joe Friday as the primary character, was the first major media representation of the department. Real LAPD operations inspired Jack Webb to create the series and close cooperation with department officers let him make it as realistic as possible, including authentic police equipment and sound recording on-site at the police station. Due to Dragnet's popularity, LAPD Chief Parker "became after J. Edgar Hoover, the most well known and respected law enforcement official in the nation" at that time. In the 1960s, when the LAPD under Chief Thomas Reddin expanded its community relations division and began efforts to reach out to the African-American community, Dragnet followed suit with more emphasis on internal affairs and community policing than solving crimes, the show's previous mainstay. Under Parker, LAPD created the first SWAT team in United States law enforcement. Officer John Nelson and then-Inspector Daryl Gates created the program in 1965 to deal with threats from radical organizations such as the Black Panther Party operating during the Vietnam War era.
The old headquarters for the LAPD was Parker Center, named after former chief William H. Parker, which still stands at 150 N. Los Angeles St; the new headquarters is 300 yards west in the purpose built Police Administration Building located at 100 W. 1st St. south of Los Angeles City Hall, which opened in October 2009. The Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners known as the Police Commission, is a five-member body of appointed officials which oversees the LAPD; the board is responsible for setting policies for the department and overseeing the LAPD's overall management and operations. The Chief of Police reports to the board; the Office of the Inspector General is an independent part of the LAPD that has oversight over the department's internal disciplinary process and reviewing complaints of officer misconduct. It was created by the recommendation of the Christopher Commission and it is exempt from civil service and reports directly to the Board of Police Commissioners; the current Inspector General is Mark P. Smith, the Constitutional Policing Advisor for the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department.
The OIG receives copies of every complaint filed against members of the LAPD as well as tracking specific cases along with any resultant litigation. The OIG conducts audits on select investigations and conducts regular reviews of the disciplinary system in order to ensure fairness and equality; as well as overseeing the LAPD's disciplinary process, the Inspector General may undertake special investigations as directed by the Board of Police Commissioners. The Office of the Chief of Police has the responsibility for assisting the Chief of Police in the administration of the department; the Chief of Staff is responsible for coordinating the flow of information from command staff to ensure that the Chief is informed prior to making decisions and coordinating special administrative audits and investigations, assisting and submitting recommendations to the Chief of Police in matters involving employee relations. The Office of the Chief of Staff is composed of the Board of Police Commissioners Liaison, the Public Communications Group, the Media Relations Division, the Employee Relations Group.
The Director of the Office of Constitutional Policing and Policy Police Administrator III Arif Alikhan reports directl
Desert Hot Springs, California
Desert Hot Springs known as DHS, is a city in Riverside County, United States. The city is located within the Coachella Valley geographic region, sometimes referred to as the Desert Empire; the population was 25,938 at the 2010 census, up from 16,582 at the 2000 census. The city has undergone rapid development and high population growth since the 1970s, when there were 2,700 residents, it is named for its many natural hot springs. It is one of few places in the world with occurring hot- and cold mineral springs. Desert Hot Springs is home to the largest collection of warm mineral springs in the United States. More than 20 natural mineral spring lodgings can be found in town. Unlike most hot springs, the mineral springs in town are odorless; the only people residing in areas north of Palm Springs prior to the 20th century was Cahuilla Indians in the village of Seven Palms. Although Cahuilla people never settled permanently in today’s Desert Hot Springs, they camped here during winter times due to the warm climate.
According to early homesteader and writer Cabot Yerxa in his newspaper columns published in The Desert Sentinel newspaper, the first homesteader in the area of the city of Desert Hot Springs was Hilda Maude Gray, who staked her claim in 1908. Cabot Yerxa soon discovered the hot water aquifer on Miracle Hill. Due to the Mission Creek Branch of the San Andreas Fault bisecting the area, one side is a cold water aquifer, the other has a hot water aquifer, his large Pueblo Revival Style architecture structure, hand built over 20 years, is now one of the oldest adobe-style buildings in Riverside County, houses Cabot's Pueblo Museum, designated a state historical site after his death in 1965. Cabot's Trading Post & Gallery opened there in February 2008; the town was founded by L. W. Coffee on July 12, 1941; the original town site was centered at the intersection of Palm Drive and Pierson Boulevard and was only one square mile. Coffee chose the name Desert Hot Springs because of the area's natural hot springs.
Desert Hot Springs became a tourist destination in the 1950s because of its small spa hotels and boutique hotels. The city is popular with "snowbirds."Realtors arrived to speculate, thousands of lots and streets were laid out over a six square mile area. Some homes were bought by retirees and the area incorporated as a city in 1963, with 1,000 residents. Desert Hot Springs experienced periods of significant growth in the 1980s and 1990s, when most of the vacant lots were filled with new houses and duplex apartments; the city's population increased by 5,000 in the 2000 census. In 1993, a 3-star hotel, Mirage Springs Hotel Resort opened in DHS. Despite good reviews and providing much needed financial revenue to DHS, Mirage Springs closed its doors in 1998; the business reopened as the Miracle Springs Spa. Desert Hot Springs High School opened in 1999. Desert Hot Springs was the first city in Southern California to legalize medical marijuana cultivation, has since been overwhelmed by marijuana developers and growers.
It was featured in a CNBC special as California's first city to permit the commercial cultivation of marijuana in 2014. Before development of the city began in the 1930s, Desert Hot Springs was a treeless place in the Colorado Desert. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 23.6 square miles, of which 99.89% is land and 0.11% is water. Desert Hot Springs is nestled between two mountain ranges: San Bernardino Mountains and San Jacinto Mountains, it is located just south of Joshua Tree National Park. It is located in the Colorado Desert region of the Sonoran Desert. Desert Hot Springs has a desert climate similar to the rest of the Coachella Valley, with less than six inches of precipitation per year. Summers are hot with days exceeding 107 °F in July and August while night-time lows tend to stay between 78–90 °F; the winters are mild with days seeing temperatures between 68–82 °F and corresponding night-time lows between 50–65 °F. Heat waves during the summer months involving temperatures higher than 110 °F are not unusual.
Summer winds and the higher elevation keep Desert Hot Springs on average 5-7 degrees cooler than other communities in Coachella Valley. However, the winter season can be warmer due to the surrounding mountains blocking north winds; the Mission Creek Fault, a branch of the San Andreas, separates two aquifers. On one side, the Desert Hot Springs Sub-Basin contains an aquifer with hot water; this aquifer resorts. Mission Springs Sub-basin, on the other side of the fault, the Miracle Creek sub-basin has cold water; this aquifer has received awards for exceptional taste. From having 20 residents in 1941, Desert Hot Springs had 28,000 residents in 2014; the 2010 United States Census reported that Desert Hot Springs had a population of 25,938. The population density was 1,097.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Desert Hot Springs was 15,053 White, 2,133 African American, 357 Native American, 675 Asian, 84 Pacific Islander, 6,343 from other races, 1,293 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13,646 persons.
The Census reported that 25,820 people lived in households, 118 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 8,650 households, out of which 3,713 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,468 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,603 had a female h
Principal photography is the phase of film production in which the bulk of the movie is filmed, with actors on set and cameras rolling, as distinct from pre-production and post-production. Principal photography is the most expensive phase of film production, due to actor and set crew salaries, as well as the costs of certain shots, on-set special effects, its start marks a point of no return for the financiers, because until it is complete, there is unlikely to be enough material filmed to release a final product needed to recoup costs. While it is common for a film to lose its greenlight status during pre-production – for example, because an important cast member drops out or unexpectedly dies, or some kind of scandal engulfs the studio or an actor – it is uncommon for financing to be withdrawn once principal photography has begun. Feature films have insurance in place by the time principal photography begins; the death of a bankable star before completing all planned takes, or the loss of sets or footage can render a film impossible to complete as planned.
For example, sets are notoriously flammable. Furthermore, professional-quality movie cameras are rented as needed, most camera houses will not allow rentals of their equipment without proof of insurance. Once a film concludes principal photography, it is said to have wrapped, a wrap party may be organized to celebrate. During post-production, it may become clear that certain shots or sequences are missing or incomplete and are required to complete the film, or that a certain scene is not playing as expected, or as seen in the late stages of filming The Hate U Give, that a particular actor's performance or behavior has not turned out as desired, causing him or her to be replaced with another. In these circumstances, additional material may have to be shot. If the material has been shot once, or is substantial, the process is referred to as a re-shoot, but if the material is new and minor, it is referred to as a pick-up. Learning materials related to Filmmaking at Wikiversity Media related to Filmmaking at Wikimedia Commons
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing propeller-driven airliner that revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Its lasting effect on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft produced, it has a cruise speed of 207 mph, capacity of 21 to 32 passengers or 6,000 lbs of cargo and a range of 1,500 mi. The DC-3 is a twin-engine metal monoplane with a tailwheel-type landing gear and was developed as a larger, improved 14-bed sleeper version of the Douglas DC-2, it had many exceptional qualities compared to previous aircraft. It had good range and could operate from short runways, it carried passengers in greater comfort. Before the war it pioneered many air travel routes, it made worldwide flights possible. It is considered the first airliner. Civil DC-3 production ended in 1942 at 607 aircraft. Military versions, including the C-47 Skytrain, Russian- and Japanese-built versions, brought total production to over 16,000. Following the war, the airliner market was flooded with surplus C-47s and other ex-military transport aircraft, Douglas' attempts to produce an upgraded DC-3 failed due to cost.
Post-war, the DC-3 was made obsolete on main routes by more advanced types such as the Douglas DC-6 and Lockheed Constellation, but the design proved exceptionally adaptable and useful. Large numbers continue to see service in a wide variety of niche roles well into the 21st century. In 2013 it was estimated that 2,000 DC-3s and military derivatives were still flying, a testament to the durability of the design. "DC" stands for "Douglas Commercial". The DC-3 was the culmination of a development effort that began after an inquiry from Transcontinental and Western Airlines to Donald Douglas. TWA's rival in transcontinental air service, United Airlines, was starting service with the Boeing 247 and Boeing refused to sell any 247s to other airlines until United's order for 60 aircraft had been filled. TWA asked Douglas to build an aircraft that would allow TWA to compete with United. Douglas' design, the 1933 DC-1, was promising, led to the DC-2 in 1934; the DC-2 was a success. The DC-3 resulted from a marathon telephone call from American Airlines CEO C. R. Smith to Donald Douglas, when Smith persuaded a reluctant Douglas to design a sleeper aircraft based on the DC-2 to replace American's Curtiss Condor II biplanes.
Douglas agreed to go ahead with development only after Smith informed him of American's intention to purchase twenty aircraft. The new aircraft was engineered by a team led by chief engineer Arthur E. Raymond over the next two years, the prototype DST first flew on December 17, 1935, its cabin was 92 in wide, a version with 21 seats instead of the 14–16 sleeping berths of the DST was given the designation DC-3. There was no prototype DC-3; the DC-3 and DST popularized air travel in the United States. Eastbound transcontinental flights could cross the U. S. in about 15 hours with three refueling stops. A few years earlier such a trip entailed short hops in slower and shorter-range aircraft during the day, coupled with train travel overnight. A variety of radial engines were available for the DC-3. Early-production civilian aircraft used Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9s, but aircraft used the Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp, which gave better high-altitude and single-engine performance. Five DC-3S Super DC-3s with Pratt & Whitney R-2000 Twin Wasps were built in the late 1940s, three of which entered airline service.
Total production of all variants was 16,079. More than 400 remained in commercial service in 1998. Production was as follows: 607 civil variants of the DC-3. Production of DSTs ended in mid-1941 and civil DC-3 production ended in early 1943, although dozens of DSTs and DC-3s ordered by airlines that were produced between 1941 and 1943 were impressed into the US military while still on the production line. Military versions were produced until the end of the war in 1945. A larger, more powerful Super DC-3 was launched in 1949 to positive reviews; the civilian market, was flooded with second-hand C-47s, many of which were converted to passenger and cargo versions. Only five Super DC-3s were built, three of them were delivered for commercial use; the prototype Super DC-3 served the U. S. Navy with the designation YC-129 alongside 100 R4Ds, upgraded to the Super DC-3 specification. From the early 1950s, some DC-3s were modified to use Rolls-Royce Dart engines, as in the Conroy Turbo Three. Other conversions featured Armstrong Siddeley Pratt & Whitney PT6A turbines.
The Greenwich Aircraft Corp DC-3-TP is a conversion with an extended fuselage and with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65AR or PT6A-67R engines fitted. The Basler BT-67 is a conversion of the DC-3/C-47. Basler refurbishes C-47s and DC-3s at Oshkosh, fitting them with Pratt & Whitney Ca
Gangster Squad (film)
Gangster Squad is a 2013 American action crime thriller film directed by Ruben Fleischer, written by Will Beall and starring Josh Brolin, Ryan Gosling, Nick Nolte, Emma Stone, Anthony Mackie, Giovanni Ribisi, Robert Patrick, Michael Peña and Sean Penn. Set in 1949, the plot is a fictionalized account of the LAPD officers and detectives called the "Gangster Squad" who attempt to keep Los Angeles safe from Mickey Cohen and his gang; the film was set to be released September 7, 2012, but in the wake of the 2012 Aurora shooting, the film was pushed back to a January 11, 2013 release date by Warner Bros. in order to accommodate reshoots. It grossed $105 million worldwide. In 1949 Los Angeles, Mafia gangster Mickey Cohen has become the most powerful figure in the California criminal underworld, intends to continue to expand his criminal enterprise to Chicago and New York City; the LAPD has not been able to stop Cohen's ruthless rise, as he has eliminated witnesses and bribed both the court and the police.
Determined to put a stop to Cohen, LAPD Chief Bill Parker creates a secret police unit with the sole mission of bringing Cohen to justice. Parker puts a trusted friend, Sgt. John O'Mara, in charge of secretly building the unit. With the help of his wife, Connie, he recruits Sgt. Jerry Wooters and four un-corruptible misfit officers – black Lieutenant Coleman Harris, electronics expert and family man Conway Keeler, sharpshooter Max Kennard and his Hispanic protégé Navidad Ramirez. Calling themselves the "Gangster Squad", they begin the task of destroying Cohen's operations; the Squad's plans go well, striking several successful blows at the heart of Cohen's criminal organization shutting his ultra-lucrative wire gambling business. Cohen, not knowing the Squad is LAPD, believes someone has betrayed him to rivals and strikes out at those around him, including his girlfriend Grace Faraday. Wooters has been seeing Faraday and tries to help her escape from Cohen, enlisting the help of mutual friend Jack Whalen.
Realizing the attackers have never stolen his money, Cohen deduces they are cops and will have bugged his house. He uses it to lure the Squad into a trap in Chinatown, while Keeler is killed at the Squads' operation base; when Faraday witnesses Cohen murder Whalen, she agrees to testify against Cohen. O'Mara blackmails a crooked judge to do his duty and sign an arrest warrant; the Squad goes to the Park Plaza Hotel to arrest Cohen. Cohen and his men engage in a gun battle with Wooters being wounded in the process. Cohen and bodyguard Karl Lennox escape. Navidad helps a dying Kennard shoot Lennox, about to shoot O'Mara. Cohen and O'Mara fight each other in a brutal bare-knuckle fight, while a crowd of onlookers and journalists gather. O'Mara beats Cohen and has him arrested, ending his spread of the mafia into the Los Angeles area; the Gangster Squad is never mentioned for its surviving members remaining a secret. Cohen is sentenced to life imprisonment, is greeted with a beating by inmates who were friends of Jack Whalen.
Principal photography began on September 2011 in Los Angeles. Sets were located all over L. A. County from north of the San Fernando Valley to south of the county border. Sets were recreated in Sony Pictures Studios in Culver City. Filming wrapped on December 15, 2011; the first trailer for Gangster Squad was released on May 9, 2012. In the wake of the theater shooting in Aurora, Colorado on July 20, the trailer was pulled from running before films and airing on television, removed from Apple's trailer site and YouTube due to a scene in which characters shoot submachine guns at moviegoers through the screen of Grauman's Chinese Theatre, it was reported that the theater scene from the film would be either removed or placed in a different setting, since it is a crucial part of the film, the film would undergo additional re-shoots of several scenes to accommodate these changes, which resulted in the release of Gangster Squad being moved back to a date. About a week after the shootings in Aurora, Warner confirmed that the film would be released on January 11, 2013, bumped from the original September 7, 2012 release date.
Just two weeks on August 22, the cast reunited in Los Angeles to re-shoot the main action sequence of the film. The new scene was placed in a version of Chinatown where the Gangster Squad comes into open conflict with the gangsters as they strike back at the Gangster Squad. Josh Brolin said he was not sad the original scene was cut and admitted that this new version is just as violent. Gangster Squad grossed $46 million in North America and $59.2 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $105.2 million, against a net budget of $60 million. The film grossed $17.1 million in its opening weekend, finishing third at the box office behind Zero Dark Thirty and A Haunted House. On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 32% based on 203 reviews, with an average rating of 5/10; the website's critical consensus reads, "Though it's stylish and features a talented cast, Gangster Squad suffers from lackluster writing, underdeveloped characters, an excessive amount of violence."
On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 40 out of 100, based on 38 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "B+" on an A+ to F scale; the reviewers of Spill.com gave it a "Rental," praising the stylish approach but criticizing the dialogue, Emma Stone's under-developed "damsel-in-distress" character, Sean Penn's laughable makeup. IGN editor Chris Tilly wrote "Gangster Squad looks great but frustrates because with the