Cyan is a greenish-blue color. It is evoked by light with a predominant wavelength of between 490–520 nm, between the wavelengths of green and blue. In the subtractive color system, or CMYK, which can be overlaid to produce all colors in paint and color printing, cyan is one of the primary colors, along with magenta and black. In the additive color system, or RGB color model, used to create all the colors on a computer or television display, cyan is made by mixing equal amounts of green and blue light. Cyan is the complement of red. Mixing red light and cyan light at the right intensity will make white light; the web color cyan is synonymous with aqua. Other colors in the cyan color range are teal, electric blue and others described as blue-green, its name is derived from the Ancient Greek κύανος, transliterated kyanos, meaning "dark blue, dark blue enamel, Lapis lazuli". It was known as "cyan blue" or cyan-blue, its first recorded use as a color name in English was in 1879. Further origins of the color name can be traced back to a dye produced from the cornflower.
In most languages,'cyan' is not a basic color term and it phenomenologically appears as a greenish vibrant hue of blue to most English speakers. Reasons for why cyan is not linguistically acknowledged as a basic color term can be found in the frequent lack of distinction between blue and green in many languages; the web color cyan shown at right is a secondary color in the RGB color model, which uses combinations of red and blue light to create all the colors on computer and television displays. In X11 colors, this color is called both aqua. In the HTML color list, this same color is called aqua; the web colors are more vivid than the cyan used in the CMYK color system, the web colors cannot be reproduced on a printed page. To reproduce the web color cyan in inks, it is necessary to add some white ink to the printer's cyan below, so when it is reproduced in printing, it is not a primary subtractive color, it is called aqua because it is a color associated with water, such as the appearance of the water at a tropical beach.
Cyan is one of the common inks used in four-color printing, along with magenta and black. While both the additive secondary and the subtractive primary are called cyan, they can be different from one another. Cyan printing ink can be more saturated or less saturated than the RGB secondary cyan, depending on what RGB color space and ink are considered. Process cyan is not an RGB color, there is no fixed conversion from CMYK primaries to RGB. Different formulations are used for printer's ink, so there can be variations in the printed color, pure cyan ink; this is because real-world subtractive color mixing does not produce the same result when mixing identical colors, since the specific frequencies filtered out to produce that color affect how it interacts with other colors. Phthalocyanine blue is one such used pigment. A typical formulation of process cyan is shown in the color box at right. Pure water is nearly colorless. However, it does absorb more red light than blue, giving large volumes of water a bluish tint.
Cyanide derives its name from a blue pigment containing the cyanide ion. Cyanobacteria are an important link in the food chain; the planet Uranus is colored cyan because of the abundance of methane in its atmosphere. Methane absorbs red light and reflects the blue-green light which allows observers to see it as cyan. Natural gas, used by many for home cooking on gas stoves, has a cyan colored flame when burned with a mixture of air. Cyanotype, or blueprint, a monochrome photographic printing process that predates the use of the word cyan as a color, yields a deep cyan-blue colored print based on the Prussian blue pigment. Cinecolor, a bi-pack color process, the photographer would load a standard camera with two films, one orthochromatic, dyed red, a panchromatic strip behind it. Color light would expose the cyan record on the ortho stock, which acted as a filter, exposing only red light to the panchromatic film stock. Cyanosis is an abnormal blueness of the skin a sign of poor oxygen intake. I.e. the patient is "cyanotic".
Cyan is associated with the throat chakra in vedic medicine. In the 19th century, surgeons wore white gowns, but in the 20th century surgeons began to wear cyan or green surgical gowns, for several reasons. First, in the brightly lit operating room, cyan reflected less light than white and caused less strain on the eyes of the medical team. Second, cyan is the complementary color of red, so red blood on a cyan gown looks black or gray rather than red, is not as vivid. Shifting your sight to cyan after staring at red for long periods of time does not cause cyan after-images, as shifting from red to white will do. Lastly, since cyan is considered a restful and soothing color, it causes less anxiety in patients. Blue–green distinction in language Shades of cyan List of colors
Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light. It is evoked by light with a dominant wavelength of 570–590 nm, it is a primary color in subtractive color systems, used in color printing. In the RGB color model, used to create colors on television and computer screens, yellow is a secondary color made by combining red and green at equal intensity. Carotenoids give the characteristic yellow color to autumn leaves, canaries and lemons, as well as egg yolks and bananas, they protect plants from photodamage. Sunlight has a slight yellowish hue, due to the surface temperature of the sun; because it was available, yellow ochre pigment was one of the first colors used in art. Ochre and orpiment pigments were used to represent gold and skin color in Egyptian tombs in the murals in Roman villas. In the early Christian church, yellow was the color associated with the Pope and the golden keys of the Kingdom, but was associated with Judas Iscariot and was used to mark heretics.
In the 20th century, Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe were forced to wear a yellow star. In China, bright yellow was the color of the Middle Kingdom, could be worn only by the Emperor and his household. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, yellow is the color people most associate with amusement, gentleness and spontaneity, but with duplicity, jealousy, and, in the U. S. with cowardice. In Iran it has connotations of pallor/sickness, but wisdom and connection. In China and many Asian countries, it is seen as the color of happiness, glory and wisdom; the word yellow comes from the Old English geolu, meaning "yellow, yellowish", derived from the Proto-Germanic word gelwaz "yellow". It has the same Indo-European base, gʰel -, as yell; the English term is related to other Germanic words for yellow, namely Scots yella, East Frisian jeel, West Frisian giel, Dutch geel, German gelb, Swedish and Norwegian gul. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of this word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in 700.
Yellow is found between orange on the spectrum of visible light. It is the color the human eye sees when it looks at light with a dominant wavelength between 570 and 590 nanometers. In color printing, yellow is one of the three colors of ink, along with magenta and cyan, along with black, can be overlaid in the right combination, along with black, to print any full color image.. A particular yellow is used, called Process yellow subtractive primary colors, along with magenta and cyan. Process yellow is not an RGB color, there is no fixed conversion from CMYK primaries to RGB. Different formulations are used for printer's ink, so there can be variations in the printed color, pure yellow ink; the yellow on a color television or computer screen is created in a different way. Traditionally, the complementary color of yellow is purple. Vincent Van Gogh, an avid student of color theory, used combinations of yellow and purple in several of his paintings for the maximum contrast and harmony. Hunt defines that "two colors are complementary when it is possible to reproduce the tristimulus values of a specified achromatic stimulus by an additive mixture of these two stimuli."
That is, when two colored lights can be mixed to match a specified white light, the colors of those two lights are complementary. This definition, does not constrain what version of white will be specified. In the nineteenth century, the scientists Grassmann and Helmholtz did experiments in which they concluded that finding a good complement for spectral yellow was difficult, but that the result was indigo, that is, a wavelength that today's color scientists would call violet or purple. Helmholtz says "indigo blue" are complements. Grassmann reconstructs Newton's category boundaries in terms of wavelengths and says "This indigo therefore falls within the limits of color between which, according to Helmholtz, the complementary colors of yellow lie."Newton's own color circle has yellow directly opposite the boundary between indigo and violet. These results, that the complement of yellow is a wavelength shorter than 450 nm, are derivable from the modern CIE 1931 system of colorimetry if it is assumed that the yellow is about 580 nm or shorter wavelength, the specified white is the color of a blackbody radiator of temperature 2800 K or lower.
More with a daylight-colored or around 5000 to 6000 K white, the complement of yellow will be in the blue wavelength range, the standard modern answer for the complement of yellow. Because of the characteristics of paint pigments and use of different color wheels, painters traditionally regard the complement of yellow as the color indigo or blue-violet. Lasers emitting in the yellow part of the spectrum are less common and more expensive than most other colors. In commercial products diode pumped. An infrared laser diode at 808 nm is used to pump a crystal of neodymium-doped yttrium vanadium oxide or neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet and induces it to emit at
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.
Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased over the centuries; the word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.
In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated. In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs.
Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In India, wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation. By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate, used – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Whole genome sequencing
Whole genome sequencing is ostensibly the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time. This entails sequencing all of an organism's chromosomal DNA as well as DNA contained in the mitochondria and, for plants, in the chloroplast. In practice, genome sequences that are nearly complete are called whole genome sequences. Whole genome sequencing has been used as a research tool, but is being introduced to clinics. In the future of personalized medicine, whole genome sequence data may be an important tool to guide therapeutic intervention; the tool of gene sequencing at SNP level is used to pinpoint functional variants from association studies and improve the knowledge available to researchers interested in evolutionary biology, hence may lay the foundation for predicting disease susceptibility and drug response. Whole genome sequencing should not be confused with DNA profiling, which only determines the likelihood that genetic material came from a particular individual or group, does not contain additional information on genetic relationships, origin or susceptibility to specific diseases.
In addition, whole genome sequencing should not be confused with methods that sequence specific subsets of the genome - such methods include whole exome sequencing or SNP genotyping. As of 2017 there were no complete genomes including humans. Between 4% to 9% of the human genome satellite DNA, had not been sequenced; the DNA sequencing methods used in the 1970s and 1980s were manual, for example Maxam-Gilbert sequencing and Sanger sequencing. The shift to more rapid, automated sequencing methods in the 1990s allowed for sequencing of whole genomes; the first organism to have its entire genome sequenced was Haemophilus influenzae in 1995. After it, the genomes of other bacteria and some archaea were first sequenced due to their small genome size. H. influenzae has a genome of 1,830,140 base pairs of DNA. In contrast, both unicellular and multicellular such as Amoeba dubia and humans have much larger genomes. Amoeba dubia has a genome of 700 billion nucleotide pairs spread across thousands of chromosomes.
Humans contain fewer nucleotide pairs than A. dubia however their genome size far outweighs the genome size of individual bacteria. The first bacterial and archaeal genomes, including that of H. influenzae, were sequenced by Shotgun sequencing. In 1996 the first eukaryotic genome was sequenced. S. cerevisiae, a model organism in biology has a genome of only around 12 million nucleotide pairs, was the first unicellular eukaryote to have its whole genome sequenced. The first multicellular eukaryote, animal, to have its whole genome sequenced was the nematode worm: Caenorhabditis elegans in 1998. Eukaryotic genomes are sequenced by several methods including Shotgun sequencing of short DNA fragments and sequencing of larger DNA clones from DNA libraries such as bacterial artificial chromosomes and yeast artificial chromosomes. In 1999, the entire DNA sequence of human chromosome 22, the shortest human autosome, was published. By the year 2000, the second animal and second invertebrate genome was sequenced - that of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster - a popular choice of model organism in experimental research.
The first plant genome - that of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana - was fully sequenced by 2000. By 2001, a draft of the entire human genome sequence was published; the genome of the laboratory mouse Mus musculus was completed in 2002. In 2004, the Human Genome Project published an incomplete version of the human genome. Thousands of genomes have been wholly or sequenced. Any biological sample containing a full copy of the DNA—even a small amount of DNA or ancient DNA—can provide the genetic material necessary for full genome sequencing; such samples may include saliva, epithelial cells, bone marrow, seeds, plant leaves, or anything else that has DNA-containing cells. The genome sequence of a single cell selected from a mixed population of cells can be determined using techniques of single cell genome sequencing; this has important advantages in environmental microbiology in cases where a single cell of a particular microorganism species can be isolated from a mixed population by microscopy on the basis of its morphological or other distinguishing characteristics.
In such cases the necessary steps of isolation and growth of the organism in culture may be omitted, thus allowing the sequencing of a much greater spectrum of organism genomes. Single cell genome sequencing is being tested as a method of preimplantation genetic diagnosis, wherein a cell from the embryo created by in vitro fertilization is taken and analyzed before embryo transfer into the uterus. After implantation, cell-free fetal DNA can be taken by simple venipuncture from the mother and used for whole genome sequencing of the fetus. Sequencing of nearly an entire human genome was first accomplished in 2000 through the use of shotgun sequencing technology. While full genome shotgun sequencing for small genomes was in use in 1979, broader application benefited from pairwise end sequencing, known colloquially as double-barrel shotgun sequencing; as sequencing projects began to take on longer and more complicated genomes, multiple groups began to realize that useful information could be obtained by sequencing both
An artificial uterus is a hypothetical device that would allow for extracorporeal pregnancy by growing a fetus outside the body of an organism that would carry the fetus to term. An artificial uterus, as a replacement organ, would have many applications, it could be used to assist male or female couples in the development of a fetus. This can be performed as a switch from a natural uterus to an artificial uterus, thereby moving the threshold of fetal viability to a much earlier stage of pregnancy. In this sense, it can be regarded as a neonatal incubator with extended functions, it could be used for the initiation of fetal development. An artificial uterus could help make fetal surgery procedures at an early stage an option instead of having to postpone them until term of pregnancy. In 2016 scientists published two studies regarding human embryos developing for thirteen days within an ecto-uterine environment. A 14-day rule prevents human embryos from being kept in artificial wombs longer than 14 days.
This rule has been codified into law in twelve countries. In 2017 fetal researchers at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia published a study showing they had grown premature lamb fetuses for four weeks in an extra-uterine life support system. An artificial uterus, sometimes referred to as an'exowomb', would have to provide nutrients and oxygen to nurture a foetus, as well as dispose of waste material; the scope of an artificial uterus may include the interface serving the function otherwise provided by the placenta, an amniotic tank functioning as the amniotic sac, as well as an umbilical cord. A woman may still supply nutrients and dispose of waste products if the artificial uterus is connected to her, she may provide immune protection against diseases by passing of IgG antibodies to the embryo or fetus. Artificial supply and disposal have the potential advantage of allowing the fetus to develop in an environment, not influenced by the presence of disease, environmental pollutants, alcohol, or drugs which a human may have in the circulatory system.
There is no risk of an immune reaction towards the embryo or fetus that could otherwise arise from insufficient gestational immune tolerance. Some individual functions of an artificial supplier and disposer include: Waste disposal may be performed through dialysis. For oxygenation of the embryo or fetus, removal of carbon dioxide, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a functioning technique, having kept goat fetuses alive for up to 237 hours in amniotic tanks. ECMO is a technique used in selected neonatal intensive care units to treat term infants with selected medical problems that result in the infant's inability to survive through gas exchange using the lungs. However, the cerebral vasculature and germinal matrix are poorly developed in fetuses, subsequently, there is an unacceptably high risk for intraventricular hemorrhage if administering ECMO at a gestational age less than 32 weeks. Liquid ventilation has been suggested as an alternative method of oxygenation, or at least providing an intermediate stage between the womb and breathing in open air.
For artificial nutrition, current techniques are problematic. Total parenteral nutrition, as studied on infants with severe short bowel syndrome, has a 5-year survival of 20%. Issues related to hormonal stability remain to be addressed. Theoretically, animal suppliers and disposers may be used, but when involving an animal's uterus the technique may rather be in the scope of interspecific pregnancy. In a normal uterus, the myometrium of the uterine wall functions to expel the fetus at the end of a pregnancy, the endometrium plays a role in forming the placenta. An artificial uterus may include components of equivalent function. Methods have been considered to connect an artificial placenta and other "inner" components directly to an external circulation. An interface between the supplier and the embryo or fetus may be artificial, e.g. by using one or more semipermeable membranes such as is used in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. There is potential to grow a placenta using human endometrial cells.
In 2002, it was announced that tissue samples from cultured endometrial cells removed from a human donor had grown. The tissue sample was engineered to form the shape of a natural uterus, human embryos were implanted into the tissue; the embryos implanted into the artificial uterus' lining and started to grow. However, the experiments were halted after six days to stay within the permitted legal limits of in vitro fertilisation legislation in the United States. A human placenta may theoretically be transplanted inside an artificial uterus, but the passage of nutrients across this artificial uterus remains an unsolved issue; the main function of an amniotic tank would be to fill the function of the amniotic sac in physically protecting the embryo or fetus, optimally allowing it to move freely. It should be able to maintain an optimal temperature. Lactated Ringer's solution can be used as a substitute for amniotic fluid. Theoretically, in case of premature removal of the fetus from the natural uterus, the natural umbilical cord could be used, kept open either by medical inhibition of physiological occlusion, by anti-coagulation as well as by stenting or creating a bypass for sustaining blood flow between the mother and fetus.
Emanuel M. Greenberg wrote various papers on the topic of the artificial womb and its potential use in the future. On July 22, 1954 Emanuel M. Greenberg filed a patent on the design for an artificial womb; the patent included two images of the design for an artificial womb. The design itself included a