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In computer networking, multicast is group communication where data transmission is addressed to a group of destination computers simultaneously. Multicast can be many-to-many distribution. Multicast should not be confused with physical layer point-to-multipoint communication. Group communication may either be application layer multicast or network assisted multicast, where the latter makes it possible for the source to efficiently send to the group in a single transmission. Copies are automatically created in other network elements, such as routers and cellular network base stations, but only to network segments that contain members of the group. Network assisted multicast may be implemented at the data link layer using one-to-many addressing and switching such as Ethernet multicast addressing, Asynchronous Transfer Mode, point-to-multipoint virtual circuits or Infiniband multicast. Network assisted multicast may be implemented at the Internet layer using IP multicast. In IP multicast the implementation of the multicast concept occurs at the IP routing level, where routers create optimal distribution paths for datagrams sent to a multicast destination address.

Multicast is employed in Internet Protocol applications of streaming media, such as IPTV and multipoint videoconferencing. Ethernet frames with a value of 1 in the least-significant bit of the first octet of the destination address are treated as multicast frames and are flooded to all points on the network; this mechanism constitutes multicast at the data link layer. This mechanism is used by IP multicast to achieve one-to-many transmission for IP on Ethernet networks. Modern Ethernet controllers filter received packets to reduce CPU load, by looking up the hash of a multicast destination address in a table, initialized by software, which controls whether a multicast packet is dropped or received. IP multicast is a technique for one-to-many communication over an IP network; the destination nodes send Internet Group Management Protocol join and leave messages, for example in the case of IPTV when the user changes from one TV channel to another. IP multicast scales to a larger receiver population by not requiring prior knowledge of who or how many receivers there are.

Multicast uses network infrastructure efficiently by requiring the source to send a packet only once if it needs to be delivered to a large number of receivers. The nodes in the network take care of replicating the packet to reach multiple receivers only when necessary; the most common transport layer protocol to use multicast addressing is User Datagram Protocol. By its nature, UDP is not reliable—messages may be lost or delivered out of order. By adding loss detection and re-transmission mechanisms, reliable multicast has been implemented on top of UDP or IP by various middleware products, e.g. those that implement the Real-Time Publish-Subscribe Protocol of the Object Management Group Data Distribution Service standard, as well as by special transport protocols such as Pragmatic General Multicast. Application layer multicast overlay services are not based on IP multicast or data link layer multicast. Instead they use multiple unicast transmissions to simulate a multicast; these services are designed for application-level group communication.

Internet Relay Chat implements a single spanning tree across its overlay network for all conference groups. The lesser known PSYC technology uses custom multicast strategies per conference; some peer-to-peer technologies employ the multicast concept known as peercasting when distributing content to multiple recipients. Explicit multi-unicast is an alternate multicast strategy that includes addresses of all intended destinations within each packet; as such, given maximum transmission unit limitations, Xcast cannot be used for multicast groups with many destinations. The Xcast model assumes that stations participating in the communication are known ahead of time, so that distribution trees can be generated and resources allocated by network elements in advance of actual data traffic. Wireless communications are inherently broadcasting media. However, the communication service provided may be unicast, multicast as well as broadcast, depending on if the data is addressed to one, to a group or to all receivers in the covered network, respectively.

In digital television, the concept of multicast service sometimes is used to refer to content protection by broadcast encryption, i.e. encrypted content over a simplex broadcast channel only addressed to paying viewers. In this case, data is broadcast to all receivers, but only addressed to a specific group; the concept of interactive multicast, for example using IP multicast, may be used over TV broadcast networks to improve efficiency, offer more TV programs, or reduce the required spectrum. Interactive multicast implies that TV programs are sent only over transmitters where there are viewers, that only the most popular programs are transmitted, it relies on an additional interaction channel, where user equipment may send join and leave messages when the user changes TV channel. Interactive multicast has been suggested as an efficient transmission scheme in DVB-H and DVB-T2 terrestrial digital television systems, A similar concept is switched broadcast over cable-TV networks, where only the most popular content is delivered in the cable-TV network.

Scalable video multicast in an application of interactive multicast, where a subset of the viewers receive additional data for high-resolution video. TV gateways converts Satellite and Terrestrial television (DVB-T, DVB-T

Host Master and the Conquest of Humor

Host Master and the Conquest of Humor is a free Flash adventure game, written by Klint Honeychurch and game developer Tim Schafer, with gameplay and art by Honeychurch and music by Bert Chang. The game was published by Double Fine Productions, of which Schafer is president, is playable on their website. Both the plot and gameplay of Host Master feature substantial amounts of metagaming; the style is a direct pastiche of the Lucasarts SCUMM adventure games, of which Schafer was one of the principal creators. The game uses Schafer himself as the protagonist, placing him backstage at the Game Developers Choice Awards, which he hosted in 2009. Schafer is unprepared for the event, must scour his dressing room in an attempt to find jokes for his speech, a search which becomes implausible and comedic over the course of the game; the player can voluntarily finish the game at will. Footage of the game was screened before Schafer's actual appearance at the awards; the graphics, interface and sense of humour are all directly modelled upon Schafer's own Lucasarts games, which include Maniac Mansion: Day of the Tentacle, Full Throttle, as well as writing credits on the Monkey Island series.

The dialogue in particular is notable, featuring clever asides. Due to its association with Schafer, as well as the Game Developers Conference, Host Master received more media attention than is usual for an online Flash game, it was reported on by Boing Boing's gaming subpage Offworld, GameSpot, GameSpy and Jay Is Games, with GameSpot remarking that'although the graphic adventure genre has fallen into a rather small niche and developer Klint Honeychurch remember how to do the format justice' Official website

Thomas Bush Hardy

Thomas Bush Hardy was a British marine painter and watercolourist. Hardy was born in Sheffield, Yorkshire on 3 May 1842; as a young man he travelled in the Italy. In 1884 Hardy was elected a Member of the Royal Society of British Artists, he exhibited with the Society and at the Royal Academy. His paintings feature coastal scenes in England and the Netherlands, the French Channel ports and the Venetian Lagoon, he died on 15 December 1897 in London. Hardy had nine children, his son Dudley Hardy was a painter and poster designer. His daughter Dorothy received an MBE after working as a nurse in the First World War. Schevening, the Netherlands is at Lamport Hall. Towing Boats out of Calais is held at Laing Art Gallery. Seascape is held at Rotherham Galleries. Landscape is held at The National Library of Wales. Museums Sheffield holds Seascape, it holds two paintings, each called Sea Piece. One is dated the other is undated. Portsmouth Harbour is in the collection of the Art Gallery of New South Wales. Off the Dutch Coast is in the collection of Calderdale Metropolitan Borough Council.

A French Paddle Tug Bringing a Barque into Boulogne Harbour in Heavy Weather is in the National Maritime Museum. View on the Grand Canal, Venice,Calais,Boulogne Harbour, Fishing Boats at Sea are in the Victoria and Albert Museum's collection. 10 paintings by or after Thomas Bush Hardy at the Art UK site Kirby-Welch, David H and Morton Lee, Commander John. Thomas Bush Hardy RBA: A master painter of marine and coastal watercolours, Antique Collectors' Club, 2009, 245 pages

Palais de justice historique de Lyon

The Palais de justice historique de Lyon is a building located Quai Romain Rolland, on the right bank of the Saône, in the 5th arrondissement of Lyon. In 1996, it was classified as monument historique, its construction began in 1835 and ended in 1845, under the direction of architect Louis-Pierre Baltard. It was built in the same location as the previous courthouses; the Palais de Justice de Lyon is called the'Palace of the twenty-four columns'. This is one of the finest neo-classical buildings in France. In 1995, construction of a new courthouse in the district of La Part-Dieu allowed the transfer of the Tribunal de Grande Instance, the Tribunal d'Instance and the Tribunal de commerce de Lyon; the Cour d'appel of Lyon and the Cour d'assises of the Rhône remained installed in what is now the historic courthouse of Lyon. In 2008, the building was the subject of a profound renovation. There were some famous trials in this building: August 1884: Italian anarchist Sante Geronimo Caserio, murder of President of the Republic Sadi Carnot, was sentenced to death.

January 1945: Charles Maurras was sentenced to life imprisonment and national degradation. July 1987: Klaus Barbie was sentenced to life imprisonment for crimes against humanity during the Second World War

J.C. Buckstone

John Copeland Buckstone was an English stage and film actor of the late Victorian and Edwardian eras, most famous for his 1901 stage play Scrooge, the basis for the first film version of A Christmas Carol in the same year. He was the brother of Lucy Isabella Buckstone. Buckstone's popular 1901 play Scrooge was adapted by R. W. Paul for his film Scrooge, or, Marley's Ghost, the earliest known film adaptation of Charles Dickens' 1843 novel A Christmas Carol; the script for the play was published by Samuel French Ltd. Buckstone appeared in The Silver King at the Princess's Theatre, London, in 1882, The Admirable Crichton with H. B. Irving in 1902 at the Duke of York's Theatre, The Adventures of Lady Ursula, Anthony Hope's 1898 play, he continued his success in The Silver King at Wallack's Theatre in New York City in 1883 and performed for Wallack in Victor Durand in 1885. Buckstone appeared in several early silent British films, including David Garrick and Scrooge, starring Seymour Hicks as Ebenezer Scrooge.

Buckstone on the Internet Movie Database Buckstone's Scrooge on the British Film Institute website Buckstone on the Complete Index to World Film

Kristína Royová

Kristína Royová was a Slovak Protestant activist, revivalist and poet. She was founder of the Blue Cross and diaconical centre in Stará Turá, her literary works were translated into 36 languages. During the reign of communist party in former Czechoslovakia, Christian literature written by her was among those confiscated by state security service ŠtB and at the same time she was blacklisted on the socialist era school curricula, she is now considered to be the Slovak author with the most translated literary works and some literary critics regard her for being a "Slovak Kierkegaard". Parents of Kristína Royová were descendants of two prominent Lutheran families. Father August Roy, close friend of J. M. Hurban, was member of Slavic society, co-founder of Matica Slovak gymnasiums. Mother was from house of Holuby, her brother Jozef Ľudovít Holuby was prominent Slovak botanist, church historian and archaeologist and her other brother Karol Holuby was executed close to present-day Šulekovo village in the revolutionary year of 1848.

The childhood of Kristína Royová was associated with Lutheran parish in Stará Turá, where local chaplains were at the same time her teachers. Still, the overall education she received had not fulfilled her vast intellectual potential; the great contribution to development of her skills was a one-year study at higher secondary school in Bratislava where she managed to master the German language. 1882 / 1884 - Tri obrázky, narratives 1893 - Bez Boha na svete 1898 - Božie charaktery 1898 - Splnená túžba 1901 - Bludári 1901 - Dôležitá pravda 1901 - Istota a neistota 1901 - Lotova žena 1901 - Pekný začiatok-smutný koniec 1901 - Nebolo miesta 1901 - Podivné hodiny 1901 - Za živa do priepasti 1901 - Stroskotaná loď 1903 - Sluha 1903 - Šťastie 1903 - Za vysokú cenu 1904 - Ako zbohatnúť 1904 - Divné milosrdenstvo 1904 - Šťastní ľudia 1904 - Divní rozsievači 1904 - Dieťa hausírerov 1906 - Vo vyhnanstve 1907 - Šťastlivé Vianoce 1909 - Ako kvapôčka putovala 1909 - V slnečnej krajine 1909 - Opilcove dieťa 1910 - Ako prišli lastovičky domov 1910 - Ako zomrel slávičok 1910 - Nemoc a pomoc 1910 - Tarsenský 1912 - Za presvedčenie čili z Mezopotámie do Kanaánu 1913 - Stratení 1915 - Pošta 1917 - Pozdrav zo Starej Turej 1920 - Druhá žena 1920 - Zpráva z roku 1919 1920 - Otcovrah 1921 - Keď nikde nebolo pomoci 1921 - Štyri rozprávočky pre veľké a malé deti 1921 - V pevnej ruke 1922 - Ztratení 1922 - Traja kamaráti 1922 - Zachránená 1924 - Výstražný sen 1924 - Poslednia cesta 1924 - Kde bol jeho otec?

1925 - Na rozhraní 1926 - Prišiel domov 1926 - Za vysokú cenu 1927 - Susedia 1927 - Ako trpaslík zabil obra 1927 - Blízko ešte neni vnútri 1928 - Staniša 1929 - Za svetlom a so svetlom. Rozpomienky Kristíny Royovej 1930 - Navrátený raj 1930 - Abigail 1931 - Keď život začínal. Slnečné dieťa 1935 - Tuláci Kúzlo otčiny, narrative V okruží panslavizmu, narrative Pod práporom lásky, narrative Kaczmarczyk, Stanislav, Život a dílo Kristíny Royové, Český Těšín: Slezská církev evang. a. v. Potúček, Juraj.