Not to be confused with Reliance Communications Reliance Jio Infocomm Limited, d/b/a Jio, is an Indian mobile network operator. Owned by Reliance Industries and headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, it operates a national LTE network with coverage across all 22 telecom circles. Jio does not offer 2G or 3G service, instead uses voice over LTE to provide voice service on its network. Jio soft launched on 27 December 2015, with a beta for partners and employees, became publicly available on 5 September 2016; as of 31 January 2019, it is the third largest mobile network operator in India and the nineth largest mobile network operator in the world with over 289.44 million subscribers. On 5 July 2018, fixed line broadband service named Gigafiber, was launched by the Reliance Industries Limited's chairman Mukesh Ambani, during the company's Annual General Meeting; the company was registered in Ambawadi, Ahmedabad on 15 February 2007 as Reliance Jio Infocomm Limited. In June 2010, Reliance Industries bought a 95% stake in Infotel Broadband Services Limited for ₹4,800 crore.
Although unlisted, IBSL was the only company that won broadband spectrum in all 22 circles in India in the 4G auction that took place earlier that year. Continuing as RIL's telecom subsidiary, Infotel Broadband Services Limited was renamed as Reliance Jio Infocomm Limited in January 2013. In June 2015, Jio announced that it would start its operations all over the country by the end of 2015. However, four months in October, the company's spokesmen sent out a press release stating that the launch was postponed to the first quarter of the financial year 2016–2017. In July, a PIL filed in the Supreme Court by an NGO called the Centre for Public Interest Litigation, through Prashant Bhushan, challenged the grant of a pan-India licence to Jio by the Government of India; the PIL alleged that Jio was allowed to provide voice telephony along with its 4G data service, by paying an additional fee of just ₹165.8 crore, arbitrary and unreasonable, contributed to a loss of ₹2,284.2 crore to the exchequer.
The Indian Department of Telecommunications, refuted all of CAG's claims. In its statement, DoT explained that the rules for 3G and BWA spectrum didn't restrict BWA winners from providing voice telephony; as a result, the PIL was revoked, the accusations were dismissed. The 4G services were launched internally to Jio's partners, its staff and their families on 27 December 2015. Bollywood actor Shah Rukh Khan, the brand ambassador of Jio, kickstarted the launch event which took place in Reliance Corporate Park in Navi Mumbai, along with celebrities like musician A R Rahman, actors Ranbir Kapoor and Javed Jaffrey, filmmaker Rajkumar Hirani; the closed event was witnessed by more than 35000 RIL employees some of whom were connected from around 1000 locations including Dallas in the US. The company commercially launched its services on 5 September 2016. Within the first month, Jio announced; this is the fastest ramp-up by any mobile network operator anywhere in the world. Jio crossed 50 million subscriber mark in 83 days since its launch, subsequently crossing 100 million subscribers on 22 February 2017.
By October 2017 it had about 130 million subscribers. In February 2016 Jio announced a global alliance of Mobile Network Operators which include: BT Group Deutsche Telekom Millicom Orange S. A. Rogers Communications MTS Telia Company Telecom Italia Jio owns spectrum in 850 MHz and 1,800 MHz bands in India's 22 circles, owns pan-India licensed 2,300 MHz spectrum; the spectrum is valid until 2035. Jio shares spectrum with Reliance Communications; the sharing deal is for 800 MHz band across seven circles other than the 10 circles for which Jio owns. In September 2016, Jio signed a pact with BSNL for intra-circle roaming which would enable users of the operators to use each other's 4G and 2G spectrum in national roaming mode. In February 2017, Jio announced a partnership with Samsung to work on LTE - Advanced Pro and 5G. On 21 July 2017, Jio introduced its first affordable 4G feature phone, powered by KaiOS, named as JioPhone; the price announced for it is ₹0 with a security deposit of ₹1500 which can be withdrawn back by the user by returning the JioPhone at Jio stores only after three years.
This phone was released for beta users on 15 August 2017 and pre-booking for regular users started on 24 August 2017. A second model with a QWERTY keyboard, as well as Facebook, WhatsApp and YouTube applications, was released in July 2018 for ₹2,999; the company launched its 4G broadband services throughout India in September 2016. It was slated to release in December 2015 after some reports said that the company was waiting to receive final permits from the government. Jio offers fourth-generation data and voice services, along with peripheral services like instant messaging and streaming movies and music; the company has a network of more than 250,000 km of fiber optic cables in the country, over which it will be partnering with local cable operators to get broader connectivity for its broadband services. With its multi-service operator licence, Jio will serve as a TV channel distributor and will offer television-on-demand on its network. In June 2015, Jio entered into an agreement with domestic handset maker Intex to supply 4G handsets capable of voice over LTE.
However, in October 2015, Jio announced that it would be launching its own mobile handset brand named LYF. On 25 January 2016, the company launched its LYF smartphone series starting with Water 1, through its chain of electronic retail outlets, Reliance Reta
DVB-SH is a physical layer standard for delivering IP based media content and data to handheld terminals such as mobile phones or PDAs, based on a hybrid satellite/terrestrial downlink and for example a GPRS uplink. The DVB Project published the DVB-SH standard in February 2007; the DVB-SH system was designed for frequencies below 3 GHz, supporting UHF band, L S-band. It improves the existing DVB-H physical layer standard. Like its sister specification, it is based on DVB IP Datacast delivery, electronic service guides and service purchase and protection standards. DVB-SH specifies two operational modes: SH-A: specifies the use of COFDM modulation on both satellite and terrestrial links with the possibility of running both links in SFN mode. SH-B: uses COFDM on the terrestrial link; the DVB-SH incorporates a number of enhancements when compared to DVB-H: More alternative coding rates are available The omission of the 64QAM modulation scheme The inclusion of support for 1.7 MHz bandwidth and 1k FFT FEC using Turbo coding Improved time interleaving Support for antenna diversity in terminalsRecently, results from BMCO forum shows a radio improvement of at least 5.5 dB on signal requirements between DVB-H and DVB-SH in the UHF frequencies.
The improvements to signal requirements translates to better in-building penetration, better in-car coverage and extension of outdoor coverage. DVB-SH chipsets are being developed now by DiBcom and NXP Semiconductors, are expected to be available in beginning of 2008. Initial specifications show that the chipsets supports both UHF and S-Band and are compatible with DVB-H. DiBcom has announced a DVB-SH chip with availability in 2008 Q3. Dibcom DVB-SH 2008 Q3; the chip "has dual RF tuners supporting VHF, UHF, L-Band and S-Band frequencies". French Agence de l'innovation industrielle is now financing this effort through TVMSL, a project led by Alcatel-Lucent that plans to develop a DVB-SH standard suitable for hybrid satellite and terrestrial transmission. Other partners involved in TVMSL are Sagem Wireless, Alenia, RFS, Philips, DiBcom, TeamCast, UDcast, CNRS, INRIA, CEA-LETI. ICO, one of the biggest satellite operators in the United States, in 2007 announced a nationwide deployment of an hybrid satellite/terrestrial network in DVB-SH with Alcatel-Lucent and Expway.
ICO G1 satellite carrying DVB-SH technology on board was launched on April 14, 2008. It is the world's first DVB-SH satellite in orbit. Eutelsat W2A satellite carrying a Solaris Mobile DVB-SH S band payload was launched on 3 April 2009, it will cover Western Europe. S-band payload was scheduled to enter into service in May 2009 but this not occurred due to an anomaly being investigated. On 1 July 2009, Solaris Mobile filed the insurance claim; the technical findings indicate that the company should be able to offer some, but not all of the services it was planning to offer. Inmarsat's S band satellite programme, called EuropaSat, will deliver mobile multimedia broadcast, mobile two-way broadband telecommunications and next-generation MSS services across all member states of the European Union and as far east as Moscow and Ankara by means of a hybrid satellite/terrestrial network, it will be built by Thales Alenia Space and launched in early 2011 launched by ILS. DVB-H/SH trials are now underway in many cities and countries: Ireland,United Kingdom,Malaysia, Singapore,Helsinki, Cambridge, Paris, Madrid, Sydney,South Africa, Taiwan,The Hague, Bern, New Zealand,Philippines, Budapest, Erlangen,Sri Lanka and India.
DVB-SH in S-band is seen as an alternative in Europe. Recent field trials and studies showed better performance in radio than DVB-H standard that would lead to much cheaper costs for network deployments. In France again, SFR and Alcatel-Lucent teamed up to deploy a DVB-SH trial; the results confirmed the theorical assumptions on the superiority of the DVB-SH to DVB-H, being the natural evolution of this legacy one. In Italy, 3 Italia, RAI and Alcatel-Lucent joined forces for the first DVB-SH trial in Italy. In United States, Dish Network and Alcatel-Lucent joined forces for the first DVB-SH trial in US. Electronic program guide E-VSB ATSC standard Handheld projector IP over DVB DVB over IP MediaFLO Mobile DTV Alliance industry association Mobile TV a term for the entire category Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service OFDM system comparison table Spectral efficiency comparison table WiMAX DVB-SH standardization history, performance evaluation, research papers on DVB-SH system, DVB-SH trials and other scientific contributions DVB Project DVB-H.org DVB-SH: Mobile digital TV in S-Band Alcatel April 2008 April 2008 in Italian Echostar Mobile Eutelsat ICO AT&T CruiseCast
Digital multimedia broadcasting
Digital multimedia broadcasting is a digital radio transmission technology developed in South Korea as part of the national IT project for sending multimedia such as TV, radio and datacasting to mobile devices such as mobile phones, laptops and GPS navigation systems. This technology, sometimes known as mobile TV, should not be confused with Digital Audio Broadcasting, developed as a research project for the European Union. DMB was developed in South Korea as the next generation digital technology to replace FM radio, but the technological foundations were laid by Prof. Dr. Gert Siegle and Dr. Hamed Amor at Robert Bosch GmbH in Germany; the world's first official mobile TV service started in South Korea in May 2005, although trials were available much earlier. It can operate via terrestrial transmission. DMB has some similarities with the main competing mobile TV standard, DVB-H. T-DMB is made for terrestrial transmissions on band L frequencies. DMB is unavailable in the United States because those frequencies are allocated for television broadcasting and military applications.
USA is adopting ATSC-M/H for free broadcasts to mobiles, Qualcomm's proprietary MediaFLO system was used there. In Japan, 1seg is the standard, using ISDB. T-DMB uses MPEG-4 Part 10 for HE-AAC v2 for the audio; the audio and video is encapsulated in an MPEG transport stream. The stream is forward error corrected by Reed Solomon encoding and the parity word is 16 bytes long. There is convolutional interleaving made on this stream the stream is broadcast in data stream mode on DAB. In order to diminish the channel effects such as fading and shadowing, the DMB modem uses OFDM-DQPSK modulation. A single-chip T-DMB receiver is provided by an MPEG transport stream demultiplexer. DMB has several applicable devices such as mobile phone, portable TV, PDA and telematics devices for automobiles. T-DMB is an standard; as of December 14, 2007, ITU formally approved T-DMB as the global standard, along with three other standards, like DVB-H, 1seg, MediaFLO. Smart DMB started in January 2013 in South Korea. Smart DMB has a VOD service and quality has been improved from 240p to 480p.
Smart DMB will be built in many Korean smartphones starting with the Galaxy Grand in January 2013. HD DMB started in August 2016 in South Korea. HD DMB has been improved from 240p to 720p, it uses HEVC.5 codec. There are 6 HD DMB stations in Seoul. Smartphones integrated Qualcomm Snapdragon 801 or higher received firmware upgrade to support HD DMB. DMB is being put into use in a number of countries, although used in South Korea. See list of Countries using DAB/DMB. In 2005, South Korea became the world's first country to start S-DMB and T-DMB service on May 1 and December 1, respectively. In December 2006, T-DMB service in South Korea consists of, 7 TV channels, 12 radio channels, 8 data channels; these are broadcast on six multiplexes in the VHF band on TV channels 8 and 12. In October 2007, South Korea added broadcasting channel MBCNET to the DMB channel, but in 2010, this channel changed. In 2009 there were eight DMB video channels in Seoul, six in other metropolitan cities; as of April 2013, S-DMB service in South Korea consists of 15 TV channels, 2 radio channels and 6 data channels.
South Korea has had Full T-DMB services including JSS, DLS, BWS, TPEG since 2006. S-DMB service in South Korea is provided on a subscription basis through TU Media and is accessible throughout the country. T-DMB service is provided free of charge. Around one million receivers have been sold as of June 2006. 14 million DMB receivers were sold including T-DMB and S-DMB in South Korea, 40% of the new cell phones have the capability to see DMB. Receivers are integrated in car navigation systems, mobile phones, portable media players, laptop computers and digital cameras. In mid-August 2007, Iriver, a multimedia and micro-technology company released their "NV", which utilizes South Korea's DMB service. Since the advent of smartphones DMBs have been made available on phones with receivers through smartphone applications, most of which come pre-installed in phones made and sold in Korea; some T-DMB trials are available or planned around Europe and other countries: In Norway T-DMB services have been available since May 2009.
MiniTV DMB service launched by the Norwegian Mobile TV Corporation is backed by the three largest broadcasters in Norway: the public broadcaster NRK, TV2 and Modern Times Group. The live channels can be viewed around Greater Oslo. Germany's Mobiles Fernsehen Deutschland launched the commercial T-DMB service "Watcha" in June 2006, in time for the World Cup 2006, marketed together with Samsung's P900 DMB Phone, the first DMB Phone in Europe, it was stopped in April 2008 as MFD is now favouring the European standard. France on December 2007 chose T-DMB Audio in VHF band III and L band as the national standard for terrestrial digital radio.. It was replaced by DAB+. China in 2006 chose DAB as an industrial standard. Since 2007 DAB and T-DMB services broadcast in Beijing, Henan, Yunnan, Hunan, Zhejiang and Shenzhen. In Mexico most cell phone carriers offer DMB broadcasting as part of their basic plans; as of 2008 the vast majority of Mexico receives DMB signals. Ghana is running a T-DMB service in Accra and Kumasi on mobile network since May 2008.
Netherlands: MFD, T-Systems and private investors are planning a DMB service under the name Mobiel TV Nederland. Callmax will deploy a DMB service on the L-Band frequency in the
2014 Commonwealth Games
The 2014 Commonwealth Games known as the XX Commonwealth Games and known as Glasgow 2014, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in the tradition of the Commonwealth Games as governed by the Commonwealth Games Federation. It took place in Glasgow, from 23 July to 3 August 2014. Glasgow was selected as the host city on 9 November 2007 during CGF General Assembly in Colombo, Sri Lanka, defeating Abuja, Nigeria, it was the largest multi-sport event held in Scotland with around 4,950 athletes from 71 different nations and territories competing in 18 different sports, outranking the 1970 and 1986 Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh. Over the last 10 years, however and Scotland had staged World, European, or British events in all sports proposed for the 2014 Commonwealth Games, including the World Badminton Championships in 1997; the Games received acclaim for their organisation and the public enthusiasm of the people of Scotland, with CGF chief executive Mike Hooper hailing them as "the standout games in the history of the movement".
Held in Scotland for the third time, the Games were notable for the successes of the Home Nations of the United Kingdom, with England and hosts Scotland achieving their largest gold medal hauls and overall medal hauls at a Commonwealth Games. England finished top of the medal table for the first time since the 1986 Commonwealth Games held in Scotland. Kiribati won its first medal at a Commonwealth Games, a gold in the 105 kg men's weightlifting competition. Scotland was the first country to consider hosting the 2014 Commonwealth Games in 2004, with Scottish cities being invited by the Commonwealth Games Council for Scotland to consider making a bid. In September 2004, Glasgow was announced as the Scottish candidate city over Edinburgh following a cost-benefit analysis by the Commonwealth Games Council for Scotland; the Scottish Executive under First Minister of Scotland, Jack McConnell, with the support of the United Kingdom government and all main parties in the Scottish Parliament, formally announced Glasgow's intention to host the games on 16 August 2005.
In March 2006, the bidding process began, with the Glasgow Bidding team presenting their case to the Commonwealth Games Federation at the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, along with the other confirmed candidate cities. In October 2006, the first voting delegates arrived in Glasgow, to inspect the city's existing and proposed amenities and facilities. Glasgow announced on 16 the 17 sports to be included should its bid be successful. Halifax withdrew its bid on 8 March 2007, following the withdrawal of funding from the municipal government; that left Abuja and Glasgow as the remaining bidders, with Abuja seen as a favourite due to the basis of its campaign that an African nation has never before hosted the Commonwealth Games. The deadline for formal submission of bids to the Commonwealth Games Federation, in the form of a Candidate City File, was set for May 2007. Both bids were recommended, though Glasgow's bid team had made use of extensive benchmarking against the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester and the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne and as a result, its bid was deemed technically superior according to the CGF Evaluation Report, released in September 2007.
The Commonwealth Games Evaluation Commission concluded that: "Glasgow has shown it has the ability to stage the 2014 Commonwealth Games to a standard which would continue to enhance the image and prestige of the Games." This put Glasgow ahead in terms of the technical comprehensiveness of its bid. The final decision on the host city of the 2014 Commonwealth Games was held in Colombo, Sri Lanka on 9 November 2007 at the Commonwealth Games Federation General Assembly, attended by all 71 Commonwealth Games member associations; each bid city made a presentation to the General Assembly, the order of, determined by drawing lots. Glasgow's delegation was led by Louise Martin, chair of the Commonwealth Games Council for Scotland, First Minister Alex Salmond, athlete Jamie Quarry and Leader of Glasgow City Council Steven Purcell; the presentation included a promotional film narrated by Sean Connery. Abuja's delegation was led by General Yakubu Gowon, head of the Abuja 2014 Commonwealth Games bid team.
The CGF members voted for their preferred candidate in a secret ballot. As there were only two bids, the winner was announced by the CGF President, Mike Fennel, after the first round of voting, with the winner only requiring a simple majority; the results of the bidding process were as follows: The Commonwealth Arena and Sir Chris Hoy Velodrome precinct is situated at Parkhead in the East End of the city, the velodrome itself is opposite Celtic Park, used for the opening ceremony. These venues hosted the Badminton as well as Track cycling; the Road cycling and Cycling Time-trial events finished at Glasgow Green. Glasgow Green was the venue for Field hockey and saw the construction of a new Glasgow Green Hockey Centre. Tollcross International Swimming Centre, was the venue for Swimming events, it had one Olympic standard 50 metre swimming pool, extensively upgraded, a second 50-metre pool was added for the Games as a warm-up facility. The existing permanent seating capacity was increased by 1,000.
Combined with additional temporary seating there was over 5,000 seats for the Games. Ibrox Stadium, in the South Side, was the venue for the Rugby Sevens tournament. Mountain biking was held on the Cathkin Braes in
Mobile television is television watched on a small handheld or mobile device. It includes pay TV service delivered via mobile phone networks or received free-to-air via terrestrial television stations. Regular broadcast standards or special mobile TV transmission formats can be used. Additional features include downloading TV programs and podcasts from the Internet and storing programming for viewing. According to the Harvard Business Review, the growing adoption of smartphones allowed users to watch as much mobile video in three days of the 2010 Winter Olympics as they watched throughout the entire 2008 Summer Olympics – an increase of 564%. Early mobile television receivers were based on the old analog television signal system, they were the earliest televisions. The first was the Panasonic IC TV MODEL TR-001, introduced in 1970; the second was sold to the public by Clive Sinclair in January 1977. It was called the Microvision or the MTV-1, it had a two-inch CRT screen and was the first television which could pick up signals in multiple countries.
It measured 102×159×41 mm and was sold for less than £100 in the UK and for around $400 in the United States. The project took over ten years to develop and was funded by around £1.6 million in British government grants. In decades the term "mobile television" was associated with mobile telephones and other mobile digital devices. Mobile TV is among the features provided by many 3G phones. In 2002, South Korea became the first country in the world to have a commercial mobile TV by CDMA IS95-C network, mobile TV over 3G became available in that same year. In 2005, South Korea became the first country in the world to have mobile TV, it started satellite DMB and terrestrial DMB services on May 1 and December 1. Today, South Japan are at the forefront of this developing sector. Mobile TV services were launched by the operator CSL during March 2006 in Hong Kong on the 3G network. BT in the United Kingdom was among the first companies outside South Korea to launch mobile TV in September 2006, although the service was abandoned less than a year later.
The same happened to MFD Mobiles Fernsehen Deutschland, who launched their DMB-based service June 2006 in Germany, stopped it in April 2008. In June 2006, mobile operator 3 in Italy launched their mobile TV service, but opposed to their counterpart in Germany this was based on DVB-H. Sprint started offering the service in February 2006 and was the first US carrier to offer the service. In the US Verizon Wireless and more AT&T are offering the service. In South Korea, mobile TV is divided into satellite DMB and terrestrial DMB. Although S-DMB had more content, T-DMB has gained much wider popularity because it is free and included as a feature in most mobile handsets sold in the country today. Mobile TV usage can be divided into three classes: "Fixed" – watched while not moving moved when not being watched "Nomadic" – watched while moving "Mobile" – watched when moving Each of these pose different challenges. Power consumption – continuous receipt and display of video requires continuous power, cannot benefit from all of the types of optimizations that are used to reduce power consumption for data and voice services.
Memory – to support the large buffer requirements of mobile TV. Available memory capabilities are not suited for long hours of mobile TV viewing. Furthermore, potential future applications like peer-to-peer video sharing in mobile phones and consumer broadcasting would add to the increasing memory requirements; the existing P2P algorithms are not expected to be enough for mobile devices, necessitating the advent of mobile P2P algorithms. There is one start-up technology that claims patentability on its mobile P2P, but has not drawn attention from device manufacturers yet. Display – larger and higher-resolution displays are necessary for an optimal viewing experience. Processing power – more processor performance is required for mobile TV than that used for UI and simple applications, like browsers and messaging; as of January 2012, there were 120 stations in the United States broadcasting using the ATSC-M/H "Mobile DTV" standard – a mobile and handheld enhancement to the HDTV standard that improves handling of multipath interference while mobile.
The defunct MediaFLO used COFDM broadcast on UHF TV channel 55. Like satellite TV, it was controlled by conditional access, it required a subscription for each mobile device, was limited to the AT&T Mobility or Verizon Wireless networks. While MediaFLO used the TV spectrum and MobiTV used cell phone networks, "mobile DTV" used the digital TV spectrum. At the April 2007 National Association of Broadcasters in Las Vegas, the ATSC and 8VSB methods for delivering mobile DTV were shown. Advanced VSB, from Samsung and Rohde & Schwarz, was shown at the April 2006 show. In 2007, Zenith Electronics, owned by LG, came up with 8VSB, introduced with Harris Group's) Mobile-Pedestrian-Handheld system; as the broadcast networks began making their content available online, mobile DTV meant stations would have to find another way to compete. Sinclair Broadcast Group tested A-VSB in the fall of 2006, their stations KVCW and KVMY were participating in the mobile DTV products demonstrations at the NAB show. A-VSB had worked in buses at the 2007 Consumer Electronics Show.
ION Media Networks started a test station on channel 38, to be used for digital LPTV, which used a single-frequency network. In some areas, more than one TV transmitter would be needed to cover all areas. Mobile
BBC Research & Development
BBC Research & Development is the national technical research department of the BBC. It has responsibility for researching and developing advanced and emerging media technologies for the benefit of the corporation, wider UK and European media industries, is the technical design authority for a number of major technical infrastructure transformation projects for the UK broadcasting industry. BBC R&D is part of the wider BBC Design & Engineering, is led by Andy Conroy, Controller Research & Development. In 2011, the North Lab moved into MediaCityUK in Salford along with several other departments of the BBC, whilst the South Lab remained in White City in London; the department as it stands today was formed in 1993 from the merger of the BBC Designs Department and the BBC Research Department. From 2006 to 2008 it was known as Research and Innovation but has since reverted to its original name. BBC Research & Development has made major contributions to broadcast technology, carrying out original research in many areas, developing items like the peak programme meter which became the basis for many world standards.
It has been involved in many well known consumer technologies such as teletext, DAB, NICAM and Freeview. It was at the forefront of development of FM radio, stereo FM, RDS; these innovations have led to Queen's Awards for Innovation in 1969, 1974, 1983, 1987, 1992, 1998, 2001 and 2011. In the 1970s, its engineers designed the famous LS3/5A studio monitor for use in outside broadcasting units. Licensed to manufacturers, the loudspeaker sold 100,000 pairs in its 20+ years' life. In early 2010 the department had 135 staff based at three locations: White City in London, Kingswood Warren in Kingswood and the R&D at the BBC's Manchester offices at New Broadcasting House, Oxford Road, Manchester. In early 2010 the Kingswood Warren site was vacated and the bulk of the department relocated to Centre House, in White City, London co-locating with the main campus of the BBC in London, whilst a significant number have moved to the new North Lab in MediaCityUK in Salford. BBC R&D engineers and researchers are active on 50 projects, including 7 active national and international collaborative research efforts.
These include R&D projects built around BBC Redux—the proof of concept for the cross-platform, Flash video-based streaming version of the BBC iPlayer. A-weighting CEEFAX Dirac Equal-loudness contour ITU-R 468 noise weighting NICAM Peak programme meter Sound-in-Syncs VERA videotape format Kamaelia Backstage.bbc.co.uk BBC Research & Development at BBC Online BBC R&D Blog at BBC Online Move Location of South Lab History of the department and interviews with the staff Talk by Matthew Postgate in Manchester in November 2009 at TEDx
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p