Australian Defence Force
The Australian Defence Force is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. It consists of the Royal Australian Navy, Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force and a number of'tri-service' units; the ADF has a strength of just under 80,000 full-time personnel and active reservists, is supported by the Department of Defence and several other civilian agencies. During the first decades of the 20th century, the Australian Government established the armed services as separate organisations; each service had an independent chain of command. In 1976, the government made a strategic change and established the ADF to place the services under a single headquarters. Over time, the degree of integration has increased and tri-service headquarters and training institutions have supplanted many single-service establishments; the ADF is technologically sophisticated but small. Although the ADF's 58,206 full-time active-duty personnel and 21,694 active reservists make it the largest military in Oceania, it is smaller than most Asian military forces.
Nonetheless, the ADF is supported by a significant budget by worldwide standards and is able to deploy forces in multiple locations outside Australia. The ADF's legal standing draws on the executive government sections of the Australian Constitution. Section 51 gives the Commonwealth Government the power to make laws regarding Australia's defence and defence forces. Section 114 of the Constitution prevents the States from raising armed forces without the permission of the Commonwealth and Section 119 gives the Commonwealth responsibility for defending Australia from invasion and sets out the conditions under which the government can deploy the defence force domestically. Section 68 of the Constitution sets out the ADF's command arrangements; the Section states that "the command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the Governor-General as the Queen's representative". In practice, the Governor-General does not play an active part in the ADF's command structure, the elected government controls the ADF.
The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control. The Minister acts on most matters alone, though the National Security Committee of Cabinet considers important matters; the Minister advises the Governor-General who acts as advised in the normal form of executive government. The Commonwealth Government has never been required by the Constitution or legislation to seek parliamentary approval for decisions to deploy military forces overseas or go to war; the ADF's current priorities are set out in the 2016 Defence White Paper, which identifies three main areas of focus. The first of these is to defend Australia from direct coercion; the second priority is to contribute to the security of the South Pacific. The third priority is to contribute to stability across the Indo-Pacific region and a "rules-based global order which supports our interests"; the white paper states that the government will place equal weight on the three priorities when developing the ADF's capabilities.
Australia has maintained military forces since federation as a nation in January 1901. Shortly after Federation, the Australian Government established the Australian Army and Commonwealth Naval Force by amalgamating the forces each of the states had maintained. In 1911, the Government established the Royal Australian Navy, which absorbed the Commonwealth Naval Force; the Army established the Australian Flying Corps in 1912, separated to form the Royal Australian Air Force in 1921. The services were not linked by a single chain of command, as they each reported to their own separate Minister and had separate administrative arrangements; the three services saw action around the world during World War I and World War II, took part in conflicts in Asia during the Cold War. The importance of'joint' warfare was made clear to the Australian military during World War II when Australian naval and air units served as part of single commands. Following the war, several senior officers lobbied for the appointment of a commander in chief of the three services.
The government rejected this proposal and the three services remained independent. The absence of a central authority resulted in poor co-ordination between the services, with each service organising and operating on the basis of a different military doctrine; the need for an integrated command structure received more emphasis as a result of the inefficient arrangements which at times hindered the military's efforts during the Vietnam War. In 1973, the Secretary of the Department of Defence, Arthur Tange, submitted a report to the Government that recommended the unification of the separate departments supporting each service into a single Department of Defence and the creation of the post of Chief of the Defence Force Staff; the government accepted these recommendations and the Australian Defence Force was established on 9 February 1976. Until the 1970s, Australia's military strategy centred on the concept of'forward defence', in which the role of the Australian military was to co-operate with allied forces to counter threats in Australia's region.
In 1969, when the United States began the Guam Doctrine and the British withdrew'east of Suez', Australia developed a defence policy which emphasised self-reliance and the defence of the Australian continent. This was known as the Defence of Australia Policy. Under this policy, the focus of Australian defence planning was to protect Australia's northern maritime approaches against enemy attack. In line with this goal, the ADF was restructured to increase its ability to strike at enemy forces from Australian bases and to counter raids on continental Australia; the ADF a
9 Parachute Squadron RE
9 Parachute Squadron RE, is an airborne detachment of the Royal Engineers, part of the British Army. Like other units comprising the Royal Engineers, soldiers in the squadron are called sappers, it is part of the 23 Parachute Engineer Regiment based at Rock Barracks the airborne Royal Engineers unit. Now based at Rock Barracks in Woodbridge, Suffolk with the rest of 23 Engineer Regiment, the squadron's history goes back to 1787, when the Chatham Company of "'Royall Military Artificers' " was raised at Chatham, which, in 1806, was numbered 9 Field Company in Gibraltar; the next hundred years of the squadron's history is rather meagre, but it is known to have served in the Kaffir Wars, the Crimean War, Halifax, Nova Scotia and Hong Kong. It was under the command of the 7th Division during the Boer War. During the First World War the company served with the 4th Infantry Division, bridging the Rivers Marne and Aisne, as well as taking part in the Battle of the Somme; the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939 saw 9th Field Company RE in France once again, still as part of the 4th Division.
It took part in the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force from Dunkirk. In May 1942, it was reorganised as 9 Field Company RE. 9 Field Company RE became the engineer support for the newly formed 1st Air Landing Brigade, with about one third of the company being trained in the use of parachutes while the rest were trained as glider-borne troops. The unit's first airborne operation was in Norway in 1942 when they were sent to destroy a heavy water plant. However, both gliders crash landed, the few survivors were executed by the Gestapo. In 1943 9 Field Company RE took part in further airborne operations in North Africa and Italy. 9 Field Company RE returned to the UK in November 1943 to prepare for D Day. In September 1944 the company took part in Operation Market Garden. With the exception of two gliders that crash landed, the remainder of the unit landed safely at Arnhem, where they played an important role in the defence of the bridge; the platoon was used as the counter-attack force by Lt Col John Frost, the Commanding Officer of 2nd Battalion The Parachute Regiment, fought with great bravery in the infantry role.
However, they took heavy casualties, with just 57 of the original company of 215 men returning to the UK, the rest being captured or killed. On VE Day, 1st Airborne Division was ordered to Norway to accept the surrender of the 400,000 German soldiers there. After VJ Day 9th Airborne Squadron went to Palestine with the 6th Airborne Division; the squadron had a difficult time in Palestine, being sent to clear the King David Hotel in Jerusalem after a horrific bomb attack. In Palestine the squadron lost three men killed in action. 9 Independent Airborne Squadron RE accompanied the division to Germany, returning to the UK in 1950, since when the squadron has served on active service in countries such as Egypt, Jordan, Bahrain, Radfan, Rhodesia as well as six full tours and two spearhead tours of duty in Northern Ireland. In 1976, 16 Independent Parachute Brigade disbanded and 9 Independent Parachute Squadron RE lost its independence and became part of 36 Engineer Regiment, based at Maidstone. 9 Parachute Squadron RE, as it was now called, was to remain in Aldershot to support the Parachute Battalions.
In April 1982, the squadron embarked for the Falkland Islands as part of 5 Infantry Brigade. In true sapper tradition, the squadron was involved in the thick of the action from clearing minefields to repairing bridges. Sergeant Ron Wrega, Sergeant Pete Colclough and Corporal John Foran won the Military Medal during the conflict. After the Falklands War, the squadron had tours in Belize, the Falklands and Canada. In 1987, in the Royal Engineers 200th Anniversary Year, the squadron was selected to provide the Royal Guard. After six weeks of intense training, the squadron provided the guard for Buckingham Palace, St. James's Palace and for the Tower of London, they were given the duty of guarding the Royal London Palaces in 2009, 21 years after first performing the task. Between July and November 1994, the squadron served in Rwanda as part of the UNAMIR mission, for which it was jointly awarded the Wilkinson Sword of Peace. In Rwanda, the squadron contributed to the stabilising of the difficult situation and to the rebuilding of the country’s infrastructure.
This was achieved by providing sterilised water, constructing roads and bridges, providing support to medical and dental facilities, general artisan trade work and mine clearance. In September 1998 the squadron was deployed to Bosnia, being involved in repairing and replacing camp structures. In June 1999, 100 soldiers from the squadron were deployed to Kosovo, where they were involved in the clearing and securing of the mountain corridor to Kaçanik to enable 4 Brigade to pass through. In addition, members of the squadron deployed on a UN mission to Cyprus. Between April – October 2000, the squadron deployed on another tour to Northern Ireland, carrying out various tasks across the province and dismantling the famous golf towers of South Armagh. In August 2001, the squadron deployed to the Republic of Macedonia as part of the Multi National Force on Operation BESSEMER; the main squadron task was in support of the weapons collection operation. Members of the squadron provided the vital infrastructure required to sustain such an operation, as well as constructing extensive force protection measures.
During the operation, Recce Troop, on their debut deployment, carried out vital route reconnaissance and with the assistance of geo technicians, produced mapping of routes throughou
New Zealand Defence Force
The New Zealand Defence Force consists of three services: the New Zealand Army, the Royal New Zealand Air Force and the Royal New Zealand Navy. As of 2018 the Commander-in-Chief of the NZDF, Dame Patsy Reddy, Governor-General of New Zealand, exercises power on the advice of the Minister of Defence, Ron Mark, under the Defence Act 1990. A previous Chief of Defence Force, Lieutenant General Tim Keating, had served in the capacity of Vice Chief of Defence Force, was appointed to the top position on 31 January 2014. Mark was appointed Minister of Defence as a member of the Labour-NZ First government following the 2017 New Zealand general election, replacing the former Minister of Defence, Mark Mitchell. Air Marshal Kevin Short took over as Chief of Defence Force on 1 July 2018; the NZDF has announced that Air Vice-Marshal Tony Davies will serve as the next Vice Chief of Defence Force. New Zealand's armed forces have three defence-policy objectives: to defend New Zealand against low-level threats to contribute to regional security to play a part in global security effortsNew Zealand regards its own national defence needs as modest, due to its geographical isolation and benign relationships with neighbours.
As of September 2017 the NZDF had 302 personnel deployed overseas on operations and on UN missions in the South Pacific, Africa and the Middle East areas. After the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, New Zealand's security was dependent on British Imperial troops deployed from Australia and other parts of the empire. By 1841 the settlers those in the New Zealand Company settlement of Wellington, were calling for local militia to be formed. In 1843 a local militia had been formed in Wellington without official sanction; this prompted the Chief Police Magistrate Major Matthew Richmond to order its immediate disbandment. Richmond dispatched 53 soldiers from the 96th Regiment from Auckland to Wellington; these calls. The calls lead to a bill being introduced to the Legislative Assembly in 1844; those present noted their disapproval of the bill. On 22 March 1845 the Flagstaff War broke out. In 1844 a Select Committee of the House of Commons had recommended that a militia, composed of both settlers and native Maori, a permanent native force be set up.
On 25 March 1845, the Militia Ordinance was passed into law. Twenty-six officers were appointed in Auckland, thereby forming the start of New Zealand's own defence force. Major Richmond was appointed commander of the Wellington Battalion of the militia; the newspaper article of the time notes. The Nelson Battalion of Militia was formed 12 August 1845. In June 1845, 75 members of the Auckland Militia under Lieutenant Figg became the first unit to support British Imperial troops in the Flagstaff War, serving as pioneers. Seven militia were wounded in action between 30 June and 1 July 1845. One, a man named Rily died of his wounds; the Auckland Militia was disbanded in August or early September 1845 because of budgetary constraints. Disbandment of the Nelson and Wellington Militias followed much to the dismay of their supporters; those at Nelson under Captain Greenwood decided, regardless of not, to continue training. Trouble in the Hutt Valley, near Wellington, in early March 1846 prompted the new Lieutenant Governor George Grey to proclaim martial law and call out the Hutt Militia.
Following on from this the local paper noted that the No 1 Company of the Wellington Militia had been called out, while the troops stationed in the town had been in the Hutt. The paper further noted; as problems continued in the area at least 160 Militia remained. These were supplemented by volunteers, Maori warriors from the Te Aro pah. On 28 October 1846, with the passing of the Armed Constabulary Ordinance in 1846, a fresh call was made by Mr Donnelly of the Legislature to do away with the Militia because of its expense; however the cost to Britain of maintaining a military force in New Zealand was considerable, prompting a dispatch on 24 November 1846 from The Right Hon Earl Grey to advise Lieutenant Governor George Grey that... the formation of a well-organised Militia and of a force of Natives in the service of Her Majesty, would appear to be the measures most to be adopted. Further pressure in the early 1850s from Britain for removing their forces prompted pleas for them to remain as the Militia were deemed insufficient for the purpose.1854 brought a new threat to the attention of the colony, because up to that time the military focus had been upon internal conflicts between settlers and the native population.
War had broken out between Turkey. This war began to involve the major European powers and exposed New Zealand and Australia to a possible external threat from Russian naval forces. Parliament discussed providing guns at ports around the country for use in the event of a war with a foreign power. By 1858 attention had swung back to local issues with a land dispute in New Plymouth prompting Governor Thomas Gore Brown to call out its militia under Captain Charles Brown. A prelude to what was to become the First Taranaki War and a period of conflict in the North Island until 1872. Parliament revised and expanded the Militia Ordinance, replacing it with the Militia Act 1858; some of the main changes were clauses enabling volunteers to be included under such terms and conditions as the Governor may specify. The act outlined the purposes under which Mi
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard; the President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States. From the time of its inception, the U. S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the founders of the United States were suspicious of a permanent military force, it played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the military of the Confederate States.
The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U. S. military framework. The Act established the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense, it was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense, merged the cabinet-level Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, Department of the Air Force, into the Department of Defense. The U. S. Armed Forces are one of the largest militaries in terms of the number of personnel, it draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1973, but the Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U. S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service. On February 22, 2019, however, a federal judge ruled that registering only males for Selective Service is unconstitutional.
As of 2017, the U. S. spends about US$610 billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the U. S. constitutes 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The U. S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies which enables a widespread deployment of the force around the world, including around 800 military bases outside the United States; the U. S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U. S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps combined are the world's second largest air arm. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest naval force; the history of the U. S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States; the Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
These forces demobilized in 1784. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784; the United States Congress created the current United States Navy on 27 March 1794 and the current United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1798. All three services trace their origins to their respective Continental predecessors; the 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies", to "provide and maintain a navy" and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces", as well as the power to declare war. The President is the U. S. Armed Forces' commander-in-chief; the United States Coast Guard traces its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790 which merged with the United States Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947. S. Signal Corps, formed 1 August 1907 and was part of the Army Air Forces before becoming an independent service as per the National Security Act of 1947.
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps was considered to be a branch of the United States Armed Forces from 29 July 1945 until its status as such was revoked on 3 July 1952. On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. If approved, this would become the sixth military service branch to be created. Command over the U. S. Armed Forces is established in the Constitution; the sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief. The Constitution presumes the existence of "executive Departments" headed by "principal officers", whose appointment mechanism is provided for in the Appointments Clause; this allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a civilian and member of the Cabinet.
The Defense Secretary is second in the U. S. Armed Forces chain of command, with the exception of the Coast Guard, under the Secretary of Homeland Security, is just below the President and serves as the
United Nations Medal
A United Nations Medal is an international decoration awarded by the United Nations to the various world countries militaries for participation in joint international military and police operations such as peacekeeping, humanitarian efforts, disaster relief. The medal is ranked in militaries and police forces as a service medal; the United Nations awarded its first medal during the Korean War. Since 1955, many additional United Nations medals have been created and awarded for participation in various United Nations missions and actions around the world; the most common United Nations medal is the standard UN decoration known as the United Nations Medal. Most countries bestow this award for any action in which a member of the military participated in a joint UN activity. In situations where a service member participated in multiple UN operations, service stars, campaign clasps, or award numbers are authorized as attachments to the United Nations Medal; these devices vary depending on the regulations of the various armed forces.
The UN has authorised the award of numerals to be attached to the medal ribbon. The qualification for these numerals is not to indicate the number of campaigns served in, but rather the number of qualifying periods of service, which are counted as 180 consecutive days after the initial qualifying period of ninety days; the first United Nations medal to be created was the United Nations Service Medal known as the United Nations Service Medal Korea, was awarded to any military service member, of an Armed Force allied with South Korea, who participated in the defense of South Korea from North Korea between the dates of 27 June 1950 and 27 July 1953. The military forces of the Netherlands are awarded the medal for service to January 1, 1955, while the armed forces of Thailand and Sweden grant the award to July 27, 1955. In 1956, to maintain the peace which brought the end of the Suez Crisis the United Nations Emergency Force was established; this was the first Peacekeeping operation of the United Nations.
To reward the service of troops from Brazil, Colombia, India, Norway and Yugoslavia those troops who completed ninety days of service with the UNEF were awarded the United Nations Emergency Force Medal. The mission lasted from November 1956 until June 1967, it is unique from other United Nations Medals in that instead of saying UN on the obverse, it says UNEF. Subsequent missions did not use the missions abbreviation on its medals. In most nations, the standard United Nations Medal is awarded in lieu of a campaign specific medal. Most operations utilize a different ribbon for each mission, though there have been some notable exceptions. In some countries where the UN Security Council determines a mission in the same geographic region, but changes the mission mandate by way of Security Council Resolution, there may be a number of missions which have identical campaign ribbons and later will change the ribbon to reflect the changing environment; the United Nations Mission in Haiti was established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 867 on 23 September 1993 and lasted until in June 1996.
This mission was an effort to end the conflict and instability caused by the 1991 Haitian coup d'état. Subsequent missions to maintain stability and train the Haitian National Police were undertaken under UNSMIH, UNTMIH, MIPONUH, MICAH; these subsequent missions all used the same medal as UNMIH. In East Timor, the medals awarded for UNTAET and UNMISET all have the same ribbon. For 90 days of service with a United Nations mission or organization where there is no specific approved United Nations medal, personnel may be eligible for the United Nations Special Service Medal; some examples of qualifying service are the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq, or the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs Accelerated De-Mining Programme in Mozambique. Some nations, such as France, the Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand permit members of the military and police to receive and display multiple United Nations Medals as separate decorations. Other countries, in particular the United Kingdom, permit a service member to receive the relevant United Nations medal and authorization for it to be worn is given by the FCO, Numerals may be added to denote multiple tours to one mission, the medals are worn in order of award and take precedence alongside British campaign medals.
In the United States Armed Forces, prior to 13 October 1995, all US military personnel wore the blue and white United Nations Ribbon regardless of the ribbon awarded. On 13 October 1995, the Assistant Secretary of Defense approved a change to the wear policy of the United Nations Medal. Effective on that date, personnel who are awarded the United Nations Medal may wear the first medal and ribbon for which they qualify, adding a bronze service star for subsequent awards of the United Nations Medal for service in a different mission. No more than one UN medal or ribbon may be worn at a time. On US uniforms, the UN Medal is worn before the NATO Medal, except for the United Nations Korea Medal, worn as a campaign medal just before the Vietnam Campaign Medal. US military personnel are eligible to wear the medal from one of the following United Nations operations as their one approved medal: Members of the Argentinian Armed Forces are allowed to wear the different UN medals as separate decorations.
However, authorization for use must be formally requested for every single medal, is granted on an individual basis. Regulations for the use of either medals or ribbons apply for each uniform. In the Argentinian Army, a national-issued, maroon-and-white bar showing the number of tours of duty may be worn in lieu of
Yom Kippur War
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel. The war took place in Sinai and the Golan—occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War—with some fighting in African Egypt and northern Israel. Egypt's initial war objective was to use its military to seize a foothold on the east bank of the Suez Canal and use this to negotiate the return of the rest of Sinai; the war began when the Arab coalition launched a joint surprise attack on Israeli positions, on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in Judaism, which occurred that year during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. Egyptian and Syrian forces crossed ceasefire lines to enter the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights, respectively. Both the United States and the Soviet Union initiated massive resupply efforts to their respective allies during the war, this led to a near-confrontation between the two nuclear superpowers.
The war began with a successful Egyptian crossing of the Suez Canal. Egyptian forces crossed the cease-fire lines advanced unopposed into the Sinai Peninsula. After three days, Israel had mobilized most of its forces and halted the Egyptian offensive, resulting in a military stalemate; the Syrians coordinated their attack on the Golan Heights to coincide with the Egyptian offensive and made threatening gains into Israeli-held territory. Within three days, Israeli forces had pushed the Syrians back to the pre-war ceasefire lines; the Israel Defense Forces launched a four-day counter-offensive deep into Syria. Within a week, Israeli artillery began to shell the outskirts of Damascus, Egyptian President Sadat began to worry about the integrity of his major ally, he believed that capturing two strategic passes located deeper in the Sinai would make his position stronger during post-war negotiations. The Israelis counter-attacked at the seam between the two Egyptian armies, crossed the Suez Canal into Egypt, began advancing southward and westward towards the city of Suez in over a week of heavy fighting that resulted in heavy casualties on both sides.
On October 22, a United Nations–brokered ceasefire unraveled, with each side blaming the other for the breach. By October 24, the Israelis had improved their positions and completed their encirclement of Egypt's Third Army and the city of Suez; this development led to tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on October 25 to end the war. The war had far-reaching implications; the Arab world had experienced humiliation in the lopsided rout of the Egyptian–Syrian–Jordanian alliance in the Six-Day War but felt psychologically vindicated by early successes in this conflict. The war led Israel to recognize that, despite impressive operational and tactical achievements on the battlefield, there was no guarantee that they would always dominate the Arab states militarily, as they had through the earlier 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Suez Crisis, the Six-Day War; these changes paved the way for the subsequent peace process. The 1978 Camp David Accords that followed led to the return of the Sinai to Egypt and normalized relations—the first peaceful recognition of Israel by an Arab country.
Egypt continued its drift away from the Soviet Union and left the Soviet sphere of influence entirely. The war was part of the Arab–Israeli conflict, an ongoing dispute that included many battles and wars since 1948, when the state of Israel was formed. During the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel had captured Egypt's Sinai Peninsula half of Syria's Golan Heights, the territories of the West Bank, held by Jordan since 1948. On June 19, 1967, shortly after the Six-Day War, the Israeli government voted to return the Sinai to Egypt and the Golan Heights to Syria in exchange for a permanent peace settlement and a demilitarization of the returned territories, it rejected a full return to the boundaries and the situation before the war and insisted on direct negotiations with the Arab governments as opposed to accepting negotiation through a third party. This decision was it conveyed to any Arab state. Notwithstanding Abba Eban's insistence that this was indeed the case, there seems to be no solid evidence to corroborate his claim.
No formal peace proposal was made either indirectly by Israel. The Americans, who were briefed of the Cabinet's decision by Eban, were not asked to convey it to Cairo and Damascus as official peace proposals, nor were they given indications that Israel expected a reply; the Arab position, as it emerged in September 1967 at the Khartoum Arab Summit, was to reject any peaceful settlement with the state of Israel. The eight participating states – Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Algeria and Sudan – passed a resolution that would become known as the "three no's": there would be no peace, no recognition and no negotiation with Israel. Prior to that, King Hussein of Jordan had stated that he could not rule out a possibility of a "real, permanent peace" between Israel and the Arab states. Armed hostilities continued on a limited scale after the Six-Day War and escalated into the War of Attrition, an attempt to wear down the Israeli position through long-term pressure. A ceasefire was signed in August 1970. President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt died in September 1970