Multiple-image Network Graphics

Multiple-image Network Graphics is a graphics file format, published in 2001, for animated images. Its specification is publicly documented and there are free software reference implementations available. MNG is related to the PNG image format; when PNG development started in early 1995, developers decided not to incorporate support for animation, because the majority of the PNG developers felt that overloading a single file type with both still and animation features is a bad design, both for users and for web servers. However, work soon started on MNG as an animation-supporting version of PNG. Version 1.0 of the MNG specification was released on 31 January 2001. Gwenview has native MNG support. GIMP can export images as MNG files. Imagemagick can create a MNG file from a series of PNG files. With the MNG plugin, Irfanview can read a MNG file. If MPlayer is linked against libmng, as it is, MPlayer and thus all graphical front-ends like Gnome MPlayer can display MNG files. Mozilla browsers and Netscape 6.0, 6.01 and 7.0 included native support for MNG until the code was removed in 2003 due to code size and little actual usage, causing complaints on the Mozilla development site.

Mozilla added support for APNG as a simpler alternative. Early versions of the Konqueror browser included MNG support but it was dropped. MNG support was never included in Internet Explorer, Opera, or Safari. Web servers don't come pre-configured to support MNG files; the MNG developers had hoped that MNG would replace GIF for animated images on the World Wide Web, just as PNG had done for still images. However, with the expiration of LZW patents and existence of alternative file formats such as Flash and SVG, combined with lack of MNG-supporting viewers and services, web usage was far less than expected; the structure of MNG files is the same as that of PNG files, differing only in the different signature and the use of a much greater variety of chunks to support all the animation features that it provides. Images to be used in the animation are stored in the MNG file as encapsulated JNG images. Two versions of MNG of reduced complexity are defined: MNG-LC and MNG-VLC; these allow applications to include some level of MNG support without having to implement the entire MNG specification, just as the SVG standard offers the "SVG Basic" and "SVG Tiny" subsets.

MNG does not have a registered MIME media type. MNG animations may be included in HTML pages using the <object> tag. MNG can either be lossy or lossless, depending whether the frames are encoded in PNG or JNG; the most common alternatives are Animated GIF and Adobe Flash, with the relative newcomer video alternative to GIF gaining momentum. Animated GIF images are restricted to 256 colors and are used in simple scenarios but are supported in all major web browsers. Adobe Flash is a common alternative for creating complex and/or interactive animations and is natively supported by Internet Explorer 10 and Google Chrome, although support is deprecated as of 2016. In web pages, it is possible to create pseudo-animations by writing JavaScript code that loads still PNG or JPEG images of each frame and displays them one by one for a specified time interval. Apart from requiring the user to have JavaScript support and choose not to disable it, this method can be CPU- and bandwidth-intensive for pages with more than one image, large images, or high framerates, does not allow the animation to be saved in one image file or posted on image-based sites such as flickr or imageboards.

Most web browsers support a non-standard extension to PNG for simple GIF-like animations. Another alternative is SVG images with embedded PNG or JPEG graphics, using SVG animation or JavaScript to flip between images. Internet Explorer supports neither SVG animation. Another approach uses CSS 3 features, notably CSS Animation, which now has some level of support in most major web browsers. CSS Sprites can be used as animations by varying which part of the large image is visible using CSS Animation or JavaScript. Animated Portable Network Graphics JPEG Network Graphics MNG Home Page List of applications that support MNG images MNGzilla - A Mozilla variant with MNG support, dormant since 2007 MNG test cases

1996 in Japanese television

Events in 1996 in Japanese television. Music Fair, music Mito Kōmon, jidaigeki Sazae-san, anime Ōoka Echizen, jidaigeki FNS Music Festival, music Panel Quiz Attack 25, game show Doraemon, anime Soreike! Anpanman, anime Downtown no Gaki no Tsukai ya Arahende!!, game show Crayon Shin-chan, anime Iron Chef, game show Nintama Rantarō, anime Shima Shima Tora no Shimajirō, anime Chibi Maruko-chan, anime Azuki-chan, anime Sailor Moon, anime 1996 in anime List of Japanese television dramas 1996 in Japan List of Japanese films of 1996

Lie algebra bundle

In mathematics, a weak Lie algebra bundle ξ = is a vector bundle ξ over a base space X together with a morphism θ: ξ ⊗ ξ → ξ which induces a Lie algebra structure on each fibre ξ x. A Lie algebra bundle ξ = is a vector bundle in which each fibre is a Lie algebra and for every x in X, there is an open set U containing x, a Lie algebra L and a homeomorphism ϕ: U × L → p − 1 such that ϕ x: x × L → p − 1 is a Lie algebra isomorphism. Any Lie algebra bundle is a weak Lie algebra bundle; as an example of a weak Lie algebra bundle, not a strong Lie algebra bundle, consider the total space s o × R over the real line R. Let denote the Lie bracket of s o and deform it by the real parameter as: x = x ⋅ for X, Y ∈ s o and x ∈ R. Lie's third theorem states that every bundle of Lie algebras can locally be integrated to a bundle of Lie groups. In general globally the total space might fail to be Hausdorff.. But if all fibres of a real Lie algebra bundle over a topological space are mutually isomorphic as Lie algebras it is a locally trivial Lie algebra bundle.

This result was proved by proving that the real orbit of a real point under an algebraic group is open in the real part of its complex orbit. Suppose the base space is Hausdorff and fibers of total space are isomorphic as Lie algebras there exists a Hausdorff Lie group bundle over the same base space whose Lie algebra bundle is isomorphic to the given Lie algebra bundle.. Every semi simple Lie algebra bundle is locally trivial. Hence there exist a Hausdorff Lie group bundle over the same base space whose Lie algebra bundle is isomorphic to the given Lie algebra bundle. Douady, Adrien. "Espaces fibrés en algèbres de Lie et en groupes". Inventiones Mathematicae. 1: 133–151. Doi:10.1007/BF01389725. Kiranagi, B. S.. "On semisimple Lie algebra bundles". Journal of Algebra and Its Applications. 14: 1550009. Doi:10.1142/S0219498815500097. Algebra bundle Adjoint bundle