click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to transmit signals, resulting in a range of signs and symptoms, including physical and sometimes psychiatric problems. Specific symptoms can include double vision, blindness in one eye, muscle weakness and trouble with sensation or coordination. MS takes several forms, with new symptoms either occurring in isolated attacks or building up over time. Between attacks, symptoms may disappear completely. While the cause is unclear, the underlying mechanism is thought to be either destruction by the immune system or failure of the myelin-producing cells. Proposed causes for this include genetics and environmental factors such as being triggered by a viral infection. MS is diagnosed based on the presenting signs and symptoms and the results of supporting medical tests. There is no known cure for multiple sclerosis.

Treatments attempt to prevent new attacks. Medications used to treat MS, while modestly effective, can have side effects and be poorly tolerated. Physical therapy can help with people's ability to function. Many people pursue alternative treatments, despite a lack of evidence of benefit; the long-term outcome is difficult to predict, with good outcomes more seen in women, those who develop the disease early in life, those with a relapsing course and those who experienced few attacks. Life expectancy is on average 5 to 10 years lower than that of the unaffected population. Multiple sclerosis is the most common immune-mediated disorder affecting the central nervous system. In 2015, about 2.3 million people were affected globally, with rates varying in different regions and among different populations. In that year, about 18,900 people died from MS, up from 12,000 in 1990; the disease begins between the ages of 20 and 50 and is twice as common in women as in men. MS was first described in 1868 by French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot.

The name multiple sclerosis refers to the numerous glial scars that develop on the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. A number of new treatments and diagnostic methods are under development. A person with MS can have any neurological symptom or sign, with autonomic, visual and sensory problems being the most common; the specific symptoms are determined by the locations of the lesions within the nervous system, may include loss of sensitivity or changes in sensation such as tingling and needles or numbness, muscle weakness, blurred vision pronounced reflexes, muscle spasms, or difficulty in moving. Difficulties thinking and emotional problems such as depression or unstable mood are common. Uhthoff's phenomenon, a worsening of symptoms due to exposure to higher than usual temperatures, Lhermitte's sign, an electrical sensation that runs down the back when bending the neck, are characteristic of MS; the main measure of disability and severity is the expanded disability status scale, with other measures such as the multiple sclerosis functional composite being used in research.

The condition begins in 85% of cases as a clinically isolated syndrome over a number of days with 45% having motor or sensory problems, 20% having optic neuritis, 10% having symptoms related to brainstem dysfunction, while the remaining 25% have more than one of the previous difficulties. The course of symptoms occurs in two main patterns initially: either as episodes of sudden worsening that last a few days to months followed by improvement or as a gradual worsening over time without periods of recovery. A combination of these two patterns may occur or people may start in a relapsing and remitting course that becomes progressive on. Relapses are not predictable, occurring without warning. Exacerbations occur more than twice per year; some relapses, are preceded by common triggers and they occur more during spring and summer. Viral infections such as the common cold, influenza, or gastroenteritis increase their risk. Stress may trigger an attack. Women with MS who become pregnant experience fewer relapses.

Overall, pregnancy does not seem to influence long-term disability. Many events have been found not to affect relapse rates including vaccination, breast feeding, physical trauma, Uhthoff's phenomenon; the cause of MS is unknown. Theories try to combine the data into explanations, but none has proved definitive. While there are a number of environmental risk factors and although some are modifiable, further research is needed to determine whether their elimination can prevent MS. MS is more common in people who live farther from the equator; these exceptions include ethnic groups that are at low risk far from the equator such as the Samis, Canadian Hutterites, New Zealand Māori, Canada's Inuit, as well as groups that have a high risk

List of international rugby union tries by Brian O'Driscoll

Brian O'Driscoll is an Irish international rugby union player who retired at the end of the 2013–14 season. He is a former captain of Ireland and captained the British and Irish Lions. O'Driscoll, who spent the majority of his career playing at centre, made 133 appearances for Ireland, scoring 46 tries—an Irish record. In addition to this he made eight appearances for the Lions and scored one try, which occurred during the Lions' victory over Australia on the 2001 tour; as of February 2018, with a combined total of 47 international tries, O'Driscoll sits eighth on the all-time record list, is top of the all-time try-scoring list for the Six Nations with 26. In addition, he retired with 141 caps in all, which at that time was the most in the sport's history. O'Driscoll made his international debut on 12 June 1999 against Australia at the Ballymore Stadium in Brisbane, he scored his first try for Ireland during his fourth match, against the United States in the 1999 Rugby World Cup at Lansdowne Road.

It was the first of 19. O'Driscoll went on to score tries in the 2007 and 2011 Rugby World Cup tournaments, his 33rd international try earned him the IRPA Try of the Year award in 2008 for a team try scored during Ireland's 18–12 defeat against Australia. Starting from a lineout inside their own 22, Ireland caught their own kick as they moved up to the halfway line. An exchange of passes culminated with O'Driscoll receiving the ball 9 metres out before scoring. O'Driscoll scored multiple tries in a single international on six occasions, included in these were two hat-tricks; the first of these was scored against France during the 2000 Six Nations and the second came against Scotland in the 2002 Six Nations. O'Driscoll, who scored tries against all of the "Tier 1" nations, was most prolific against France, scoring eight times. Won denotes. Lost denotes. Drawn denotes. * denotes the try was scored while playing for the British and Irish Lions. Denotes the try was selected as the IRPA Try of the Year.

O'Driscoll's tries at Statsguru Brian O'Driscoll's best tries: 1999–2009

Stephen Wasil

Stephen "Steve" Wasil is a former Arena football quarterback who played for the Muskegon Thunder, Texas Copperheads, Albany Firebirds, Alabama Vipers, Kansas City Command and Tampa Bay Storm. He is the Offensive Coordinator at Albion College. Wasil attended Albion College, he still holds the records for all-time most passing yards in a game, most passing yards in a season, most touchdowns in a season. In 2005, he led the Britons to a Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association Championship and was named the league's Most Valuable Offensive Player. In 2007, Wasil began playing professionally for the Muskegon Thunder of the Continental Indoor Football League, he led the Thunder to a 4–8 record, but they lost the qualifying game to make the playoffs. He was named team MVP. In 2008, Wasil moved up to af2 as member of the Texas Copperheads, he played in eight games for the 2–14 Copperheads, completing 122-of-264 attempts for 1,205 yards, 15 touchdowns, 11 interceptions and rushed 12 times for 41 yards and 1 touchdown.

In 2009, Wasil was again in af2 as member of the Albany Firebirds. The team went 7–5 with Wasil as the starter; the team sputtered with Wasil on the injured reserve list, going 0–4, failing to qualify for the playoffs. In 2010, Wasil made it to the Arena Football League as member of the Alabama Vipers, he was the backup quarterback for the season behind Kevin Eakin. He started in place of Eakin in Week 7 against the Orlando Predators, throwing for 200 yards and two touchdowns. In 2011, Wasil signed with the Kansas City Command, he took over as the Command starting quarterback in June, threw 26 touchdowns and 1,385 yards. He re-signed with the Command for the 2012 season, but was traded to the Tampa Bay Storm in exchange for 2011 Game Tape Exchange Defensive Lineman of the Year, Clifford Dukes. Wasil played the 2012 season with the Storm, leading them to an 8–10 record, failing to make it to the playoffs, but it was Wasil's most impressive season as a professional, throwing 71 touchdowns and 3,666 yards.

Stats from ArenaFan: Wasil retired from the AFL in 2013, after re-signing with the Storm. Wasil announced that he would be starting his coaching career as the quarterbacks coach for his alma mater, Albion College

Narkeldanga High School

Narkeldanga High School, India, is one of the oldest schools in Kolkata. Shree Rakhal Chandra Ghosh, a man noted for his social work during the Bengali Renaissance, started the school in his house in 1862, it was owing to the efforts of Sir Gurudas Bandyopadhyay, the first Indian Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University, that Narikeldanga High School became an institution of secondary standard. Jahor Roy, the famous comedian of Bengali cinema Dr. Saroj Ghosh, recipient of the Padmabhushan Award, third in the Matriculation examination in 1950, has retired from being Director General of the National Council of Science Museum, was instrumental in development of a large chain of interactive science centres throughout India. Dr. Ramatosh Sarkar,a revered scientist and his fundamental research in astrophysics drew accolades internationally Dr. Bhabatosh Chattopadhyay, an eminent professor of English, went on to become the vice-chancellor of Rabindra Bharati University. Bhagabati Prasad Bandyopaghyay, another brilliant student of this institution, Justice Bandyopadhyay was one of the eminent judges of Calcutta High Court.

Prasanta Chatterjee, former Mayor of Kolkata and Member of Parliament Sekhar Basu, eminent short story writer Official website of Narikeldanga High School

2006–07 UCLA Bruins men's basketball team

The 2006–07 UCLA Bruins men's basketball team represented the University of California, Los Angeles in the 2006–07 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Bruins finished first in the Pacific-10 Conference standings; the team reached the Final Four in the 2007 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament for the second year in a row, losing to the Florida Gators. Source 2007 Pacific-10 Conference Men's Basketball Tournament 2007 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament 2006–07 NCAA Division I men's basketball season Media related to 2006–07 UCLA Bruins men's basketball season at Wikimedia Commons

Towlston Grange

Towlston Grange is an 18th-century plantation in Great Falls in Fairfax County, United States. The estate served as a residence for several prominent members of the Fairfax family. Towlston Grange is located at 1213 Towlston Road in Great Falls. There is a photograph of Bryan Fairfax's Towlston Grange in its unrestored state, taken by "The Rambler" of the Washington, D. C. Evening Star newspaper in 1918, that shows a ​1 1⁄2-story clapboarded house built in the English tradition. William Fairfax acquired several thousand acres on Difficult Run from his cousin Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron and named his property Towlston Grange. William's eldest son George William Fairfax and his wife Sally Fairfax née Cary settled at Towlston Grange after their marriage in 1759. Bryan Fairfax lived at Towlston Grange from 1768 until 1790. Bryan was given Towlston Grange with its adjacent 5,500 acres Towlston Manor in his father William's will. I give bequeath and devise unto my Son Bryan and his Heirs for Ever all my Tract of Land near and below Difficult Run in the aforesaid County containing about Five thousand five hundred Acres together with the House, Edifices and Appurtenances thereon known and calld in my Deed by the Name of Towlston Grange, give and bequeath unto my said Son Bryan and his Heirs for Ever my Negroes now employd thereon named Pipero, Adam, Old Sarah and her Daughter Betty and their Issue and her Children Scipio, Dolly & their Issue my waiting Boy Jack purchased of Mr. Amblery.

His friend George Washington and Martha Washington traveled to Towlston Grange to stand as godparents for Bryan's third son, Fedinando. Fairfax sold Towlston Grange to George Washington for ₤82.10. He moved to Mount Eagle, where he lived until his death. Upon the death of his cousin Robert Fairfax, 7th Lord Fairfax of Cameron in 1793, Bryan inherited the title of eighth Lord Fairfax of Cameron. "Bryan Fairfax inherited Towlston Manor in 1757 upon the death of his father, William Fairfax, cousin of Thomas, Lord Fairfax, for whom Fairfax County was named. Lord Fairfax gave him the adjoining Great Falls Manor of 12,588 acres in 1765; the house, Towlston Grange, was built while Bryan and his family were in England in 1766 or shortly after his return. On March 4, 1767, Martha and George Washington traveled to Towlston to stand as godparents for Bryan's third son, Ferdinando; the first known letter to his friend George Washington with the Towlston address is dated 1768. Washington's diaries, Bryan's letters, Fairfax tradition recount the many happy visits that Washington made to Bryan and their young family in this home.

The Virginia census of 1782 noted Towlston Grange as having one dwelling, ten outbuildings, six white persons and 18 slaves, a modest plantation. Most of Towlston Manor was leased to farmers. In 1790, Bryan moved into a grander house. George Washington wrote Fairfax, commenting on how happy he was to have him closer to Mount Vernon." Jack and Ethel Durham restored Towlston Grange in the 1930s. Jack served as the Chairman of the Fairfax County History Commission. Ethel co-founded Langley School in McLean, they raised Nancy. They promoted the creation of the Great Falls National Park, advocated the restoration of the Patowmack Canal, preservation the C & O Canal right-of-way as a national park. Towlston Grange Then, Great Falls Historical Society Towlston Grange Now, Great Falls Historical Society