1.
Mathematics
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Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times
2.
Biology
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Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, identification and taxonomy. Modern biology is a vast and eclectic field, composed of branches and subdisciplines. However, despite the broad scope of biology, there are certain unifying concepts within it that consolidate it into single, coherent field. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity. It is also understood today that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment to maintain a stable, the term biology is derived from the Greek word βίος, bios, life and the suffix -λογία, -logia, study of. The Latin-language form of the term first appeared in 1736 when Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus used biologi in his Bibliotheca botanica, the first German use, Biologie, was in a 1771 translation of Linnaeus work. In 1797, Theodor Georg August Roose used the term in the preface of a book, karl Friedrich Burdach used the term in 1800 in a more restricted sense of the study of human beings from a morphological, physiological and psychological perspective. The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the biology or the doctrine of life. Although modern biology is a recent development, sciences related to. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indian subcontinent, however, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most often traced back to ancient Greece. While the formal study of medicine back to Hippocrates, it was Aristotle who contributed most extensively to the development of biology. Especially important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, and later more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life. Aristotles successor at the Lyceum, Theophrastus, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences, even into the Middle Ages. Scholars of the medieval Islamic world who wrote on biology included al-Jahiz, Al-Dīnawarī, who wrote on botany, biology began to quickly develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoeks dramatic improvement of the microscope. It was then that scholars discovered spermatozoa, bacteria, infusoria, investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining. Advances in microscopy also had a impact on biological thinking. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the importance of the cell. Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, however, meanwhile, taxonomy and classification became the focus of natural historians
3.
Historian
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A historian is a person who researches, studies, and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race, if the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is an historian of prehistory. Although historian can be used to describe amateur and professional historians alike, some historians, though, are recognized by publications or training and experience. Historian became an occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany. Modern historical analysis usually draws upon other social sciences, including economics, sociology, politics, psychology, anthropology, philosophy, while ancient writers do not normally share modern historical practices, their work remains valuable for its insights within the cultural context of the times. Understanding the past appears to be a human need. What constitutes history is a philosophical question, the earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, though no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name. Systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, a development that became an important influence on the writing of history elsewhere around the Mediterranean region, the earliest known critical historical works were The Histories, composed by Herodotus of Halicarnassus who later became known as the father of history. Herodotus attempted to distinguish between more and less reliable accounts, and personally conducted research by travelling extensively, giving accounts of various Mediterranean cultures. Although Herodotus overall emphasis lay on the actions and characters of men and he was also the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, while his successor Xenophon introduced autobiographical elements and character studies in his Anabasis. The Romans adopted the Greek tradition, while early Roman works were still written in Greek, the Origines, composed by the Roman statesman Cato the Elder, was written in Latin, in a conscious effort to counteract Greek cultural influence. Strabo was an important exponent of the Greco-Roman tradition of combining geography with history, livy records the rise of Rome from city-state to empire. His speculation about what would have happened if Alexander the Great had marched against Rome represents the first known instance of alternate history, in Chinese historiography, the Classic of History is one of the Five Classics of Chinese classic texts and one of the earliest narratives of China. Sima Qian was the first in China to lay the groundwork for professional historical writing and his written work was the Shiji, a monumental lifelong achievement in literature. Christian historiography began early, perhaps as early as Luke-Acts, which is the source for the Apostolic Age. Writing history was popular among Christian monks and clergy in the Middle Ages and they wrote about the history of Jesus Christ, that of the Church and that of their patrons, the dynastic history of the local rulers. In the Early Middle Ages historical writing often took the form of annals or chronicles recording events year by year, muslim historical writings first began to develop in the 7th century, with the reconstruction of the Prophet Muhammads life in the centuries following his death. With numerous conflicting narratives regarding Muhammad and his companions from various sources, to evaluate these sources, they developed various methodologies, such as the science of biography, science of hadith and Isnad
4.
John Napier
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John Napier of Merchiston, also signed as Neper, Nepair, nicknamed Marvellous Merchiston) was a Scottish landowner known as a mathematician, physicist, and astronomer. He was the 8th Laird of Merchiston and his Latinized name was Ioannes Neper. John Napier is best known as the discoverer of logarithms and he also invented the so-called Napiers bones and made common the use of the decimal point in arithmetic and mathematics. Napiers birthplace, Merchiston Tower in Edinburgh, is now part of the facilities of Edinburgh Napier University, Napier died from the effects of gout at home at Merchiston Castle and his remains were buried in the kirkyard of St Giles. Following the loss of the kirkyard there to build Parliament House, archibald Napier was 16 years old when John Napier was born. As was the practice for members of the nobility at that time, he was privately tutored and did not have formal education until he was 13. He did not stay in very long. It is believed that he dropped out of school in Scotland, in 1571, Napier, aged 21, returned to Scotland, and bought a castle at Gartness in 1574. On the death of his father in 1608, Napier and his family moved into Merchiston Castle in Edinburgh and he died at the age of 67. In such conditions, it is surprising that many mathematicians were acutely aware of the issues of computation and were dedicated to relieving practitioners of the calculation burden. In particular, the Scottish mathematician John Napier was famous for his devices to assist with computation and he invented a well-known mathematical artifact, the ingenious numbering rods more quaintly known as “Napiers bones, ” that offered mechanical means for facilitating computation. He appreciated that, for the most part, practitioners who had laborious computations generally did them in the context of trigonometry, therefore, as well as developing the logarithmic relation, Napier set it in a trigonometric context so it would be even more relevant. His work, Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio contained fifty-seven pages of explanatory matter, the book also has an excellent discussion of theorems in spherical trigonometry, usually known as Napiers Rules of Circular Parts. Modern English translations of both Napiers books on logarithms, and their description can be found on the web, as well as a discussion of Napiers Bones and his invention of logarithms was quickly taken up at Gresham College, and prominent English mathematician Henry Briggs visited Napier in 1615. Among the matters discussed were a re-scaling of Napiers logarithms. Napier delegated to Briggs the computation of a revised table, the computational advance available via logarithms, the converse of powered numbers or exponential notation, was such that it made calculations by hand much quicker. The way was opened to later scientific advances, in astronomy, dynamics and he improved Simon Stevins decimal notation. Lattice multiplication, used by Fibonacci, was more convenient by his introduction of Napiers bones
5.
Asterisk
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An asterisk is a typographical symbol or glyph. It is so called because it resembles a conventional image of a star, computer scientists and mathematicians often vocalize it as star. In English, an asterisk is usually five-pointed in sans-serif typefaces, six-pointed in serif typefaces and it can be used as censorship. It is also used on the Internet to correct ones spelling, the asterisk is derived from the need of the printers of family trees in feudal times for a symbol to indicate date of birth. The original shape was seven-armed, each arm like a shooting from the center. In computer science, the asterisk is used as a wildcard character, or to denote pointers, repetition. Origin Adamantius is known to have used the asteriskos to mark missing Hebrew lines from his Hexapla. The asterisk evolved in shape over time, but its meaning as a used to correct defects remained. In the Middle Ages, the asterisk was used to emphasize a part of text. However, an asterisk was not always used, one hypothesis to the origin of the asterisk is that it stems from the five thousand year old Sumerian character dingir,
6.
Saltire
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A saltire, also called Saint Andrews Cross, is a heraldic symbol in the form of a diagonal cross, like the shape of the letter X in Roman type. The word comes from the Middle French sautoir, possibly owing to the shape of the areas in the design. It appears in flags, including those of Scotland and Jamaica. A variant, also appearing on many past and present flags, a warning sign in the shape of a saltire is also used to indicate the point at which a railway line intersects a road at a level crossing. In Unicode, the cross is encoded at U+2613 ☓ saltire, see X mark#Unicode for similar symbols that might be more accessible. The saltire appears on vexilla that are represented consistently on coinage of Christian emperors of Rome, in the ninth and tenth century the saltire was revived in Constantinople as a symbol of Christian-imperial power. Anne Roes detected the symbol, which appears with balls in the quadrants formed by the arms of the chi-cross. She suggested that early Christians endorsed its solar symbolism as appropriate to Christ and she also wrote, although it cannot be proved. In the white saltire of St. Andrew we still have a reminiscence of the old standard of the Persepolitan kingdom, when two or more saltires appear, they are usually blazoned as cut off. A saltorel is a saltire, the term is usually defined as one-half the width of the saltire. A field per saltire is divided into four areas by a saltire-shaped cut, otherwise, each of the four divisions may be blazoned separately. Examples include, Suffolk County Council, England, The Corporation of the Municipality of Brighton, when five or more compact charges are in saltire, one is in the center and one or more lie on each arm of an invisible saltire. The Saint Andrews Cross was worn as a badge on hats in Scotland, the Cross of Burgundy, a form of the Saint Andrews Cross, is used in numerous flags across Europe and the Americas. It was first used in the 15th century as an emblem by the Valois Dukes of Burgundy, the Duchy of Burgundy, forming a large part of eastern France and the Low Countries, was inherited by the House of Habsburg on the extinction of the Valois ducal line. As a result, the Cross of Burgundy has appeared in a variety of flags connected with territories formerly part of the Burgundian or Habsburg inheritance. Examples of such diversity include the Spanish naval ensign, the flag of Carlism, the flag of the Dutch municipality of Eijsden, the naval ensign of the Imperial Russian and Russian navies is a blue saltire on a white field. Prior to the Union the Royal Scots Navy used a red ensign incorporating the St Andrews Cross, with its colours exchanged, the same design forms part of the arms and flag of Nova Scotia. The Brazilian cities of Rio de Janeiro and Fortaleza also use a blue saltire on a white field, the flags of the Spanish island of Tenerife and the remote Colombian islands of San Andrés and Providencia also use a white saltire on a blue field
7.
Ceanothus papillosus
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Ceanothus papillosus is a species of plant in the genus Ceanothus. It is endemic to California, where it grows in open habitat on the slopes of the mountain ranges, such as woodland. The evergreen leaves are arranged, often in crowded clusters, each oblong to long-rectangular in shape. The edges are turned under and lined with glandular hairs. The inflorescence is a cluster of blue flowers. The fruit is a capsule about 3 millimeters long. California chaparral and woodlands Calflora Database, Ceanothus papillosus Jepson Manual Treatment USDA Plants Profile Photo gallery
8.
Ceanothus impressus
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Ceanothus impressus, with the common name Santa Barbara ceanothus, is a species of flowering shrub. This Ceanothus is endemic to the Central Coast of California, where it can be found on coastal slopes, other common names are blueblossom and California lilac, although the plant is not a lilac. This expansive shrub may exceed three meters-10 feet in height and approach seven m. -28 feet in width and it is thickly branched with dark brown twigs and stem. The evergreen leaves are about 2 centimeters long and oval shaped, highly ridged and wrinkled and they may be gland-dotted and have grayish hairy undersides. The shrub flowers abundantly in inflorescences of blue flowers. The fruit is a spherical capsule about 4 millimeters wide. California chaparral and woodlands Jepson Manual Treatment USDA Plants Profile Photo gallery
9.
MacOS
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Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS after Microsoft Windows. Launched in 2001 as Mac OS X, the series is the latest in the family of Macintosh operating systems, Mac OS X succeeded classic Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS9 in 1999. An initial, early version of the system, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999, the first desktop version, Mac OS X10.0, followed in March 2001. In 2012, Apple rebranded Mac OS X to OS X. Releases were code named after big cats from the release up until OS X10.8 Mountain Lion. Beginning in 2013 with OS X10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after landmarks in California, in 2016, Apple rebranded OS X to macOS, adopting the nomenclature that it uses for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. The latest version of macOS is macOS10.12 Sierra, macOS is based on technologies developed at NeXT between 1985 and 1997, when Apple acquired the company. The X in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced ten, macOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, and many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS. A heavily modified version of Mac OS X10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV, Apple also used to have a separate line of releases of Mac OS X designed for servers. Beginning with Mac OS X10.7 Lion, the functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 can run only on the PowerPC-based Macs from the time period, Mac OS X10.5 Leopard was released as a Universal binary, meaning the installer disc supported both Intel and PowerPC processors. In 2009, Apple released Mac OS X10.6 Snow Leopard, in 2011, Apple released Mac OS X10.7 Lion, which no longer supported 32-bit Intel processors and also did not include Rosetta. All versions of the system released since then run exclusively on 64-bit Intel CPUs, the heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, and then launched in 1989 and its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP, then called OPENSTEP, previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, e. g. Mac OS8 and Mac OS9. The letter X in Mac OS Xs name refers to the number 10 and it is therefore correctly pronounced ten /ˈtɛn/ in this context. However, a common mispronunciation is X /ˈɛks/, consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API, the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X10.0. Reviews were variable, with praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface
10.
Compose key
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A compose key, also called multi key, is a part of the computer keyboard that is—or behaves like—a kind of special dead key. Thus, unlike a modifier key, which must be held down, the effect of the compose key is to convert to a dead key every specified key that is pressed after it. The next keypress triggers the insertion of a character, typically a precomposed character or a symbol. Being a dead key, the key only needs one key position. This is ideally in the Base shift state, while the key positions may be attributed to other characters or dead keys. On the other hand, with respect to compact keyboards, the key may also be hidden in one of the present classic dead keys. More generally, any dead key may be programmed to compose more than what it is expected to produce. Having one dedicated compose key on keyboard, regardless of the number of other dead keys. For ergonomics, the place for the Compose key is Right Alt. If they do, the user might prefer to have Compose on Left Alt. Alternately, the Compose key may be placed on Right Ctrl, as actual keyboards can manage key rollover, the compose key does not really have to be released before the subsequent keystrokes. This makes it possible for experienced typists to enter composed characters rapidly, the typing speed is increased if the compose key can be acted with one thumb while other fingers are already about to hit the keys of the sequence. At the beginning, the Compose sequences followed handwriting and the overstrike technique, for example, striking Compose, followed by n, and then ~, produced the character ñ. This order is still in use, but multidiacriticized characters are hard to obtain this way, the inverse order is known from standard dead keys as present on the last typewriters and as used today on computer keyboards, Compose~n for ñ. Likewise, striking Compose, followed by O, and then C and this allows typing Compose^a, for ấ. There is no limit on combinations or sequence length, which only should respect the rules of mnemonics and ergonomics. For example, U+278C ➌ DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED SANS-SERIF DIGIT THREE might be inserted when the sequence is typed. This example is based on the use of @ for all circled characters, % after @ for all negative circled, the choice of % for negative can be made with respect to ergonomics on a U. S
11.
Algebra
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Algebra is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis. In its most general form, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols, as such, it includes everything from elementary equation solving to the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. The more basic parts of algebra are called elementary algebra, the abstract parts are called abstract algebra or modern algebra. Elementary algebra is generally considered to be essential for any study of mathematics, science, or engineering, as well as such applications as medicine, abstract algebra is a major area in advanced mathematics, studied primarily by professional mathematicians. Elementary algebra differs from arithmetic in the use of abstractions, such as using letters to stand for numbers that are unknown or allowed to take on many values. For example, in x +2 =5 the letter x is unknown, in E = mc2, the letters E and m are variables, and the letter c is a constant, the speed of light in a vacuum. Algebra gives methods for solving equations and expressing formulas that are easier than the older method of writing everything out in words. The word algebra is used in certain specialized ways. A special kind of object in abstract algebra is called an algebra. A mathematician who does research in algebra is called an algebraist, the word algebra comes from the Arabic الجبر from the title of the book Ilm al-jabr wal-muḳābala by Persian mathematician and astronomer al-Khwarizmi. The word entered the English language during the century, from either Spanish, Italian. It originally referred to the procedure of setting broken or dislocated bones. The mathematical meaning was first recorded in the sixteenth century, the word algebra has several related meanings in mathematics, as a single word or with qualifiers. As a single word without an article, algebra names a broad part of mathematics, as a single word with an article or in plural, an algebra or algebras denotes a specific mathematical structure, whose precise definition depends on the author. Usually the structure has an addition, multiplication, and a scalar multiplication, when some authors use the term algebra, they make a subset of the following additional assumptions, associative, commutative, unital, and/or finite-dimensional. In universal algebra, the word refers to a generalization of the above concept. With a qualifier, there is the distinction, Without an article, it means a part of algebra, such as linear algebra, elementary algebra. With an article, it means an instance of some abstract structure, like a Lie algebra, sometimes both meanings exist for the same qualifier, as in the sentence, Commutative algebra is the study of commutative rings, which are commutative algebras over the integers
12.
William Oughtred
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William Oughtred was an English mathematician and Anglican minister. Oughtred also introduced the × symbol for multiplication as well as the abbreviations sin, Oughtred was born at Eton in Buckinghamshire, and educated there and at Kings College, Cambridge, of which he became fellow. Being admitted to holy orders, he left the University of Cambridge about 1603, for a living at Shalford, he was presented in 1610 to the rectory of Albury, near Guildford in Surrey, where he settled. He married Christsgift Caryll, of the Caryll family of Tangley Hall at Wonersh, of which Lady Elizabeth Aungier, wife of Simon Caryll 1607-1619, was matriarch, about 1628 he was appointed by the Earl of Arundel to instruct his son in mathematics. He corresponded with some of the most eminent scholars of his time, including William Alabaster, Sir Charles Cavendish and he kept up regular contacts with Gresham College, where he knew Henry Briggs and Gunter. He offered free tuition to pupils, who included Richard Delamain. Seth Ward resided with Oughtred for six months to learn mathematics, and the physician Charles Scarburgh also stayed at Albury, John Wallis. Another Albury pupil was Robert Wood, who helped him get the Clavis through the press, the invention of the slide rule involved Oughtred in a priority dispute with Delamain. They also disagreed on pedagogy in mathematics, with Oughtred arguing that theory should precede practice and he remained rector until his death in 1660 at Albury, a month after the restoration of Charles II. Oughtred had an interest in alchemy and astrology, the testimony for his occult activities is quite slender, but there has been an accretion to his reputation based on his contemporaries. According to John Aubrey, he was not entirely sceptical about astrology, William Lilly, an eminent astrologer, claimed in his autobiography to have intervened on behalf of Oughtred to prevent his ejection by Parliament in 1646. In fact Oughtred was protected at this time by Bulstrode Whitelocke, Aubrey states that he was also defended by Sir Richard Onslow. It was used by George Wharton in publishing The Cabal of the Twelve Houses astrological by Morinus in 1659 and he expressed millenarian views to John Evelyn, as recorded in Evelyns Diary, entry for 28 August 1655. Oughtreds name is remembered in the Oughtred Society, a group formed in the United States in 1991 for collectors of slide rules and it produces the twice-yearly Journal of the Oughtred Society and holds meetings and auctions for its members. He published, among other works, Clavis Mathematicae, in 1631. It became a classic, reprinted in editions, and used by Wallis. It was not ambitious in scope, but an epitome aiming to represent current knowledge of algebra concisely, the book became popular around 15 years later, as mathematics took a greater role in higher education. Wallis wrote the introduction to his 1652 edition, and used it to publicise his skill as cryptographer, in another, Oughtred promoted the talents of Wren