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Multiprocessing

Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units within a single computer system. The term refers to the ability of a system to support more than one processor or the ability to allocate tasks between them. There are many variations on this basic theme, the definition of multiprocessing can vary with context as a function of how CPUs are defined. According to some on-line dictionaries, a multiprocessor is a computer system having two or more processing units each sharing main memory and peripherals, in order to process programs. A 2009 textbook defined multiprocessor system but noting that the processors may share "some or all of the system’s memory and I/O facilities". At the operating system level, multiprocessing is sometimes used to refer to the execution of multiple concurrent processes in a system, with each process running on a separate CPU or core, as opposed to a single process at any one instant; when used with this definition, multiprocessing is sometimes contrasted with multitasking, which may use just a single processor but switch it in time slices between tasks.

Multiprocessing however means true parallel execution of multiple processes using more than one processor. Multiprocessing doesn't mean that a single process or task uses more than one processor simultaneously. Other authors prefer to refer to the operating system techniques as multiprogramming and reserve the term multiprocessing for the hardware aspect of having more than one processor; the remainder of this article discusses multiprocessing only in this hardware sense. In Flynn's taxonomy, multiprocessors as defined above are MIMD machines; as the term "multiprocessor" refers to coupled systems in which all processors share memory, multiprocessors are not the entire class of MIMD machines, which contains message passing multicomputer systems. The first expression of the idea of multiprocessing was written by Luigi Federico Menabrea in 1842, about Charles Babbage's analytical engine: "the machine can be brought into play so as to give several results at the same time, which will abridge the whole amount of the processes."

In a multiprocessing system, all CPUs may be equal. A combination of hardware and operating system software design considerations determine the symmetry in a given system. For example, hardware or software considerations may require that only one particular CPU respond to all hardware interrupts, whereas all other work in the system may be distributed among CPUs. Multiprocessing systems are easier to design if such restrictions are imposed, but they tend to be less efficient than systems in which all CPUs are utilized. Systems that treat all CPUs are called symmetric multiprocessing systems. In systems where all CPUs are not equal, system resources may be divided in a number of ways, including asymmetric multiprocessing, non-uniform memory access multiprocessing, clustered multiprocessing. In a master/slave multiprocessor system, the master CPU is in control of the computer and the slave CPU performs assigned tasks; the CPUs can be different in terms of speed and architecture. Some of the CPUs can have share common bus, each can have a private bus, or they may be isolated except for a common communications pathway.

The CPUs can share common RAM and/or have private RAM that the other processor cannot access. The roles of master and slave can change from one CPU to another. An early example of a master/slave multiprocessor system is the Tandy/Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 16 desktop computer which came out in February 1982 and ran the multi-user/multi-tasking Xenix operating system, Microsoft's version of UNIX; the Model 16 has 3 microprocessors, an 8-bit Zilog Z80 CPU running at 4MHz, a 16-bit Motorola 68000 CPU running at 6MHz and an Intel 8021 in the keyboard. When the system was booted, the Z-80 was the master and the Xenix boot process initialized the slave 68000, transferred control to the 68000, whereupon the CPUs changed roles and the Z-80 became a slave processor, responsible for all I/O operations including disk, communications and network, as well as the keyboard and integrated monitor, while the operating system and applications ran on the 68000 CPU; the Z-80 could be used to do other tasks. The earlier TRS-80 Model II, released in 1979, could be considered a multiprocessor system as it had both a Z-80 CPU and an Intel 8021 microprocessor in the keyboard.

The 8021 made the Model II the first desktop computer system with a separate detachable lightweight keyboard connected with by a single thin flexible wire, the first keyboard to use a dedicated microprocessor, both attributes that would be copied years by Apple and IBM. In multiprocessing, the processors can be used to execute a single sequence of instructions in multiple contexts, multiple sequences of instructions in a single context, or multiple sequences of instruct

Duplicate (1998 film)

Duplicate is a 1998 Indian Hindi action comedy film directed by Mahesh Bhatt and stars Shahrukh Khan in a double role opposite Juhi Chawla and Sonali Bendre. The movie is a remake of the 1935 movie, it was produced by Dharma Productions and marks Khan's first of five collaborations with the production company. The film was released on 8 May 1998, performed moderately well at the box office. Bablu Chaudhary, a bubbly young man, is an aspiring chef, he meets the charming Sonia Kapoor, the hotel manager. They bond and Bablu falls in love with her. Meanwhile, Bablu's lookalike is a ruthless criminal who has escaped from jail to kill his partners, who have betrayed him. One day, when Bablu takes Sonia out for lunch, he gets arrested because the police think that Bablu is Manu. Bablu is able to prove his true identity, but not before Manu hears of his duplicate and decides to take his place by killing him. There is a lot of confusion about, who by all associated with the two men, including Sonia, Bablu's mother Bebe, Manu's girlfriend, Lily.

How these confusions resolve forms the crux of the story. Shahrukh Khan as Bablu Chaudhry / Manu Dada Juhi Chawla as Sonia Kapoor Mohnish Behl as Ravi Lamba Sonali Bendre as Lily Farida Jalal as Bablu's mother Tiku Talsania as Inspector R. K Thakur Sharat Saxena as Dhingra Gulshan Grover as Shalaku Kajol as Girl on the railway Vishwajeet Pradhan as Tony Kunal Vijaykar The songs featured in the film are composed by Anu Malik with lyrics penned by Javed Akhtar; the songs were rendered by Alka Yagnik, Kumar Sanu, Udit Narayan and Abhijeet. Duplicate grossed ₹17.39 crore in India and $1 million in other countries, for a worldwide total of ₹21.49 crore, against its ₹9.50 crore budget. It had a worldwide opening week of ₹9.44 crore. It is the 12th-highest-grossing film of 1998 worldwide, it earned a total of $1 million outside India. Overseas, it is the 3rd-highest-grossing film of 1998 behind Kuch Kuch Hota Hai and Dil Se.. which were Shah Rukh Khan starrers. 1999 Filmfare AwardsNominated Best Villain - Shah Rukh Khan Best Lyrics - Javed Akhtar for "Mere Mehboob Mere Sanam"Bollywood Movie Awards Duplicate on IMDb

Government Degree College, Doru

Government Degree College, Doru known as Degree College Dooru or GDC Dooru is a University of Kashmir affiliated non-autonomous degree college located in Dooru Shahabad in Anantnag district of Jammu and Kashmir. It is affiliated with University of Kashmir and is recognised by University Grants Commission India, under sections 2 and 12 of UGC, Act 1956; the College is located at Bragam, Shahabad, on Verinag-Anantnag road at a distance of about 22 km from district headquarter Anantnag in the Indian administrated state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is located at a distance of about 79 km from state summer capital Srinagar. Government of Jammu and Kashmir established the college during the Chief-Ministership of Mufti Mohammad Sayeed in March 2005 under the Prime Ministers Reconstruction Plan; the college offers bachelor's degrees in Science. Besides this it provides specialization in Computer subject in both Science and Arts. Bachelors in Arts Bachelors in Arts Bachelors in Science Bachelors in Science Bachelors in Computer Applications Bachelors in Science Bachelors in Commerce M.

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Robert Sherlaw Johnson

Robert Sherlaw Johnson, was a British composer and music scholar. Sherlaw Johnson was one of that group of post-war British musicians whose work reflected wider European interests in new ideas and aesthetics. While his work and influence were wide-ranging, he is noted for his advocacy and performance of the music of Olivier Messiaen. Sherlaw Johnson was born in Sunderland, he was educated at Gosforth Grammar School in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, at King's College, at the Royal Academy of Music, where he was the recipient of a Charles Black award. He used this to travel to Paris, where he studied piano with Jacques Février and composition with Nadia Boulanger, attended Olivier Messiaen's classes at the Conservatoire de Paris. In 1971 he was awarded the degree of DMus by the University of Leeds for a doctoral thesis on Messiaen's use of birdsong and in 1984 was elected to a Fellowship of the Royal Academy of Music, he received a DMus from Oxford in 1990 in recognition of his work as a composer. Sherlaw Johnson taught at the University of Leeds, Bradford Girls' Grammar School, the University of York and Oxford University, where he was music Fellow at Worcester College.

In 1985 he was visiting professor of composition at the Eastman School of Music, University of Rochester. Notable pupils include Stephen Oliver, Charles Bodman Rae, Caroline Rae, Rachel Portman and Robert Saxton. Sherlaw Johnson was to the enthusiastic campanologist, he died while ringing bells at the historic tower of south-west of Oxford. He married the painter Rachael Sherlaw Johnson in 1959, they had three sons. Sherlaw Johnson's time in Paris exerted its mark on his professional development, he came to be known for his recordings of Messiaen's piano and vocal music. The insight this gave him is evident in his monograph on the composer, which remains a standard English-language text on its subject; some of his own earlier compositions show the influence of Varèse and Boulez. His work subsequently moved in a more individual direction, but his continuing sympathy with the European musical avant garde is evident in his interest in serialism, fractal music and extended performance techniques; these interests can be seen in works such as Green Whispers of Gold and Praise of Heaven & Earth, for voice and tape.

He wrote and lectured on mathematics and music, founded the Electronic music Studio at Oxford University. Religion was another significant influence on Sherlaw Johnson's work. A convert to Roman Catholicism, he wrote a number of functional liturgical works. Several of these were for Spode Music Week, an annual Catholic music course which he directed for many years; the continuing influence of Sherlaw Johnson's geographical origins is evident in compositions, such as the Northumbrian Symphony and his opera, The Lambton Worm, that utilise material from the North-East of England. He gained much personal satisfaction from playing the Northumbrian pipes. Sherlaw Johnson's interest in bells and bell-inspired music is evident in some of his own compositions. Times obituary. Guardian obituary. Musical Times obituary. Entry for Sherlaw-Johnson on the Oxford University Press web site. Includes a catalogue of works and a discography

Ernest Gaudin

Ernest Philippe Gaudin was a professional golfer from Jersey. Gaudin had four brothers who were professional golfers, his older brothers Willie and Phil and younger brother Herbert. Gaudin's best season was 1910 when he tied for 8th place in the Open Championship when he carded rounds of 78-74-76-81=309, he was one of the runners-up in the Tooting Bec Cup. Gaudin has been joint leader in the Tooting Bec Cup after a first-round 74. Gaudin joined his brother Willie at Manchester Golf Club in about 1903, becoming an assistant professional. In 1906 Ernest moved south to Fulwell Golf Club in Twickenham. In 1907 he moved to Felixstowe Golf Club, to Worplesdon Golf Club in 1908 and to Tyneside Golf Club in 1911. Gaudin died of pneumonia in August 1911 in Ryton, County Durham, England—at the young age of just 28—soon after taking the position at Tyneside. Note: Gaudin only played in The Open Championship. DNP = Did not play WD = Withdrew "T" indicates a tie for a place Yellow background for top-10

Duncan Forbes of Culloden (died 1747)

Duncan Forbes of Culloden was a Scottish lawyer and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1721 to 1737. As Lord President and senior Scottish legal officer, he played a major role in helping the government suppress the 1745 Jacobite Rising. Duncan Forbes was born on 10 November 1685, in Culloden House near Inverness, second son of Duncan Forbes and his wife Mary Innes; the fifth of nine children, he had seven sisters. His elder brother, was 12 years older. Forbes was educated at the local grammar school before progressing to Marischal College, Aberdeen in 1699. After attending the University of Edinburgh in 1705, he completed his legal studies at Leyden University in the Netherlands, he returned home in 1707 and in October 1708 married Mary Rose, whose family owned nearby Kilravock Castle. Forbes inherited the Culloden estates when his elder brother died childless in 1734 and these passed to his son John; the 1707 Union combined Scotland and England into the Kingdom of Great Britain but the two countries retained separate legal systems.

Reconciling the two led to an increase in legal work. Like their father, the Forbes and their associates were political allies of John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll. Other members of this circle included Duncan's brother-in-law Hugh Rose and his cousin George, who from 1741 to 1747 was MP for Ayr Burghs, another constituency controlled by Argyll. In 1714, Forbes was appointed Sheriff-depute for Edinburghshire and Deputy lieutenant for Inverness-shire. During the Jacobite Rising of 1715, his patron Argyll was government commander in Scotland, they joined forces with Lord Lovat and captured Inverness, just before the Rising ended at the Battle of Sheriffmuir. In recognition of his services, Forbes was made Depute-Advocate in March 1716; this required him to prosecute Jacobite prisoners, many of whom had been moved to Carlisle for trial. Forbes considered this unfair, as it was contrary to the accepted practice they be tried in the counties where the actions were alleged to have taken place, he collected money for their support and wrote to Sir Robert Walpole recommending clemency, which led to accusations he was pro-Jacobite.

This did not affect his career and in 1721, he became MP for Ayr Burghs. Forbes was appointed Lord Advocate in 1725, an office increased in importance by the suspension and abolition of the position of Secretary of State, he was immediately involved in the 1725 malt tax riots, caused by protests against a new tax that increased the price of beer. These affected many cities, the largest in Glasgow, where rioters sacked the house of Daniel Campbell, MP for Glasgow or Clyde Burghs, who voted for the tax in Parliament. Forbes ordered the arrest of several Glasgow magistrates suspected of inciting the unrest. Following the 1737 Porteous Riots in Edinburgh, a bill was introduced in Parliament imposing penalties on the city, opposed by Argyll and Scots MPs in the Commons, Forbes included, his speeches of 16 May and 9 June on this topic were his last in Parliament. The failure of the 1719 Rising meant many Jacobites viewed the Stuart cause as hopeless and sought to return home. Pardoning them worked for the government, since it was clear the Highlands could not be governed without the co-operation of the clan chiefs.

In addition, sales of confiscated property were either delayed by legal arguments or reduced by fictitious debts, with former rebels aided in this process by their loyalist friends and neighbours. This built links of obligation and friendship between the two sides and explains the bitterness displayed after 1745 towards those like Lord George Murray, pardoned for their roles in 1715 and 1719. Although many Scots remained opposed to the 1707 Union and the malt tax and Porteous riots showed a lack of sensitivity by the London government, these were minor issues. In March 1743, the Highland-recruited 42nd Regiment or Black Watch was posted to Flanders to fight in the War of the Austrian Succession, despite Forbes warning this was contrary to an understanding their service was restricted to Scotland. A short-lived mutiny was suppressed and the regiment gained an impressive fighting record during the next few years. By 1737, the exiled Stuart claimant James Francis Edward was reportedly'living in Rome, having abandoned all hope of a restoration.'

This changed in 1740 after the war placed France on opposing sides. As demonstrated in 1708 and 1719, threatening an invasion was far more cost effective than an actual one and the plan was abandoned after the French fleet was damaged by winter storms in March. In August 1744, Prince Charles met Jacobite agent Murray of Broughton i