1.
Wing configuration
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Fixed-wing aircraft, popularly called aeroplanes, airplanes, or just planes, may be built with many wing configurations. This page provides a breakdown of types, allowing a full description of any wing configuration. For example, the Supermarine Spitfire wing may be classified as a low wing cantilever monoplane with straight elliptical wings of moderate aspect ratio. All the configurations described have flown on full-size aircraft, except as noted, some variants may be duplicated under more than one heading, due to their complex nature. This is particularly so for variable geometry and combined wing types, note on terminology, Most fixed-wing aircraft have left hand and right hand wings in a symmetrical arrangement. Strictly, such a pair of wings is called a plane or just plane. However, in situations it is common to refer to a plane as a wing. Where the meaning is clear, this article follows common usage, fixed-wing aircraft can have different numbers of wings, Monoplane, one wing plane. Since the 1930s most aeroplanes have been monoplanes, the wing may be mounted at various positions relative to the fuselage, Low wing, mounted near or below the bottom of the fuselage. Mid wing, mounted approximately halfway up the fuselage, shoulder wing, mounted on the upper part or shoulder of the fuselage, slightly below the top of the fuselage. A shoulder wing is considered a subtype of high wing. High wing, mounted on the upper fuselage, when contrasted to the shoulder wing, applies to a wing mounted on a projection above the top of the main fuselage. Parasol wing, raised clear above the top of the fuselage, typically by cabane struts, a fixed-wing aircraft may have more than one wing plane, stacked one above another, Biplane, two wing planes of similar size, stacked one above the other. The most common configuration until the 1930s, when the took over. The Wright Flyer I was a biplane, unequal-span biplane, a biplane in which one wing is shorter than the other, as on the Curtiss JN-4 Jenny of the First World War. Sesquiplane, literally one-and-a-half planes is a type of biplane in which the wing is significantly smaller than the upper wing. The Nieuport 17 of World War I was notably successful, inverted sesquiplane, has a significantly smaller upper wing. The Fiat CR.1 was in production for many years, triplane, three planes stacked one above another
2.
Graphical projection
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Graphical projection is a protocol, used in technical drawing, by which an image of a three-dimensional object is projected onto a planar surface without the aid of numerical calculation. The projection is achieved by the use of imaginary projectors, the projected, mental image becomes the technician’s vision of the desired, finished picture. By following the protocol the technician may produce the picture on a planar surface such as drawing paper. The protocols provide a uniform imaging procedure among people trained in technical graphics, the orthographic projection is derived from the principles of descriptive geometry and is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional object. It is the type of choice for working drawings. Within parallel projection there is a known as Pictorials. Pictorials show an image of an object as viewed from a direction in order to reveal all three directions of space in one picture. Parallel projection pictorial instrument drawings are used to approximate graphical perspective projections. Because pictorial projections inherently have this distortion, in the instrument drawing of pictorials, great liberties may then be taken for economy of effort, parallel projection pictorials rely on the technique of axonometric projection. Axonometric projection is a type of projection used to create a pictorial drawing of an object. There are three types of axonometric projection, isometric, dimetric, and trimetric projection. In isometric pictorials, the direction of viewing is such that the three axes of space appear equally foreshortened, and there is an angle of 120° between them. As the distortion caused by foreshortening is uniform the proportionality of all sides and lengths are preserved, and this enables measurements to be read or taken directly from the drawing. Approximations are common in dimetric drawings, in trimetric pictorials, the direction of viewing is such that all of the three axes of space appear unequally foreshortened. The scale along each of the three axes and the angles among them are determined separately as dictated by the angle of viewing, approximations in Trimetric drawings are common. In oblique projections the parallel projection rays are not perpendicular to the plane as with orthographic projection. In both orthographic and oblique projection, parallel lines in space appear parallel on the projected image, because of its simplicity, oblique projection is used exclusively for pictorial purposes rather than for formal, working drawings. In an oblique pictorial drawing, the angles among the axes as well as the foreshortening factors are arbitrary
3.
Axonometric projection
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There are three main types of axonometric projection, isometric, dimetric, and trimetric projection. Axonometric means to measure along axes, axonometric projection shows an image of an object as viewed from a skew direction in order to reveal more than one side in the same picture. With axonometric projections the scale of distant features is the same as for near features, so such pictures will look distorted and this distortion is especially evident if the object to view is mostly composed of rectangular features. Despite this limitation, axonometric projection can be useful for purposes of illustration, in German literature, oblique projection is also considered an axonometric view, per Pohlkes theorem, the fundamental theorem of axonometry. In some English literature, axonometric projection is considered a sub-class of orthographic projection, farish published his ideas in the 1822 paper On Isometrical Perspective, in which he recognized the need for accurate technical working drawings free of optical distortion. This would lead him to formulate isometry, isometry means equal measures because the same scale is used for height, width, and depth. S. The popular acceptance of axonometry came in the 1920s, when modernist architects from the Bauhaus, De Stijl architects like Theo van Doesburg used axonometry for their architectural designs, which caused a sensation when exhibited in Paris in 1923. Since the 1920s axonometry, or parallel perspective, has provided an important graphic technique for artists, architects, like linear perspective, axonometry helps depict 3D space on the 2D picture plane. It usually comes as a feature of CAD systems and other visual computing tools. According to Jan Krikke axonometry originated in China and its function in Chinese art was similar to linear perspective in European art. Axonometry, and the grammar that goes with it, has taken on a new significance with the advent of visual computing. The three types of projection are isometric projection, dimetric projection, and trimetric projection, depending on the exact angle at which the view deviates from the orthogonal. Typically in axonometric drawing, one axis of space is shown as the vertical, as the distortion caused by foreshortening is uniform the proportionality of all sides and lengths are preserved, and the axes share a common scale. This enables measurements to be read or taken directly from the drawing, another advantage is that 120° angles are more easily constructed using only a compass and straightedge. In trimetric projection, the direction of viewing is such that all of the three axes of space appear unequally foreshortened, the scale along each of the three axes and the angles among them are determined separately as dictated by the angle of viewing. Approximations are common in dimetric and trimetric drawings, as with all types of parallel projection, objects drawn with axonometric projection do not appear larger or smaller as they extend closer to or away from the viewer. It also can result in situations where depth and altitude are difficult to gauge. In this isometric drawing, the sphere is two units higher than the red one
4.
Isometric projection
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Isometric projection is a method for visually representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions in technical and engineering drawings. It is a projection in which the three coordinate axes appear equally foreshortened and the angle between any two of them is 120 degrees. The term isometric comes from the Greek for equal measure, reflecting that the scale along each axis of the projection is the same. An isometric view of an object can be obtained by choosing the viewing direction such that the angles between the projections of the x, y, and z axes are all the same, or 120°. For example, with a cube, this is done by first looking straight towards one face, next, the cube is rotated ±45° about the vertical axis, followed by a rotation of approximately ±35. 264° about the horizontal axis. Note that with the cube the perimeter of the resulting 2D drawing is a regular hexagon, all the black lines have equal length. Isometric graph paper can be placed under a piece of drawing paper to help achieve the effect without calculation. In a similar way, a view can be obtained in a 3D scene. Starting with the camera aligned parallel to the floor and aligned to the axes, it is first rotated vertically by about 35. 264° as above. Another way isometric projection can be visualized is by considering a view within a cubical room starting in a corner and looking towards the opposite. The x-axis extends diagonally down and right, the y-axis extends diagonally down and left, depth is also shown by height on the image. Lines drawn along the axes are at 120° to one another, the term isometric is often mistakenly used to refer to axonometric projections generally. From the two angles needed for a projection, the value of the second may seem counterintuitive. Let’s first imagine a cube with sides of length 2, and we can calculate the length of the line from its center to the middle of any edge as √2 using Pythagoras theorem. By rotating the cube by 45° on the x-axis, the point will become as depicted in the diagram. The second rotation aims to bring the point on the positive z-axis. There are eight different orientations to obtain a view, depending into which octant the viewer looks. 264°. As explained above, this is a rotation around the axis by β
5.
Oblique projection
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This article discusses the imaging of 3D objects. For an abstract mathematical discussion, see Projection, oblique projection is a simple type of technical drawing of graphical projection used for producing two-dimensional images of three-dimensional objects. The objects are not in perspective, so they do not correspond to any view of an object that can be obtained in practice, oblique projection is commonly used in technical drawing. The cavalier projection was used by French military artists in the 18th century to depict fortifications, oblique projection was used almost universally by Chinese artists from the first or second centuries to the 18th century, especially when depicting rectilinear objects such as houses. Oblique projection is a type of projection, it projects an image by intersecting parallel rays from the three-dimensional source object with the drawing surface. In both oblique projection and orthographic projection, parallel lines of the source object produce parallel lines in the projected image, the projectors in oblique projection intersect the projection plane at an oblique angle to produce the projected image, as opposed to the perpendicular angle used in orthographic projection. Mathematically, the projection of the point on the xy-plane gives. The constants a and b uniquely specify a parallel projection, when a = b =0, the projection is said to be orthographic or orthogonal. The constants a and b are not necessarily less than 1, in a general oblique projection, spheres of the space are projected as ellipses on the drawing plane, and not as circles as you would expect them from an orthogonal projection. Oblique drawing is also the crudest 3D drawing method but the easiest to master, oblique is not really a 3D system but a two-dimensional view of an object with forced depth. One way to using an oblique view is to draw the side of the object you are looking at in two dimensions, i. e. Even with this depth, oblique drawings look very unconvincing to the eye. For this reason oblique is rarely used by designers and engineers. In an oblique pictorial drawing, the angles displayed among the axis, more precisely, any given set of three coplanar segments originating from the same point may be construed as forming some oblique perspective of three sides of a cube. This result is known as Pohlkes theorem, from the German mathematician Pohlke, the resulting distortions make the technique unsuitable for formal, working drawings. Nevertheless, the distortions are partially overcome by aligning one plane of the parallel to the plane of projection. Doing so creates a true image of the chosen plane. Cavalier projection is the name of such a projection, where the length along the z axis remains unscaled, cabinet projection, popular in furniture illustrations, is an example of such a technique, wherein the receding axis is scaled to half-size
6.
Perspective (graphical)
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Perspective in the graphic arts is an approximate representation, on a flat surface, of an image as it is seen by the eye. If viewed from the spot as the windowpane was painted. Each painted object in the scene is thus a flat, scaled down version of the object on the side of the window. All perspective drawings assume the viewer is a distance away from the drawing. Objects are scaled relative to that viewer, an object is often not scaled evenly, a circle often appears as an ellipse and a square can appear as a trapezoid. This distortion is referred to as foreshortening, Perspective drawings have a horizon line, which is often implied. This line, directly opposite the viewers eye, represents objects infinitely far away and they have shrunk, in the distance, to the infinitesimal thickness of a line. It is analogous to the Earths horizon, any perspective representation of a scene that includes parallel lines has one or more vanishing points in a perspective drawing. A one-point perspective drawing means that the drawing has a vanishing point, usually directly opposite the viewers eye. All lines parallel with the line of sight recede to the horizon towards this vanishing point. This is the standard receding railroad tracks phenomenon, a two-point drawing would have lines parallel to two different angles. Any number of vanishing points are possible in a drawing, one for each set of lines that are at an angle relative to the plane of the drawing. Perspectives consisting of parallel lines are observed most often when drawing architecture. In contrast, natural scenes often do not have any sets of parallel lines, the only method to indicate the relative position of elements in the composition was by overlapping, of which much use is made in works like the Parthenon Marbles. Chinese artists made use of perspective from the first or second century until the 18th century. It is not certain how they came to use the technique, some authorities suggest that the Chinese acquired the technique from India, oblique projection is also seen in Japanese art, such as in the Ukiyo-e paintings of Torii Kiyonaga. This was detailed within Aristotles Poetics as skenographia, using flat panels on a stage to give the illusion of depth, the philosophers Anaxagoras and Democritus worked out geometric theories of perspective for use with skenographia. Alcibiades had paintings in his house designed using skenographia, so this art was not confined merely to the stage, Euclids Optics introduced a mathematical theory of perspective, but there is some debate over the extent to which Euclids perspective coincides with the modern mathematical definition
7.
Curvilinear perspective
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Curvilinear perspective is a graphical projection used to draw 3D objects on 2D surfaces. Earlier, less mathematically precise versions can be seen in the work of the miniaturist Jean Fouquet, leonardo da Vinci in a lost notebook spoke of curved perspective lines. Examples of approximated five-point perspective can also be found in the self-portrait of the mannerist painter Parmigianino seen through a shaving mirror, another example would be the curved mirror in Arnolfinis Wedding by the Flemish painter Jan van Eyck. The book Vanishing Point, Perspective for Comics from the Ground Up by Jason Cheeseman-Meyer teaches five, in 1959, Flocon had acquired a copy of Grafiek en tekeningen by M. C. Escher who strongly impressed him with his use of bent and curved perspective and they started a long correspondence, in which Escher called Flocon a kindred spirit. This technique can, like two-point perspective, use a line as a horizon line. The ellipse has the property that its axis is a diameter of the bounding circle. Graphical projection Perspective projection distortion linear perspective Mathematics and art M. C, Escher Curvilinear coordinates Drawing Comics - 5-Point Perspective House of Stairs by M. C
8.
2.5D
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By contrast, games using 3D computer graphics without such restrictions are said to use true 3D. Common in video games, these projections have also been useful in geographic visualization to help understand visual-cognitive spatial representations or 3D visualization, lines perpendicular to the plane become points, lines parallel to the plane have true length, and lines inclined to the plane are foreshortened. They are popular camera perspectives among 2D video games, most commonly those released for 16-bit or earlier and handheld consoles, as well as in later strategy and role-playing video games. The advantage of these perspectives are that they combine the visibility and mobility of a game with the character recognizability of a side-scrolling game. There are three divisions of axonometric projection, isometric, dimetric, and trimetric. The most common of these types in engineering drawing is isometric projection. This projection is tilted so that all three axes create equal angles at intervals of 120 degrees, the result is that all three axes are equally foreshortened. In video games, a form of projection with a 2,1 pixel ratio is more common due to the problems of anti-aliasing. In oblique projection typically all three axes are shown unforeshortened, all lines parallel to the axes are drawn to scale, and diagonals and curved lines are distorted. One tell-tale sign of oblique projection is that the face pointed toward the camera retains its right angles with respect to the image plane, two examples of oblique projection are Ultima VII, The Black Gate and Paperboy. Examples of axonometric projection include SimCity 2000, and the role-playing games Diablo, the name refers to the fact that objects are seen as if drawn on a billboard. This technique was used in early 1990s video games when consoles did not have the hardware power to render fully 3D objects. This is also known as a backdrop and this can be used to good effect for a significant performance boost when the geometry is sufficiently distant that it can be seamlessly replaced with a 2D sprite. In games, this technique is most frequently applied to such as particles. A pioneer in the use of technique was the game Jurassic Park. It has since become mainstream, and is found in games such as Rome, Total War. Other examples include early first-person shooters like Wolfenstein 3D, Doom, Hexen and Duke Nukem 3D as well as racing games like Carmageddon, skyboxes and skydomes are methods used to easily create a background to make a game level look bigger than it really is. A skydome employs the concept but uses a sphere or hemisphere instead of a cube
9.
Bird's-eye view
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A birds-eye view is an elevated view of an object from above, with a perspective as though the observer were a bird, often used in the making of blueprints, floor plans and maps. It can be a photograph, but also a drawing. Before manned flight was common, the birds eye was used to distinguish views drawn from direct observation at high locations. Birds eye views as a genre have existed since classical times, the last great flourishing of them was in the mid-to-late 19th century, when birds eye view prints were popular in the United States and Europe. The terms aerial view and aerial viewpoint are also sometimes used synonymous with birds-eye view, the term aerial view can refer to any view from a great height, even at a wide angle, as for example when looking sideways from an airplane window or from a mountain top. Overhead view is fairly synonymous with birds-eye view but tends to imply a less lofty vantage point than the latter term, for example, in computer and video games, an overhead view of a character or situation often places the vantage point only a few feet above human height. Recent technological and networking developments have made satellite images more accessible, microsoft Bing Maps offers direct overhead satellite photos of the entire planet but also offers a feature named Birds eye view in some locations. The Birds Eye photos are angled at 40 degrees rather than being straight down, satellite imaging programs and photos have been described as offering a viewer the opportunity to fly over and observe the world from this specific angle. In filmmaking and video production, a birds-eye shot refers to a shot looking directly down on the subject, the perspective is very foreshortened, making the subject appear short and squat. This shot can be used to give an overall establishing shot of a scene and these shots are normally used for battle scenes or establishing where the character is. It is shot by lifting the camera up by hands or by hanging it off something strong enough to support it, when a scene needs a large area shot, it is a crane shot. A distinction is drawn between a birds-eye view and a birds-flight view, or view-plan in isometrical projection. The technique was popular among local surveyors and cartographers of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries
10.
Cross section (geometry)
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In geometry and science, a cross section is the intersection of a body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional space. Cutting an object into slices creates many parallel cross sections, conic sections – circles, ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas – are formed by cross-sections of a cone at various different angles, as seen in the diagram at left. Any planar cross-section passing through the center of an ellipsoid forms an ellipse on its surface, a cross-section of a cylinder is a circle if the cross-section is parallel to the cylinders base, or an ellipse with non-zero eccentricity if it is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the base. If the cross-section is perpendicular to the base it consists of two line segments unless it is just tangent to the cylinder, in which case it is a single line segment. A cross section of a polyhedron is a polygon, if instead the cross section is taken for a fixed value of the density, the result is an iso-density contour. For the normal distribution, these contours are ellipses, a cross section can be used to visualize the partial derivative of a function with respect to one of its arguments, as shown at left. In economics, a function f specifies the output that can be produced by various quantities x and y of inputs, typically labor. The production function of a firm or a society can be plotted in three-dimensional space, also in economics, a cardinal or ordinal utility function u gives the degree of satisfaction of a consumer obtained by consuming quantities w and v of two goods. Cross sections are used in anatomy to illustrate the inner structure of an organ. A cross section of a trunk, as shown at left, reveals growth rings that can be used to find the age of the tree. Cavalieris principle states that solids with corresponding sections of equal areas have equal volumes. The cross-sectional area of an object when viewed from an angle is the total area of the orthographic projection of the object from that angle. For example, a cylinder of height h and radius r has A ′ = π r 2 when viewed along its central axis, a sphere of radius r has A ′ = π r 2 when viewed from any angle. For a convex body, each ray through the object from the viewers perspective crosses just two surfaces, descriptive geometry Exploded view drawing Graphical projection Plans
11.
Cutaway drawing
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According to Diepstraten et al. the purpose of a cutaway drawing is to allow the viewer to have a look into an otherwise solid opaque object. Instead of letting the inner object shine through the surrounding surface and this produces a visual appearance as if someone had cutout a piece of the object or sliced it into parts. Cutaway illustrations avoid ambiguities with respect to spatial ordering, provide a sharp contrast between foreground and background objects, and facilitate an understanding of spatial ordering. The goal of this drawings in studies can be to identify common patterns for particular vehicle classes. Thus, the accuracy of most of these drawings, while not 100 percent, is high enough for this purpose. The technique is used extensively in computer-aided design, see first image and it has also been incorporated into the user interface of some video games. In The Sims, for instance, users can select through a control panel whether to view the house they are building with no walls, cutaway walls, the cutaway view and the exploded view were minor graphic inventions of the Renaissance that also clarified pictorial representation. This cutaway view originates in the fifteenth century notebooks of Marino Taccola. In the 16th century cutaway views in definite form were used in Georgius Agricolas mining book De Re Metallica to illustrate underground operations. It shows the many used in mining, such as the machine for lifting men and material into and out of a mine shaft. The term Cutaway drawing was already in use in the 19th century but and these factors, according to Diepstraten et al. breakaway, a cutaway realized by a single hole in the outside of the object. Some more examples of cutaway drawings, from products and systems to architectural building, similar types of technical drawings Cross-section Exploded view drawing Perspective
12.
Exploded-view drawing
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An exploded view drawing is a diagram, picture, schematic or technical drawing of an object, that shows the relationship or order of assembly of various parts. It shows the components of an object slightly separated by distance, the exploded view drawing is used in parts catalogs, assembly and maintenance manuals and other instructional material. Usually, the projection of a view is normally shown from above. It is slightly from above and shown from the side of the drawing in diagonal. An exploded view drawing is a type of drawing, that shows the assembly of mechanical or other parts. It shows all parts of the assembly and how they fit together, in mechanical systems usually the component closest to the center are assembled first, or is the main part in which the other parts get assembled. This drawing can help to represent the disassembly of parts. Exploded diagrams are common in descriptive manuals showing parts placement, or parts contained in an assembly or sub-assembly, usually such diagrams have the part identification number and a label indicating which part fills the particular position in the diagram. Many spreadsheet applications can automatically create exploded diagrams, such as exploded pie charts, in patent drawings in an exploded views the separated parts should be embraced by a bracket, to show the relationship or order of assembly of various parts are permissible, see image. When an exploded view is shown in a figure that is on the sheet as another figure. Exploded views can also be used in drawing, for example in the presentation of landscape design. An exploded view can create an image in which the elements are flying through the air above the architectural plan, the locations can be shadowed or dotted in the siteplan of the elements. Together with the view the exploded view was among the many graphic inventions of the Renaissance. The exploded view can be traced back to the fifteenth century notebooks of Marino Taccola. One of the first clearer examples of a view was created by Leonardo in his design drawing of a reciprocating motion machine. Leonardo applied this method of presentation in several studies, including those on human anatomy. May also show the sequence of assembling or disassembling the detail parts
13.
Fisheye lens
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A fisheye lens is an ultra wide-angle lens that produces strong visual distortion intended to create a wide panoramic or hemispherical image. The term fisheye was coined in 1906 by American physicist and inventor Robert W. Wood based on how a fish would see an ultrawide hemispherical view from beneath the water. Their first practical use was in the 1920s for use in meteorology to study cloud formation giving them the name whole-sky lenses, the angle of view of a fisheye lens is usually between 100 and 180 degrees while the focal lengths depend on the film format they are designed for. Mass-produced fisheye lenses for photography first appeared in the early 1960s and are used for their unique. For the popular 35 mm film format, typical lengths of fisheye lenses are between 8 mm and 10 mm for circular images, and 15–16 mm for full-frame images. For digital cameras using smaller electronic imagers such as 6.4 mm and 8.5 mm format CCD or CMOS sensors, the focal length of miniature fisheye lenses can be as short as 1 to 2 mm. These types of lenses also have other applications such as re-projecting images filmed through a lens, or created via computer generated graphics. Fisheye lenses are used for scientific photography such as recording of aurora and meteors. They are also used as peephole door viewers to give the user a wide field of view. In a circular lens, the image circle is inscribed in the film or sensor area. Further, different fisheye lenses distort images differently, and the manner of distortion is referred to as their mapping function, a common type for consumer use is equisolid angle. Although there are digital fisheye effects available both in-camera and as computer software they cant extend the angle of view of the images to the very large one of a true fisheye lens. The first types of lenses to be developed were circular fisheye — lenses which took in a 180° hemisphere. Some circular fisheyes were available in orthographic projection models for scientific applications and these have a 180° vertical angle of view, and the horizontal and diagonal angle of view are also 180°. Most circular fisheye lenses cover a smaller circle than rectilinear lenses. The first full-frame fisheye lens to be mass-produced was a 16 mm lens made by Nikon in the early 1970s, Digital cameras with APS-C sized sensors require a 10.5 mm lens to get the same effect as a 16 mm lens on a camera with full-frame sensor. Sigma currently makes a 4. 5mm fisheye lens that captures a 180-degree field of view on a crop body, sunex also makes a 5. 6mm fisheye lens that captures a circular 185-degree field of view on a 1. 5x Nikon and 1. 6x Canon DSLR cameras. Nikon produced a 6 mm circular fisheye lens that was designed for an expedition to Antarctica
14.
Panorama
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A panorama is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model. The word was coined in the 18th century by the English painter Robert Barker to describe his panoramic paintings of Edinburgh. The motion-picture term panning is derived from panorama, a panoramic view is also purposed for multi-media, cross-scale applications to an outline overview along and across repositories. This so-called cognitive panorama is a view over, and a combination of. The device of the panorama existed in painting, particularly in murals, as early as 20 A. D. in those found in Pompeii, cartographic experiments during the Enlightenment era preceded European panorama painting and contributed to a formative impulse toward panoramic vision and depiction. In the mid-19th century, panoramic paintings and models became a popular way to represent landscapes, topographic views. Audiences of Europe in this period were thrilled by the aspect of illusion, immersed in a winding 360 degree panorama, the panorama was a 360-degree visual medium patented under the title Apparatus for Exhibiting Pictures by the artist Robert Barker in 1787. The earliest that the word appeared in print was on June 11,1791 in the British newspaper The Morning Chronicle. The inaugural exhibition, a View of Edinburgh, was first shown in that city in 1788, by 1793, Barker had built The Panorama rotunda at the center of Londons entertainment district in Leicester Square, where it remained until closed in 1863. Large scale installations enhance the illusion for an audience of being surrounded with a real landscape, the Bourbaki Panorama in Lucerne, Switzerland was created by Edouard Castres in 1881. The painting measures about 10 metres in height with a circumference of 112 meters, in the United States of America is the Atlanta Cyclorama, depicting the Civil War Battle of Atlanta. It was first displayed in 1887, and is 42 feet high by 358 feet circumference, also on a gigantic scale, and still extant, is the Racławice Panorama located in Wrocław, Poland, which measures 15 x 120 metres. In addition to historical examples, there have been panoramas painted and installed in modern times, prominent among these is the Velaslavasay Panorama in Los Angeles. Panoramic photography soon came to painting as the most common method for creating wide views. Not long after the introduction of the Daguerreotype in 1839, photographers began assembling multiple images of a view into a wide image. Pinhole cameras of a variety of constructions can be used to make panoramic images and this generates an egg-shaped image with more than 180° view. They could run autonomously with silent synchronization pulses to control projector advance and fades, precisely overlapping slides placed in slide mounts with soft-edge density masks would merge seamlessly on the screen to create the panorama. Cutting and dissolving between sequential images generated animation effects in the panorama format, digital photography of the late twentieth century greatly simplified this assembly process, which is now known as image stitching
15.
Zoom lens
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A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements for which the focal length can be varied, as opposed to a fixed focal length lens. A true zoom lens, also called a lens, is one that maintains focus when its focal length changes. A lens that loses focus during zooming is more properly called a varifocal lens, despite being marketed as zoom lenses, virtually all consumer lenses with variable focal lengths use varifocal design. The convenience of variable focal length comes at the cost of complexity - and some compromises on image quality, weight, dimensions, aperture, autofocus performance, and cost. For example, all zoom lenses suffer from at least slight, if not considerable, loss of resolution at their maximum aperture. This effect is evident in the corners of the image, when displayed in a format or high resolution. The greater the range of length a zoom lens offers. Zoom lenses are described by the ratio of their longest to shortest focal lengths. For example, a lens with focal lengths ranging from 100 mm to 400 mm may be described as a 4,1 or 4× zoom. This ratio can be as high as 300× in professional television cameras, as of 2009, photographic zoom lenses beyond about 3× cannot generally produce imaging quality on par with prime lenses. Constant fast aperture zooms are typically restricted to this zoom range, quality degradation is less perceptible when recording moving images at low resolution, which is why professional video and TV lenses are able to feature high zoom ratios. Digital photography can also accommodate algorithms that compensate for optical flaws, some photographic zoom lenses are long-focus lenses, with focal lengths longer than a normal lens, some are wide-angle lenses, and others cover a range from wide-angle to long-focus. Lenses in the group of zoom lenses, sometimes referred to as normal zooms, have displaced the fixed focal length lens as the popular one-lens selection on many contemporary cameras. The markings on these lenses usually say W and T for Wide, Telephoto is designated because the longer focal length supplied by the negative diverging lens is longer than the overall lens assembly. Some digital cameras allow cropping and enlarging of a captured image and this is commonly known as digital zoom and produces an image of lower optical resolution than optical zoom. Exactly the same effect can be obtained by using image processing software on a computer to crop the digital image and enlarge the cropped area. Many digital cameras have both, combining them by first using the optical, then the digital zoom, Zoom and superzoom lenses are commonly used with still, video, motion picture cameras, projectors, some binoculars, microscopes, telescopes, telescopic sights, and other optical instruments. In addition, the part of a zoom lens can be used as a telescope of variable magnification to make an adjustable beam expander
16.
Anamorphosis
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Anamorphosis is a distorted projection or perspective requiring the viewer to use special devices or occupy a specific vantage point to reconstitute the image. The word anamorphosis is derived from the Greek prefix ana‑, meaning back or again, an optical anamorphism is the visualization of a mathematical operation called an affine transformation. There are two types of anamorphosis, perspective and mirror. More-complex anamorphoses can be devised using distorted lenses, mirrors, or other optical transformations, examples of perspectival anamorphosis date to the early Renaissance. Examples of mirror anamorphosis were first seen in the late Renaissance, the deformed image is painted on a plane surface surrounding the mirror. By looking into the mirror, a viewer can see the image undeformed, leonardos Eye is the earliest known definitive example of perspective anamorphosis in modern times. The prehistoric cave paintings at Lascaux may also use this technique, Hans Holbein the Younger is well known for incorporating an oblique anamorphic transformation into his painting The Ambassadors. In this artwork, a distorted shape lies diagonally across the bottom of the frame, viewing this from an acute angle transforms it into the plastic image of a human skull, a symbolic memento mori. During the seventeenth century, Baroque trompe loeil murals often used anamorphism to combine actual architectural elements with illusory painted elements, when a visitor views the art work from a specific location, the architecture blends with the decorative painting. The dome and vault of the Church of St. Ignazio in Rome, painted by Andrea Pozzo, due to neighboring monks complaining about blocked light, Pozzo was commissioned to paint the ceiling to look like the inside of a dome, instead of building a real dome. As the ceiling is flat, there is one spot where the illusion is perfect. Mirror anamorphosis emerged early in the 17th century in Italy and China and it remains uncertain whether Jesuit missionaries imported or exported the technique. Anamorphosis could be used to conceal images for privacy or personal safety, a secret portrait of Bonnie Prince Charlie is painted in a distorted manner on a tray and can only be recognized when a polished cylinder is placed in the correct position. To possess such an image would have seen as treason in the aftermath of the 1746 Battle of Culloden. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, anamorphic images had come to be used more as childrens games than fine art, in the twentieth century, some artists wanted to renew the technique of anamorphosis. Marcel Duchamp was interested in anamorphosis, and some of his installations are visual paraphrases of anamorphoses, Jan Dibbets conceptual works, the so-called perspective corrections are examples of linear anamorphoses. In the late century, mirror anamorphosis was revived as childrens toys. Beginning in 1967, Dutch artist Jan Dibbets based a series of photographic work titled Perspective Corrections on the distortion of reality through perspective anamorphosis
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Computer graphics
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Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers. Usually, the term refers to computer-generated image data created with help from specialized hardware and software. It is a vast and recent area in computer science, the phrase was coined in 1960, by computer graphics researchers Verne Hudson and William Fetter of Boeing. It is often abbreviated as CG, though sometimes referred to as CGI. The overall methodology depends heavily on the sciences of geometry, optics. Computer graphics is responsible for displaying art and image data effectively and meaningfully to the user and it is also used for processing image data received from the physical world. Computer graphic development has had a significant impact on many types of media and has revolutionized animation, movies, advertising, video games, the term computer graphics has been used a broad sense to describe almost everything on computers that is not text or sound. Such imagery is found in and on television, newspapers, weather reports, a well-constructed graph can present complex statistics in a form that is easier to understand and interpret. In the media such graphs are used to illustrate papers, reports, thesis, many tools have been developed to visualize data. Computer generated imagery can be categorized into different types, two dimensional, three dimensional, and animated graphics. As technology has improved, 3D computer graphics have become more common, Computer graphics has emerged as a sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content. Screens could display art since the Lumiere brothers use of mattes to create effects for the earliest films dating from 1895. New kinds of displays were needed to process the wealth of information resulting from such projects, early projects like the Whirlwind and SAGE Projects introduced the CRT as a viable display and interaction interface and introduced the light pen as an input device. Douglas T. Ross of the Whirlwind SAGE system performed an experiment in 1954 in which a small program he wrote captured the movement of his finger. Electronics pioneer Hewlett-Packard went public in 1957 after incorporating the decade prior, and established ties with Stanford University through its founders. This began the transformation of the southern San Francisco Bay Area into the worlds leading computer technology hub - now known as Silicon Valley. The field of computer graphics developed with the emergence of computer graphics hardware, further advances in computing led to greater advancements in interactive computer graphics. In 1959, the TX-2 computer was developed at MITs Lincoln Laboratory, the TX-2 integrated a number of new man-machine interfaces
18.
Computer-aided design
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Computer-aided design is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print, machining, or other manufacturing operations. The term CADD is also used and its use in designing electronic systems is known as electronic design automation, or EDA. In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design automation or computer-aided drafting, however, it involves more than just shapes. CAD may be used to design curves and figures in space, or curves, surfaces. CAD is also used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles, because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics, and discrete differential geometry. The design of models for object shapes, in particular, is occasionally called computer-aided geometric design. Eventually CAD provided the designer with the ability to perform engineering calculations, during this transition, calculations were still performed either by hand or by those individuals who could run computer programs. CAD was a change in the engineering industry, where draftsmen, designers. It did not eliminate departments, as much as it merged departments and empowered draftsman, CAD is just another example of the pervasive effect computers were beginning to have on industry. Current computer-aided design software packages range from 2D vector-based drafting systems to 3D solid, modern CAD packages can also frequently allow rotations in three dimensions, allowing viewing of a designed object from any desired angle, even from the inside looking out. Some CAD software is capable of mathematical modeling, in which case it may be marketed as CAD. CAD technology is used in the design of tools and machinery and in the drafting and design of all types of buildings and it can also be used to design objects. Furthermore, many CAD applications now offer advanced rendering and animation capabilities so engineers can better visualize their product designs, 4D BIM is a type of virtual construction engineering simulation incorporating time or schedule related information for project management. CAD has become an important technology within the scope of computer-aided technologies, with benefits such as lower product development costs. CAD enables designers to layout and develop work on screen, print it out, computer-aided design is one of the many tools used by engineers and designers and is used in many ways depending on the profession of the user and the type of software in question. Document management and revision control using Product Data Management, potential blockage of view corridors and shadow studies are also frequently analyzed through the use of CAD
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Descriptive geometry
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Descriptive geometry is the branch of geometry which allows the representation of three-dimensional objects in two dimensions, by using a specific set of procedures. The resulting techniques are important for engineering, architecture, design, the theoretical basis for descriptive geometry is provided by planar geometric projections. The earliest know publication on the technique was Underweysung der Messung Mit dem Zirckel un Richtscheyt, published in Linien, Nuremberg,1525, gaspard Monge is usually considered the father of descriptive geometry. He first developed his techniques to solve problems in 1765 while working as a draftsman for military fortifications. Monges protocols allow an object to be drawn in such a way that it may be 3-D modeled. All geometric aspects of the object are accounted for in true size/to-scale and shape. All images are represented on a two-dimensional surface, Descriptive geometry uses the image-creating technique of imaginary, parallel projectors emanating from an imaginary object and intersecting an imaginary plane of projection at right angles. The cumulative points of intersections create the desired image, project two images of an object into mutually perpendicular, arbitrary directions. Each image view accommodates three dimensions of space, two dimensions displayed as full-scale, mutually-perpendicular axes and one as an invisible axis receding into the image space, each of the two adjacent image views shares a full-scale view of one of the three dimensions of space. Either of these images may serve as the point for a third projected view. The third view may begin a fourth projection, and on ad infinitum and these sequential projections each represent a circuitous, 90° turn in space in order to view the object from a different direction. Each new projection utilizes a dimension in full scale that appears as point-view dimension in the previous view, each new view may be created by projecting into any of an infinite number of directions, perpendicular to the previous direction of projection. The result is one of stepping circuitously about an object in 90° turns, each new view is added as an additional view to an orthographic projection layout display and appears in an unfolding of the glass box model. These often serve to determine the direction of projection for the subsequent view and these various views may be called upon to help solve engineering problems posed by solid-geometry principles There is heuristic value to studying descriptive geometry. It promotes visualization and spatial abilities, as well as the intuitive ability to recognize the direction of viewing for best presenting a geometric problem for solution. One candidate for such is presented in the illustrations below, the images in the illustrations were created using three-dimensional, engineering computer graphics. Three-dimensional, computer modeling produces virtual space behind the tube, as it were and it does so without the need for adjacent orthographic views and therefore may seem to render the circuitous, stepping protocol of Descriptive Geometry obsolete. Given the X, Y and Z coordinates of P, R, S and U, projections 1 and 2 are drawn to scale on the X-Y and X-Z planes, respectively
20.
Engineering drawing
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An engineering drawing, a type of technical drawing, is used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items. More than merely the drawing of pictures, it is also a language—a graphical language that communicates ideas, most especially, it communicates all needed information from the engineer, who designed a part, to the workers, who will make it. Engineering drawing and artistic drawing are both types of drawing, and either may be called simply drawing when the context is implicit, Engineering drawing shares some traits with artistic drawing in that both create pictures. But whereas the purpose of drawing is to convey emotion or artistic sensitivity in some way. Engineering drawing uses a set of conventions to convey information very precisely. Engineering drawing is a type of technique which is used to fully and clearly defined requirements for engineered items, Engineering drawing is one of the best ways to communicate one idea easily to other person. Persons employed in the trade of producing engineering drawings were called draftsmen in the past, although these terms are still in use, the non-gender-specific terms draftsperson and drafter are now more common. The various fields share many common conventions of drawing, while also having some field-specific conventions, each of these trades has some details that only specialists will have memorized. An engineering drawing is a document, because it communicates all the needed information about what is wanted to the people who will expend resources turning the idea into a reality. It is thus a part of a contract, the purchase order, thus, if the resulting product is wrong, the worker or manufacturer are protected from liability as long as they have faithfully executed the instructions conveyed by the drawing. If those instructions were wrong, it is the fault of the engineer and this is the biggest reason why the conventions of engineering drawing have evolved over the decades toward a very precise, unambiguous state. Engineering drawings specify requirements of a component or assembly which can be complicated, standards provide rules for their specification and interpretation. In 2011, a new revision of ISO8015 was published containing the Invocation Principle and this states that, Once a portion of the ISO geometric product specification system is invoked in a mechanical engineering product documentation, the entire ISO GPS system is invoked. It also goes on to state that marking a drawing Tolerancing ISO8015 is optional, the implication of this is that any drawing using ISO symbols can only be interpreted to ISO GPS rules. The only way not to invoke the ISO GPS system is to invoke a national or other standard, now in 2015 there is a new standardisation called BS8888, this is now used for all standard and technical drawings. Since there are two widely standardized definitions of size, there is only one real alternative to ISO GPS, i. e. ASME Y14.5. Standardization also aids internationalization, because people from different countries who speak different languages can read the same engineering drawing, to that end, drawings should be as free of notes and abbreviations as possible so that the meaning is conveyed graphically. The manufacturing of a technical drawing however is as difficult as the production of the design it describes
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Map projection
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A map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations on the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane. Map projections are necessary for creating maps, all map projections distort the surface in some fashion. There is no limit to the number of map projections. More generally, the surfaces of bodies can be mapped even if they are too irregular to be modeled well with a sphere or ellipsoid. Even more generally, projections are the subject of several mathematical fields, including differential geometry. However, map projection refers specifically to a cartographic projection and these useful traits of maps motivate the development of map projections. However, Carl Friedrich Gausss Theorema Egregium proved that a spheres surface cannot be represented on a plane without distortion, the same applies to other reference surfaces used as models for the Earth. Since any map projection is a representation of one of surfaces on a plane. Every distinct map projection distorts in a distinct way, the study of map projections is the characterization of these distortions. Projection is not limited to perspective projections, such as those resulting from casting a shadow on a screen, rather, any mathematical function transforming coordinates from the curved surface to the plane is a projection. Few projections in actual use are perspective, for simplicity, most of this article assumes that the surface to be mapped is that of a sphere. In reality, the Earth and other celestial bodies are generally better modeled as oblate spheroids. These other surfaces can be mapped as well, therefore, more generally, a map projection is any method of flattening a continuous curved surface onto a plane. Many properties can be measured on the Earths surface independent of its geography, some of these properties are, Area Shape Direction Bearing Distance Scale Map projections can be constructed to preserve at least one of these properties, though only in a limited way for most. Each projection preserves or compromises or approximates basic metric properties in different ways, the purpose of the map determines which projection should form the base for the map. Because many purposes exist for maps, a diversity of projections have been created to suit those purposes, another consideration in the configuration of a projection is its compatibility with data sets to be used on the map. Data sets are geographic information, their collection depends on the datum of the Earth. Different datums assign slightly different coordinates to the location, so in large scale maps, such as those from national mapping systems
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Picture plane
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It is ordinarily a vertical plane perpendicular to the sightline to the object of interest. In the technique of graphical perspective the picture plane has several features, Given are an eye point O, a plane of reference called the ground plane γ. The orientation of the plane is always perpendicular of the axis that comes straight out of your eyes. For example, if you are looking to a building that is in front of you and your eyesight is entirely horizontal then the plane is perpendicular to the ground. If you are looking up or down the Picture plane remains perpendicular to your sight, when this happens a third vanishing point will appear in most cases depending on what you are seeing. A well-known phrase has accompanied many discussions of painting during the period of modernism, greenberg seems to be referring to the way painting relates to the picture plane in both the modern period and the Old Master period. Morehead Jr. Perspective and Projective Geometries, A Comparison from Rice University
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Plan (drawing)
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Plans are a set of drawings or two-dimensional diagrams used to describe a place or object, or to communicate building or fabrication instructions. Usually plans are drawn or printed on paper, but they can take the form of a digital file and these plans are used in a range of fields from architecture, urban planning, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, industrial engineering to systems engineering. Plans are often for purposes such as architecture, engineering. Their purpose in these disciplines is to accurately and unambiguously capture all the features of a site, building. Plans can also be for presentation or orientation purposes, and as such are less detailed versions of the former. The end goal of plans is either to portray an existing place or object, the term plan may casually be used to refer to a single view, sheet, or drawing in a set of plans. More specifically a plan view is an orthographic projection looking down on the object, the process of producing plans, and the skill of producing them, is often referred to as technical drawing. A working drawing is a type of drawing, which is part of the documentation needed to build an engineering product or architecture. Typically in architecture these could include civil drawings, architectural drawings, structural drawings, mechanical drawings, electrical drawings, in engineering, these drawings show all necessary data to manufacture a given object, such as dimensions and angles. Plans are often prepared in a set, the set includes all the information required for the purpose of the set, and may exclude views or projections which are unnecessary. A set of plans can be on standard office-sized paper or on large sheets and it can be stapled, folded or rolled as required. A set of plans can take the form of a digital file in a proprietary format such as DWG or an exchange file format such as DXF or PDF. Plans are often referred to as blueprints or bluelines, Plans are usually scale drawings, meaning that the plans are drawn at a specific ratio relative to the actual size of the place or object. Various scales may be used for different drawings in a set, for example, a floor plan may be drawn at 1,48 whereas a detailed view may be drawn at 1,24. Site plans are drawn at 1 =20 or 1 =30. Each projection is achieved by assuming a point from which to see the place or object. Site, Site plans, including a key plan, appear before other plans, a project could require a landscape plan, although this can be integrated with the site plan if the drawing remains clear. Specific plans, Floor plans, starting with the lowest floor, further, for example, reflected Ceiling Plans s showing ceiling layouts appear after the floor plans
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Projection (linear algebra)
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In linear algebra and functional analysis, a projection is a linear transformation P from a vector space to itself such that P2 = P. That is, whenever P is applied twice to any value, though abstract, this definition of projection formalizes and generalizes the idea of graphical projection. One can also consider the effect of a projection on an object by examining the effect of the projection on points in the object. For example, the function maps the point in three-dimensional space R3 to the point is an orthogonal projection onto the x–y plane. This function is represented by the matrix P =, the action of this matrix on an arbitrary vector is P =. To see that P is indeed a projection, i. e. P = P2, a simple example of a non-orthogonal projection is P =. Via matrix multiplication, one sees that P2 = = = P. proving that P is indeed a projection, the projection P is orthogonal if and only if α =0. Let W be a finite dimensional space and P be a projection on W. Suppose the subspaces U and V are the range and kernel of P respectively, then P has the following properties, By definition, P is idempotent. P is the identity operator I on U ∀ x ∈ U, P x = x and we have a direct sum W = U ⊕ V. Every vector x ∈ W may be decomposed uniquely as x = u + v with u = P x and v = x − P x = x, the range and kernel of a projection are complementary, as are P and Q = I − P. The operator Q is also a projection and the range and kernel of P become the kernel and range of Q and we say P is a projection along V onto U and Q is a projection along U onto V. In infinite dimensional spaces, the spectrum of a projection is contained in as −1 =1 λ I +1 λ P. Only 0 or 1 can be an eigenvalue of a projection, the corresponding eigenspaces are the kernel and range of the projection. Decomposition of a space into direct sums is not unique in general. Therefore, given a subspace V, there may be many projections whose range is V, if a projection is nontrivial it has minimal polynomial x 2 − x = x, which factors into distinct roots, and thus P is diagonalizable. The product of projections is not, in general, a projection, if projections commute, then their product is a projection. When the vector space W has a product and is complete the concept of orthogonality can be used
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Projection plane
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A projection plane, or plane of projection, is a type of view in which graphical projections from an object intersect. Projection planes are used often in descriptive geometry and graphical representation, a picture plane in perspective drawing is a type of projection plane. With perspective drawing, the lines of sight between an object and a picture plane return to a point and are not parallel. With parallel projection the lines of sight from the object to the plane are parallel
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Projective geometry
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Projective geometry is a topic of mathematics. It is the study of properties that are invariant with respect to projective transformations. This means that, compared to elementary geometry, projective geometry has a different setting, projective space, properties meaningful for projective geometry are respected by this new idea of transformation, which is more radical in its effects than can be expressed by a transformation matrix and translations. The first issue for geometers is what kind of geometry is adequate for a novel situation, one source for projective geometry was indeed the theory of perspective. Another difference from elementary geometry is the way in which parallel lines can be said to meet in a point at infinity, again this notion has an intuitive basis, such as railway tracks meeting at the horizon in a perspective drawing. See projective plane for the basics of geometry in two dimensions. While the ideas were available earlier, projective geometry was mainly a development of the 19th century and this included the theory of complex projective space, the coordinates used being complex numbers. Several major types of more abstract mathematics were based on projective geometry and it was also a subject with a large number of practitioners for its own sake, as synthetic geometry. Another topic that developed from axiomatic studies of projective geometry is finite geometry, the topic of projective geometry is itself now divided into many research subtopics, two examples of which are projective algebraic geometry and projective differential geometry. Projective geometry is an elementary form of geometry, meaning that it is not based on a concept of distance. In two dimensions it begins with the study of configurations of points and lines and that there is indeed some geometric interest in this sparse setting was first established by Desargues and others in their exploration of the principles of perspective art. In higher dimensional spaces there are considered hyperplanes, and other linear subspaces, Projective geometry can also be seen as a geometry of constructions with a straight-edge alone. Since projective geometry excludes compass constructions, there are no circles, no angles, no measurements, no parallels and it was realised that the theorems that do apply to projective geometry are simpler statements. For example, the different conic sections are all equivalent in projective geometry, during the early 19th century the work of Jean-Victor Poncelet, Lazare Carnot and others established projective geometry as an independent field of mathematics. Its rigorous foundations were addressed by Karl von Staudt and perfected by Italians Giuseppe Peano, Mario Pieri, Alessandro Padoa, after much work on the very large number of theorems in the subject, therefore, the basics of projective geometry became understood. The incidence structure and the cross-ratio are fundamental invariants under projective transformations, Projective geometry can be modeled by the affine plane plus a line at infinity and then treating that line as ordinary. An algebraic model for doing projective geometry in the style of geometry is given by homogeneous coordinates. In a foundational sense, projective geometry and ordered geometry are elementary since they involve a minimum of axioms and either can be used as the foundation for affine, Projective geometry is not ordered and so it is a distinct foundation for geometry
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Stereoscopy
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Stereoscopy is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision. The word stereoscopy derives from Greek στερεός, meaning firm, solid, any stereoscopic image is called a stereogram. Originally, stereogram referred to a pair of images which could be viewed using a stereoscope. Most stereoscopic methods present two offset images separately to the left and right eye of the viewer and these two-dimensional images are then combined in the brain to give the perception of 3D depth. Stereoscopy creates the illusion of depth from given two-dimensional images. One of the functions that occur within the brain as it interprets what the eyes see is assessing the relative distances of objects from the viewer, the two images are then combined in the brain to give the perception of depth. Although the term 3D is ubiquitously used, the presentation of dual 2D images is distinctly different from displaying an image in three full dimensions. The most notable difference is that, in the case of 3D displays, holographic displays and volumetric display do not have this limitation. Just as it is not possible to recreate a full 3-dimensional sound field with just two speakers, it is an overstatement to call dual 2D images 3D. The accurate term stereoscopic is more cumbersome than the common misnomer 3D, although most stereoscopic displays do not qualify as real 3D display, all real 3D displays are also stereoscopic displays because they meet the lower criteria also. Most 3D displays use this method to convey images. It was first invented by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1838, but if it be required to obtain the most faithful resemblances of real objects, shadowing and colouring may properly be employed to heighten the effects. Flowers, crystals, busts, vases, instruments of various kinds, Stereoscopy is used in photogrammetry and also for entertainment through the production of stereograms. Stereoscopy is useful in viewing images rendered from large data sets such as are produced by experimental data. Modern industrial three-dimensional photography may use 3D scanners to detect and record three-dimensional information, the three-dimensional depth information can be reconstructed from two images using a computer by correlating the pixels in the left and right images. Solving the Correspondence problem in the field of Computer Vision aims to create meaningful depth information from two images, anatomically, there are 3 levels of binocular vision required to view stereo images, Simultaneous perception Fusion Stereopsis These functions develop in early childhood. Some people who have strabismus disrupt the development of stereopsis, however orthoptics treatment can be used to improve binocular vision, a persons stereoacuity determines the minimum image disparity they can perceive as depth. It is believed that approximately 12% of people are unable to properly see 3D images, according to another experiment up to 30% of people have very weak stereoscopic vision preventing them from depth perception based on stereo disparity
28.
Technical drawing
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Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed. Technical drawing is essential for communicating ideas in industry and engineering, to make the drawings easier to understand, people use familiar symbols, perspectives, units of measurement, notation systems, visual styles, and page layout. Together, such conventions constitute a language and help to ensure that the drawing is unambiguous. Many of the symbols and principles of drawing are codified in an international standard called ISO128. The need for communication in the preparation of a functional document distinguishes technical drawing from the expressive drawing of the visual arts. Artistic drawings are subjectively interpreted, their meanings are multiply determined, Technical drawings are understood to have one intended meaning. A drafter, draftsperson, or draughtsman is a person who makes a drawing, a professional drafter who makes technical drawings is sometimes called a drafting technician. Professional drafting is a desirable and necessary function in the design and manufacture of mechanical components. Professional draftspersons bridge the gap between engineers and manufacturers and contribute experience and technical expertise to the design process, the basic drafting procedure is to place a piece of paper on a smooth surface with right-angle corners and straight sides—typically a drawing board. A sliding straightedge known as a T-square is then placed on one of the sides, allowing it to be slid across the side of the table, parallel lines can be drawn simply by moving the T-square and running a pencil or technical pen along the T-squares edge. The T-square is used to other devices such as set squares or triangles. Modern drafting tables come equipped with a machine that is supported on both sides of the table to slide over a large piece of paper. Because it is secured on both sides, lines drawn along the edge are guaranteed to be parallel, in addition, the drafter uses several technical drawing tools to draw curves and circles. Primary among these are the compasses, used for drawing simple arcs and circles, a spline is a rubber coated articulated metal that can be manually bent to most curves. Drafting templates assist the drafter with creating recurring objects in a drawing without having to reproduce the object from scratch every time. Templates are sold commercially by a number of vendors, usually customized to a specific task and this basic drafting system requires an accurate table and constant attention to the positioning of the tools. A common error is to allow the triangles to push the top of the T-square down slightly, thereby throwing off all angles. Even tasks as simple as drawing two angled lines meeting at a point require a number of moves of the T-square and triangles and these machines often included the ability to change the angle, thereby removing the need for the triangles as well
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Vanishing point
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In graphical perspective, a vanishing point is a point in the image plane where the projections of a set of parallel lines in space intersect. Traditional linear drawings use objects with one to three sets of parallels, defining one to three vanishing points. The vanishing point may also be referred to as the point, as lines having the same directional vector, say D. Mathematically, let q ≡ be a point lying on the plane, where f is the focal length, and let vq ≡ be the unit vector associated with q. When the image plane is parallel to two axes, lines parallel to the axis which is cut by this image plane will meet at infinity i. e. at the vanishing point. Lines parallel to the two axes will not form vanishing points as they are parallel to the image plane. Similarly, when the plane intersects two world-coordinate axes, lines parallel to those planes will meet at infinity and form two vanishing points. In three-point perspective the image plane intersects the x, y, the vanishing point theorem is the principal theorem in the science of perspective. It says that the image in a picture plane π of a line L in space, not parallel to the picture, is determined by its intersection with π, some authors have used the phrase, the image of a line includes its vanishing point. Guidobaldo del Monte gave several verifications, and Humphry Ditton called the result the main and Great Proposition. She notes, in terms of geometry, the vanishing point is the image of the point at infinity associated with L. As a vanishing point originates in a line, so a vanishing line originates in a plane α that is not parallel to the picture π. Given the eye point O, and β the plane parallel to α and lying on O, to put it simply, the vanishing line is obtained by the intersection of the image plane with a plane parallel to the ground plane, passing through the camera center. For different sets of line, their respective vanishing points will lie on this line. The horizon line is a line that represents the eye level of the observer. If the object is below the line, its vanishing lines angle up to the horizon line. If the object is above, they slope down, all vanishing lines end at the horizon line. Proof, Consider the ground plane π, as y = c which is, for the sake of simplicity, also, consider a line L that lies in the plane π, which is defined by the equation ax + bz = d
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Video game graphics
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A variety of computer graphic techniques have been used to display video game content throughout the history of video games. The predominance of individual techniques have evolved over time, primarily due to hardware advances, some of the earliest video games were text games or text-based games that used text characters instead of bitmapped or vector graphics. Some of the earliest text games were developed for systems which had no video display at all. Text games are typically easier to write and require less processing power than graphical games, however, terminal emulators are still in use today, and people continue to play MUDs and explore interactive fiction. Vector graphics refers to the use of geometrical primitives such as points, lines, in video games this type of projection is somewhat rare, but has become more common in recent years in browser-based gaming with the advent of Flash, since Flash supports vector graphics natively. An earlier example for the computer is Starglider. Vector game can also refer to a game that uses a vector graphics display capable of projecting images using an electron beam to draw images instead of with pixels. Many early arcade games used such displays, as they were capable of displaying more detailed images than raster displays on the available at that time. Many vector-based arcade games used full-color overlays to complement the otherwise monochrome vector images, other uses of these overlays were very detailed drawings of the static gaming environment, while the moving objects were drawn by the vector beam. Games of this type were produced mainly by Atari, Cinematronics, examples of vector games include Armor Attack, Eliminator, Lunar Lander, Space Fury, Space Wars, Star Trek, Tac/Scan, Tempest and Zektor. The Vectrex home console also used a vector display, full motion video games are video games that rely upon pre-recorded television- or movie-quality recordings and animations rather than sprites, vectors or 3D models to display action in the game. As a result, the became a well-known failure in video gaming. A number of different types of games utilized this format, some resembled modern music/dance games, where the player timely presses buttons according to a screen instruction. Others included early rail shooters such as Tomcat Alley, Surgical Strike, full motion video was also used in several interactive movie adventure games, such as The Beast Within, A Gabriel Knight Mystery and Phantasmagoria. A side-scrolling game or side-scroller is a game in which the viewpoint is taken from the side. Games of this type make use of scrolling computer display technology, in many games the screen follows the player character such that the player character is always positioned near the center of the screen. Sometimes, the screen will not only forward in the speed and direction of the player characters movement. In other games or stages, the screen will only scroll forwards, not backwards, examples of side-scrolling games include platform games such as Sonic the Hedgehog, beat em ups such as the popular Double Dragon and Battletoads, and shooters such as R-type and JetsnGuns
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Viewing frustum
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In 3D computer graphics, the view frustum is the region of space in the modeled world that may appear on the screen, it is the field of view of the notional camera. Some authors use pyramid of vision as a synonym for view frustum itself, the exact shape of this region varies depending on what kind of camera lens is being simulated, but typically it is a frustum of a rectangular pyramid. The planes that cut the frustum perpendicular to the direction are called the near plane. Objects closer to the camera than the plane or beyond the far plane are not drawn. Sometimes, the far plane is placed far away from the camera so all objects within the frustum are drawn regardless of their distance from the camera. View frustum culling is the process of removing objects that lie completely outside the viewing frustum from the rendering process, rendering these objects would be a waste of time since they are not directly visible. To make culling fast, it is usually done using bounding volumes surrounding the rather than the objects themselves. VPN the view-plane normal – a normal to the view plane, VUV the view-up vector – the vector on the view plane that indicates the upward direction. VRP the viewing reference point – a point located on the plane. PRP the projection reference point – the point where the image is projected from, for parallel projection, the geometry is defined by a field of view angle, as well as an aspect ratio. Further, a set of z-planes define the near and far bounds of the frustum, together this information can be used to calculate a projection matrix for rendering transformations in a graphics pipeline
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Two-dimensional space
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In physics and mathematics, two-dimensional space is a geometric model of the planar projection of the physical universe. The two dimensions are commonly called length and width, both directions lie in the same plane. A sequence of n numbers can be understood as a location in n-dimensional space. When n =2, the set of all locations is called two-dimensional space or bi-dimensional space. Each reference line is called an axis or just axis of the system. The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the projections of the point onto the two axes, expressed as signed distances from the origin. The idea of system was developed in 1637 in writings by Descartes and independently by Pierre de Fermat. Both authors used a single axis in their treatments and have a length measured in reference to this axis. The concept of using a pair of axes was introduced later, after Descartes La Géométrie was translated into Latin in 1649 by Frans van Schooten and these commentators introduced several concepts while trying to clarify the ideas contained in Descartes work. Later, the plane was thought of as a field, where any two points could be multiplied and, except for 0, divided and this was known as the complex plane. The complex plane is called the Argand plane because it is used in Argand diagrams. These are named after Jean-Robert Argand, although they were first described by Norwegian-Danish land surveyor, Argand diagrams are frequently used to plot the positions of the poles and zeroes of a function in the complex plane. In mathematics, analytic geometry describes every point in space by means of two coordinates. Two perpendicular coordinate axes are given which cross each other at the origin and they are usually labeled x and y. Another widely used system is the polar coordinate system, which specifies a point in terms of its distance from the origin. In two dimensions, there are infinitely many polytopes, the polygons, the first few regular ones are shown below, The Schläfli symbol represents a regular p-gon. The regular henagon and regular digon can be considered degenerate regular polygons and they can exist nondegenerately in non-Euclidean spaces like on a 2-sphere or a 2-torus. There exist infinitely many non-convex regular polytopes in two dimensions, whose Schläfli symbols consist of rational numbers and they are called star polygons and share the same vertex arrangements of the convex regular polygons
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Three-dimensional space
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Three-dimensional space is a geometric setting in which three values are required to determine the position of an element. This is the meaning of the term dimension. In physics and mathematics, a sequence of n numbers can be understood as a location in n-dimensional space, when n =3, the set of all such locations is called three-dimensional Euclidean space. It is commonly represented by the symbol ℝ3 and this serves as a three-parameter model of the physical universe in which all known matter exists. However, this space is one example of a large variety of spaces in three dimensions called 3-manifolds. Furthermore, in case, these three values can be labeled by any combination of three chosen from the terms width, height, depth, and breadth. In mathematics, analytic geometry describes every point in space by means of three coordinates. Three coordinate axes are given, each perpendicular to the two at the origin, the point at which they cross. They are usually labeled x, y, and z, below are images of the above-mentioned systems. Two distinct points determine a line. Three distinct points are either collinear or determine a unique plane, four distinct points can either be collinear, coplanar or determine the entire space. Two distinct lines can intersect, be parallel or be skew. Two parallel lines, or two intersecting lines, lie in a plane, so skew lines are lines that do not meet. Two distinct planes can either meet in a line or are parallel. Three distinct planes, no pair of which are parallel, can meet in a common line. In the last case, the three lines of intersection of each pair of planes are mutually parallel, a line can lie in a given plane, intersect that plane in a unique point or be parallel to the plane. In the last case, there will be lines in the plane that are parallel to the given line, a hyperplane is a subspace of one dimension less than the dimension of the full space. The hyperplanes of a space are the two-dimensional subspaces, that is
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Right angle
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In geometry and trigonometry, a right angle is an angle that bisects the angle formed by two adjacent parts of a straight line. More precisely, if a ray is placed so that its endpoint is on a line, as a rotation, a right angle corresponds to a quarter turn. The presence of an angle in a triangle is the defining factor for right triangles. The term is a calque of Latin angulus rectus, here rectus means upright, in Unicode, the symbol for a right angle is U+221F ∟ Right angle. It should not be confused with the similarly shaped symbol U+231E ⌞ Bottom left corner, related symbols are U+22BE ⊾ Right angle with arc, U+299C ⦜ Right angle variant with square, and U+299D ⦝ Measured right angle with dot. The symbol for an angle, an arc, with a dot, is used in some European countries, including German-speaking countries and Poland. Right angles are fundamental in Euclids Elements and they are defined in Book 1, definition 10, which also defines perpendicular lines. Euclid uses right angles in definitions 11 and 12 to define acute angles, two angles are called complementary if their sum is a right angle. Book 1 Postulate 4 states that all angles are equal. Euclids commentator Proclus gave a proof of this using the previous postulates. Saccheri gave a proof as well but using a more explicit assumption, in Hilberts axiomatization of geometry this statement is given as a theorem, but only after much groundwork. A right angle may be expressed in different units, 1/4 turn, 90° π/2 radians 100 grad 8 points 6 hours Throughout history carpenters and masons have known a quick way to confirm if an angle is a true right angle. It is based on the most widely known Pythagorean triple and so called the Rule of 3-4-5 and this measurement can be made quickly and without technical instruments. The geometric law behind the measurement is the Pythagorean theorem, Thales theorem states that an angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle. Two application examples in which the angle and the Thales theorem are included. Cartesian coordinate system Orthogonality Perpendicular Rectangle Types of angles Wentworth, G. A, Euclid, commentary and trans. by T. L. Heath Elements Vol.1 Google Books
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Line (geometry)
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The notion of line or straight line was introduced by ancient mathematicians to represent straight objects with negligible width and depth. Lines are an idealization of such objects, the straight line is that which is equally extended between its points. In modern mathematics, given the multitude of geometries, the concept of a line is tied to the way the geometry is described. When a geometry is described by a set of axioms, the notion of a line is left undefined. The properties of lines are determined by the axioms which refer to them. One advantage to this approach is the flexibility it gives to users of the geometry, thus in differential geometry a line may be interpreted as a geodesic, while in some projective geometries a line is a 2-dimensional vector space. This flexibility also extends beyond mathematics and, for example, permits physicists to think of the path of a light ray as being a line, to avoid this vicious circle certain concepts must be taken as primitive concepts, terms which are given no definition. In geometry, it is frequently the case that the concept of line is taken as a primitive, in those situations where a line is a defined concept, as in coordinate geometry, some other fundamental ideas are taken as primitives. When the line concept is a primitive, the behaviour and properties of lines are dictated by the axioms which they must satisfy, in a non-axiomatic or simplified axiomatic treatment of geometry, the concept of a primitive notion may be too abstract to be dealt with. In this circumstance it is possible that a description or mental image of a notion is provided to give a foundation to build the notion on which would formally be based on the axioms. Descriptions of this type may be referred to, by some authors and these are not true definitions and could not be used in formal proofs of statements. The definition of line in Euclids Elements falls into this category, when geometry was first formalised by Euclid in the Elements, he defined a general line to be breadthless length with a straight line being a line which lies evenly with the points on itself. These definitions serve little purpose since they use terms which are not, themselves, in fact, Euclid did not use these definitions in this work and probably included them just to make it clear to the reader what was being discussed. In an axiomatic formulation of Euclidean geometry, such as that of Hilbert, for example, for any two distinct points, there is a unique line containing them, and any two distinct lines intersect in at most one point. In two dimensions, i. e. the Euclidean plane, two lines which do not intersect are called parallel, in higher dimensions, two lines that do not intersect are parallel if they are contained in a plane, or skew if they are not. Any collection of many lines partitions the plane into convex polygons. Lines in a Cartesian plane or, more generally, in affine coordinates, in two dimensions, the equation for non-vertical lines is often given in the slope-intercept form, y = m x + b where, m is the slope or gradient of the line. B is the y-intercept of the line, X is the independent variable of the function y = f
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Plane (geometry)
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In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far. A plane is the analogue of a point, a line. When working exclusively in two-dimensional Euclidean space, the article is used, so. Many fundamental tasks in mathematics, geometry, trigonometry, graph theory and graphing are performed in a space, or in other words. Euclid set forth the first great landmark of mathematical thought, a treatment of geometry. He selected a small core of undefined terms and postulates which he used to prove various geometrical statements. Although the plane in its sense is not directly given a definition anywhere in the Elements. In his work Euclid never makes use of numbers to measure length, angle, in this way the Euclidean plane is not quite the same as the Cartesian plane. This section is concerned with planes embedded in three dimensions, specifically, in R3. In a Euclidean space of any number of dimensions, a plane is determined by any of the following. A line and a point not on that line, a line is either parallel to a plane, intersects it at a single point, or is contained in the plane. Two distinct lines perpendicular to the plane must be parallel to each other. Two distinct planes perpendicular to the line must be parallel to each other. Specifically, let r0 be the vector of some point P0 =. The plane determined by the point P0 and the vector n consists of those points P, with position vector r, such that the vector drawn from P0 to P is perpendicular to n. Recalling that two vectors are perpendicular if and only if their dot product is zero, it follows that the plane can be described as the set of all points r such that n ⋅ =0. Expanded this becomes a + b + c =0, which is the form of the equation of a plane. This is just a linear equation a x + b y + c z + d =0 and this familiar equation for a plane is called the general form of the equation of the plane
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Cartesian coordinate system
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Each reference line is called a coordinate axis or just axis of the system, and the point where they meet is its origin, usually at ordered pair. The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the projections of the point onto the two axis, expressed as signed distances from the origin. One can use the principle to specify the position of any point in three-dimensional space by three Cartesian coordinates, its signed distances to three mutually perpendicular planes. In general, n Cartesian coordinates specify the point in an n-dimensional Euclidean space for any dimension n and these coordinates are equal, up to sign, to distances from the point to n mutually perpendicular hyperplanes. The invention of Cartesian coordinates in the 17th century by René Descartes revolutionized mathematics by providing the first systematic link between Euclidean geometry and algebra. Using the Cartesian coordinate system, geometric shapes can be described by Cartesian equations, algebraic equations involving the coordinates of the points lying on the shape. For example, a circle of radius 2, centered at the origin of the plane, a familiar example is the concept of the graph of a function. Cartesian coordinates are also tools for most applied disciplines that deal with geometry, including astronomy, physics, engineering. They are the most common system used in computer graphics, computer-aided geometric design. Nicole Oresme, a French cleric and friend of the Dauphin of the 14th Century, used similar to Cartesian coordinates well before the time of Descartes. The adjective Cartesian refers to the French mathematician and philosopher René Descartes who published this idea in 1637 and it was independently discovered by Pierre de Fermat, who also worked in three dimensions, although Fermat did not publish the discovery. Both authors used a single axis in their treatments and have a length measured in reference to this axis. The concept of using a pair of axes was introduced later, after Descartes La Géométrie was translated into Latin in 1649 by Frans van Schooten and these commentators introduced several concepts while trying to clarify the ideas contained in Descartes work. Many other coordinate systems have developed since Descartes, such as the polar coordinates for the plane. The development of the Cartesian coordinate system would play a role in the development of the Calculus by Isaac Newton. The two-coordinate description of the plane was later generalized into the concept of vector spaces. Choosing a Cartesian coordinate system for a one-dimensional space – that is, for a straight line—involves choosing a point O of the line, a unit of length, and an orientation for the line. An orientation chooses which of the two half-lines determined by O is the positive, and which is negative, we say that the line is oriented from the negative half towards the positive half
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Floor plan
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Dimensions are usually drawn between the walls to specify room sizes and wall lengths. Floor plans may also include details of fixtures like sinks, water heaters, furnaces, floor plans may include notes for construction to specify finishes, construction methods, or symbols for electrical items. Similar to a map the orientation of the view is downward from above, but unlike a conventional map, objects below this level are seen, objects at this level are shown cut in plan-section, and objects above this vertical position within the structure are omitted or shown dashed. Plan view or planform is defined as an orthographic projection of an object on a horizontal plane. The term may be used in general to any drawing showing the physical layout of objects. For example, it may denote the arrangement of the objects at an exhibition. Drawings are now reproduced using plotters and large format xerographic copiers and this convention maintains the same orientation of the floor and ceilings plans - looking down from above. RCPs are used by designers and architects to demonstrate lighting, visible mechanical features, a floor plan is not a top view or birds eye view. It is a drawing to scale of the layout of a floor in a building. A top view or birds eye view does not show an orthogonally projected plane cut at the typical 4 foot height above the floor level, a floor plan could show, Interior walls and hallways Restrooms Windows and doors Appliances such as stoves, refrigerators, water heater etc. In other words, a plan is a section viewed from the top, in such views, the portion of the object above the plane is omitted to reveal what lies beyond. In the case of a plan, the roof and upper portion of the walls may typically be omitted. Roof plans are orthographic projections, but they are not sections as their plane is outside of the object. A plan is a method of depicting the internal arrangement of a 3-dimensional object in two dimensions. It is often used in drawing and is traditionally crosshatched. The style of crosshatching indicates the type of material the section passes through, a 3D floor plan can be defined as a virtual model of a building floor plan. Its often used to better convey architectural plans to individuals not familiar with floor plans, despite the purpose of floor plans originally being to depict 3D layouts in a 2D manner, technological expansion has made rendering 3D models much more cost effective. 3D plans show a depth of image and are often complimented by 3D furniture in the room
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Millbank Prison
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It was opened in 1816 and closed in 1890. After various changes in circumstance, the Panopticon plan was abandoned in 1812, an architectural competition was then held for a new penitentiary design. It attracted 43 entrants, the winner being William Williams, drawing master at the Royal Military College, Williams basic design was adapted by a practising architect, Thomas Hardwick, who began construction in the same year. Hardwick resigned in 1813, and John Harvey took over the role, Harvey was dismissed in turn in 1815, and replaced by Robert Smirke, who brought the project to completion in 1821. The marshy site on which the prison stood meant that the builders experienced problems of subsidence from the outset, Smirke finally resolved the difficulty by introducing a highly innovative concrete raft to provide a secure foundation. However, this added considerably to the costs, which eventually totalled £500,000, more than twice the original estimate. The first prisoners, all women, were admitted on 26 June 1816, the prison held 103 men and 109 women by the end of 1817, and 452 men and 326 women by late 1822. Sentences of five to ten years in the National Penitentiary were offered as an alternative to transportation to those thought most likely to reform. In addition to the problems of construction, the marshy site fostered disease, in 1818 they employed a Medical Supervisor, in the form of Dr Alexander Copland Hutchison of Westminster Dispensary, to oversee the health issues of the occupants. In 1822–23 an epidemic swept through the prison, which seems to have comprised a mixture of dysentery, scurvy, depression and other disorders. The decision was taken to evacuate the buildings for several months, the female prisoners were released. The design also turned out to be unsatisfactory, the network of corridors was so labyrinthine that even the warders got lost, and the ventilation system allowed sound to carry, so that prisoners could communicate between cells. The annual running costs turned out to be an unsupportable £16,000, in view of these problems, the decision was eventually taken to build a new model prison at Pentonville, which opened in 1842 and took over Millbanks role as the National Penitentiary. By an Act of Parliament of 1843, Millbanks status was downgraded, every person sentenced to transportation was sent to Millbank first, where they were held for three months before their final destination was decided. By 1850, around 4,000 people convicted of crimes were being transported annually from the UK, prisoners awaiting transportation were kept in solitary confinement and restricted to silence for the first half of their sentence. Large-scale transportation ended in 1853, and Millbank then became a local prison. By 1886 it had ceased to hold inmates, and it closed in 1890, demolition began in 1892, and continued sporadically until 1903. The buildings of each pentagon were set around a cluster of five courtyards used as airing-yards, the third and fourth pentagons were used to house female prisoners, and the remaining four for male prisoners
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Jacques-Germain Soufflot
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Jacques-Germain Soufflot was a French architect in the international circle that introduced neoclassicism. His most famous work is the Panthéon in Paris, built from 1755 onwards, Soufflot was born in Irancy, near Auxerre. In the 1730s he attended the French Academy in Rome, where young French students in the 1750s would later produce the first full-blown generation of Neoclassical designers. Soufflots models were less the picturesque Baroque being built in modern Rome, with the Temple du Change, he was entrusted with completely recasting a 16th-century market exchange building housing a meeting space housed above a loggia. Soufflots newly made loggia is an unusually severe arcading tightly bound between flat Doric pilasters, with horizontal lines. He was accepted into the Lyon Academy, on this trip Soufflot made a special study of theaters. In 1755 Marigny, the new Director General of Royal Buildings, in the same year, he was admitted to the Royal Academy of Architecture. In 1756 his opera house opened in Lyon, the Panthéon is his most famous work, but the Hôtel Marigny built for his young patron across from the Élysée Palace, is a better definition of Soufflots personal taste. Soufflot died in Paris in 1780, like all the architects of his day, Soufflot considered the classical idiom essential. Jacques-Gabriel Soufflot information at Structurae Jacques-Germain Soufflot at Find a Grave
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Architectural drawing
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An architectural drawing or architects drawing is a technical drawing of a building that falls within the definition of architecture. Architectural drawings are made according to a set of conventions, which include particular views, sheet sizes, units of measurement and scales, annotation and cross referencing. Conventionally, drawings were made in ink on paper or a similar material, the twentieth century saw a shift to drawing on tracing paper, so that mechanical copies could be run off efficiently. Today the vast majority of drawings are created using CAD software, the size of drawings reflects the materials available and the size that is convenient to transport – rolled up or folded, laid out on a table, or pinned up on a wall. The draughting process may impose limitations on the size that is realistically workable, sizes are determined by a consistent paper size system, according to local usage. Normally the largest paper size used in architectural practice is ISO A0 or in the USA Arch E or Large E size. Architectural drawings are drawn to scale, so that relative sizes are correctly represented, the scale is chosen both to ensure the whole building will fit on the chosen sheet size, and to show the required amount of detail. At the scale of one eighth of an inch to one foot or the metric equivalent 1 to 100, walls are typically shown as simple outlines corresponding to the overall thickness. At a larger scale, half an inch to one foot or the nearest common metric equivalent 1 to 20, construction details are drawn to a larger scale, in some cases full size. Scale drawings enable dimensions to be read off the drawing, i. e. measured directly, imperial scales are equally readable using an ordinary ruler. On a one-eighth inch to one foot scale drawing, the divisions on the ruler can be read off as feet. Architects normally use a ruler with different scales marked on each edge. A third method, used by builders in estimating, is to measure directly off the drawing, dimensions can be measured off drawings made on a stable medium such as vellum. All processes of reproduction introduce small errors, especially now that different copying methods mean that the drawing may be re-copied. Consequently, dimensions need to be written on the drawing, the disclaimer Do not scale off dimensions is commonly inscribed on architects drawings, to guard against errors arising in the copying process. This section deals with the conventional views used to represent a building or structure, see the Types of architectural drawing section below for drawings classified according to their purpose. Technically it is a section cut through a building, showing walls, windows and door openings. The plan view includes anything that could be seen below that level, objects above the plan level can be indicated as dashed lines