Douglas Carl Engelbart was an American engineer and inventor, an early computer and Internet pioneer. He is best known for his work on founding the field of human–computer interaction while at his Augmentation Research Center Lab in SRI International, which resulted in creation of the computer mouse, the development of hypertext, networked computers, precursors to graphical user interfaces; these were demonstrated at The Mother of All Demos in 1968. Engelbart's law, the observation that the intrinsic rate of human performance is exponential, is named after him. In the early 1950s, he decided that instead of "having a steady job" – such as his position at Ames Research Center – he would focus on making the world a better place, he reasoned that because the complexity of the world's problems was increasing, because any effort to improve the world would require the coordination of groups of people, the most effective way to solve problems was to augment human intelligence and develop ways of building collective intelligence.
He believed that the computer, at the time thought of only as a tool for automation, would be an essential tool for future knowledge workers to solve such problems. He was a committed, vocal proponent of the development and use of computers and computer networks to help cope with the world’s urgent and complex problems. Engelbart embedded a set of organizing principles in his lab, which he termed "bootstrapping", his belief was that when human systems and tool systems were aligned, such that workers spent time "improving their tools for improving their tools" it would lead to an accelerating rate of progress. NLS, the "oN-Line System," developed by the Augmentation Research Center under Engelbart's guidance with funding from DARPA, demonstrated numerous technologies, most of which are now in widespread use; the lab was transferred from SRI to Tymshare in the late 1970s, acquired by McDonnell Douglas in 1984, NLS was renamed Augment. At both Tymshare and McDonnell Douglas, Engelbart was limited by a lack of interest in his ideas and funding to pursue them, retired in 1986.
In 1988, Engelbart and his daughter Christina launched the Bootstrap Institute – known as The Doug Engelbart Institute – to promote his vision at Stanford University. In December 2000, United States President Bill Clinton awarded Engelbart the National Medal of Technology, the U. S.'s highest technology award. In December 2008, Engelbart was honored by SRI at the 40th anniversary of the "Mother of All Demos". Engelbart was born in Portland, Oregon, on January 30, 1925, to Carl Louis Engelbart and Gladys Charlotte Amelia Munson Engelbart, his ancestors were of German and Norwegian descent. He was the middle of three children, with a sister Dorianne, a brother David; the family lived in Portland, Oregon, in his early years, moved to the surrounding countryside along Johnson Creek when he was 8. His father died one year later, he graduated from Portland's Franklin High School in 1942. Midway through his undergraduate years at Oregon State University, near the end of World War II, he was drafted into the United States Navy, serving two years as a radar technician in the Philippines.
On a small island, in a tiny hut on stilts, he read Vannevar Bush's article "As We May Think", which inspired him. He returned to Oregon State and completed his bachelor's degree in electrical engineering in 1948. While at Oregon State, he was a member of Sigma Phi Epsilon social fraternity, he was hired by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the Ames Research Center, where he worked in wind tunnel maintenance. In his off hours he enjoyed hiking and folk dancing, it was there he met Ballard Fish, just completing her training to become an occupational therapist. They were married in Portola State Park on May 5, 1951. Soon after, Engelbart left Ames to pursue graduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley. There, he received an M. S. in electrical engineering in 1953 and a Ph. D. in the discipline in 1955. Engelbart's career was inspired in December 1950 when he was engaged to be married and realized he had no career goals other than "a steady job, getting married and living ever after".
Over several months he reasoned that: he would focus his career on making the world a better place any serious effort to make the world better would require some kind of organized effort that harnessed the collective human intellect of all people to contribute to effective solutions. If you could improve how we do that, you'd be boosting every effort on the planet to solve important problems – the sooner the better computers could be the vehicle for improving this capability. In 1945, Engelbart had read with interest Vannevar Bush's article "As We May Think", a call to action for making knowledge available as a national peacetime grand challenge, he had read something about the recent phenomenon of computers, from his experience as a radar technician, he knew that information could be analyzed and displayed on a screen. He envisioned intellectual workers sitting at display "working stations", flying through information space, harnessing their collective intellectual capacity to solve important problems together in much more powerful ways.
Harnessing collective intellect, facilitated by interactive computers, became his life's mission at a time when computers were viewed as number cru
Frederick "Fred" Gridley Kilgour was an American librarian and educator known as the founding director of OCLC, an international computer library network and database that changed the way people use libraries. He was its president and executive director from 1967 to 1980. Born in Springfield, Massachusetts to Edward Francis and Lillian Piper Kilgour, Kilgour earned a bachelor's degree in chemistry from Harvard College in 1935 and afterward held the position as assistant to the director of Harvard University Library. In 1940, he married Eleanor Margaret Beach, who had graduated from Mount Holyoke College and taken a job at the Harvard College Library, where they met. In 1942 to 1945, Kilgour served during World War II as a lieutenant in the U. S. Naval Reserve and was Executive Secretary and Acting Chairman of the U. S. government's Interdepartmental Committee for the Acquisition of Foreign Publications, which developed a system for obtaining publications from enemy and enemy-occupied areas. This organization of 150 persons in outposts around the world microfilmed newspapers and other printed information items and sent them back to Washington, DC.
An example of the kind of intelligence gathered was the Japanese "News for Sailors" reports that listed new minefields. These reports were sent from Washington, D. C. directly to Pearl Harbor and U. S. submarines in the Western Pacific. Kilgour received the Legion of Merit for his intelligence work in 1945, he worked at the United States Department of State as deputy director of the Office of Intelligence Collection and Dissemination from 1946 to 1948. In 1948, he was named Librarian of the Yale Medical Library. At Yale he was a lecturer in the history of science and technology and published many scholarly articles on those topics. While running the Yale University Medical Library, Kilgour began publishing studies and articles on library use and effectiveness, he asked his staff to collect empirical data, such as use of books and journals by categories of borrowers to guide selection and retention of titles. He viewed the library "not as a depository of knowledge," but as "an instrument of education."
At the dawn of library automation in the early 1970s, he was a member of the Library and Information Technology Association, an organization within the American Library Association, where he was president from 1973 to 1975. He joined the Ohio College Association in 1967 to develop OCLC and led the creation of a library network that today links 72,000 institutions in 170 countries, it first amassed the catalogs of 54 academic libraries in Ohio, launching in 1971 and expanding to non-Ohio libraries in 1977. Kilgour was president of OCLC from 1967 to 1980, presiding over its rapid growth from an intrastate network to an international network. In addition to creating the WorldCat database, he developed an online interlibrary loan system that libraries used to arrange nearly 10 million loans annually in 2005. Today, OCLC has offices in seven countries, its mission remains the same: to reduce library costs. In 1981 Kilgour stepped down from management but continued to serve on the OCLC Board of Trustees until 1995.
He was a distinguished research professor emeritus at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's School of Information and Library Science. He taught there from 1990, retiring in 2004, he had lived since 1990 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. He was survived by his wife and their daughters, Martha Kilgour and Alison Kilgour of New York City, Meredith Kilgour Perdiew of North Edison, New Jersey. Based in Dublin, Ohio, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest OPAC in the world. Under Kilgour's leadership, the nonprofit corporation introduced a shared cataloging system in 1971 for 54 Ohio academic libraries. WorldCat contains holding records from most private libraries worldwide. WorldCat is available through many libraries and university computer networks. In 1971, after four years of development, OCLC introduced its online shared cataloging system, which would achieve dramatic cost savings for libraries. For example, in the first year of system use, the Alden Library at Ohio University was able to increase the number of books it cataloged by a third, while reducing its staff by 17 positions.
Word of this new idea spread on campuses across the country, starting an online revolution in libraries that continues to this day. The shared cataloging system and database that Kilgour devised made it unnecessary for more than one library to catalog an item. Libraries would either use the cataloging information that existed in the database, or they would put it in for other libraries to use; the shared catalog provided information about materials in libraries in the rest of the network. For the first time, a user in one library could find out what was held in another library; the network grew outside Ohio to all 50 states and internationally. Because of his contributions to librarianship, OCLC and LITA, jointly sponsors an award named after Kilgour. Inaugurated in 1998 and awarded annually, it highlights research on information technology with a focus on "work that "shows the promise of having a positive and substantive impact on any aspect of the publication, storage and dissemination of information, or the processes by which information and data are manipulated and managed."
Kilgour is recognized as one of the leading figures in 20th century librarianship for his work in using computer networks to increase access to information
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, painter, urban planner and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930, his career spanned five decades, he designed buildings in Europe, Japan and North and South America. Dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities, Le Corbusier was influential in urban planning, was a founding member of the Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne. Le Corbusier prepared the master plan for the city of Chandigarh in India, contributed specific designs for several buildings there. On 17 July 2016, seventeen projects by Le Corbusier in seven countries were inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites as The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement. Charles-Édouard Jeanneret was born on 6 October 1887 in La Chaux-de-Fonds, a small city in the French-speaking Neuchâtel canton in north-western Switzerland, in the Jura mountains, just 5 kilometres across the border from France.
It was an industrial town, devoted to the manufacture of watches. His father was an artisan who enameled watches, while his mother gave piano lessons, his elder brother Albert was an amateur violinist. He attended a kindergarten. Like his contemporaries Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier did not have formal academic training as an architect, he was attracted to the visual arts and at the age of fifteen he entered the municipal art school in La-Chaux-de-Fonds which taught the applied arts connected with watchmaking. Three years he attended the higher course of decoration, founded by the painter Charles L'Eplattenier, who had studied in Budapest and Paris. Le Corbusier wrote that L'Eplattenier had made him "a man of the woods" and taught him painting from nature, his father took him into the mountains around the town. He wrote "we were on mountaintops, his architecture teacher in the Art School was the architect René Chapallaz, who had a large influence on Le Corbusier's earliest house designs.
However, he reported that it was the art teacher L'Eplattenier who made him choose architecture. "I had a horror of architecture and architects," he wrote. "... I was sixteen, I accepted the verdict and I obeyed. I moved into architecture." Le Corbusier began teaching himself by going to the library to read about architecture and philosophy, by visiting museums, by sketching buildings, by constructing them. In 1905, he and two other students, under the supervision of their teacher, René Chapallaz and built his first house, the Villa Fallet, for the engraver Louis Fallet, a friend of his teacher Charles L'Eplattenier. Located on the forested hillside near Chaux-de-fonds, it was a large chalet with a steep roof in the local alpine style and crafted colored geometric patterns on the façade. The success of this house led to his construction of two similar houses, the Villas Jacquemet and Stotzer, in the same area. In September 1907, he made his first trip outside of Switzerland. In Florence, he visited the Florence Charterhouse in Galluzzo, which made a lifelong impression on him.
"I would have liked to live in one of what they called their cells," he wrote later. "It was the solution for a unique kind of worker's housing, or rather for a terrestrial paradise." He traveled to Paris, during fourteen months between 1908 until 1910 he worked as a draftsman in the office of the architect Auguste Perret, the pioneer of the use of reinforced concrete in residential construction and the architect of the Art Deco landmark Théâtre des Champs-Élysées. Two years between October 1910 and March 1911, he traveled to Germany and worked four months in the office Peter Behrens, where Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius were working and learning. In 1911, he traveled again for five months, he spoke of what he saw during this trip in many of his books, it was the subject of his last book, Le Voyage d'Orient. In 1912, he began his most ambitious project. Located on the forested hillside near La-Chaux-de-Fonds; the Jeanneret-Perret house was larger than the others, in a more innovative style.
The interior spaces were organized around the four pillars of the salon in the center, foretelling the open interiors he would create in his buildings. The project was more expensive to build. However, it led to a commission to build an more imposing villa in the nearby village of Le Locle for a wealthy watch manufacturer. Georges Favre-Jacot. Le Corbusier designed the new house in less than a month; the building was designed to fit its hillside site, interior plan was spacious and designed around a courtyard for maximum light, significant de
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
J. C. R. Licklider
Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider, known as J. C. R. or "Lick", was an American psychologist and computer scientist, considered one of the most important figures in computer science and general computing history. He is remembered for being one of the first to foresee modern-style interactive computing and its application to all manner of activities, he did much to initiate this by funding research which led to much of it, including today's canonical graphical user interface, the ARPANET, the direct predecessor to the Internet. He has been called "computing's Johnny Appleseed", for planting the seeds of computing in the digital age, they were not new visions of their own. So he was the father of it all"; this quotation from the full-length biography of him, The Dream Machine, gives some sense of his impact: "More than a decade will pass before personal computers emerge from the garages of Silicon Valley, a full thirty years before the Internet explosion of the 1990s. The word computer still has an ominous tone, conjuring up the image of a huge, intimidating device hidden away in an over-lit, air-conditioned basement, relentlessly processing punch cards for some large institution: them."Yet, sitting in a nondescript office in McNamara's Pentagon, a quiet...civilian is planning the revolution that will change forever the way computers are perceived.
Somehow, the occupant of that office...has seen a future in which computers will empower individuals, instead of forcing them into rigid conformity. He is alone in his conviction that computers can become not just super-fast calculating machines, but joyful machines: tools that will serve as new media of expression, inspirations to creativity, gateways to a vast world of online information." Licklider was born on March 11, 1915, in St. Louis, United States, he was the only child of Joseph Parron Licklider, a Baptist minister, Margaret Robnett Licklider. Despite his father's religious background, he was not religious in life, he studied at Washington University in St. Louis, where he received a B. A. with a triple major in physics and psychology in 1937 and an M. A. in psychology in 1938. He received a Ph. D. in psychoacoustics from the University of Rochester in 1942. Thereafter, he worked at Harvard University as a research fellow and lecturer in the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory from 1943 to 1950.
He became interested in information technology, moved to MIT in 1950 as an associate professor, where he served on a committee that established MIT Lincoln Laboratory and a psychology program for engineering students. While at MIT, Licklider was involved in the SAGE project as head of the team concerned with human factors. In 1957, he received the Franklin V. Taylor Award from the Society of Engineering Psychologists. In 1958, he was elected President of the Acoustical Society of America, in 1990 he received the Commonwealth Award for Distinguished Service. Licklider left MIT to become a vice president at Bolt Beranek and Newman in 1957. In October 1962, Licklider was appointed head of the Information Processing Techniques Office at ARPA, the United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, an appointment he kept until sometime during 1964. In April 1963, he sent a memo to his colleagues in outlining the early challenges presented in establishing a time-sharing network of computers with the software of that time.
His vision led to ARPANet, the precursor of today's Internet. After serving as manager of information sciences and applications at IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York from 1964 to 1967, Licklider rejoined MIT as a professor of electrical engineering in 1968. During this period, he concurrently served as director of Project MAC until 1970. Project MAC had produced the first computer time-sharing system, CTSS, one of the first online setups with the development of Multics. Multics provided inspiration for some elements of the Unix operating system developed at Bell Labs by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie in 1970. Following a second stint as IPTO director, his MIT faculty line was transferred to the Institute's Laboratory for Computer Science, where he was based for the remainder of his career, he retired and became professor emeritus in 1985. He died in 1990 in Massachusetts. In the psychoacoustics field, Licklider is most remembered for his 1951 "Duplex Theory of Pitch Perception", presented in a paper, cited hundreds of times, was reprinted in a 1979 book, formed the basis for modern models of pitch perception.
He was the first to report binaural unmasking of speech. While at MIT in the 1950s, Licklider worked on Semi-Automatic Ground Environment, a Cold War project to create a computer-aided air defense system; the SAGE system included computers that collected and presented data to a human operator, who chose the appropriate response. Licklider worked as a human factors expert, which helped convince him of the great potential for human/computer interfaces. Licklider became interested in information technology early in his career, his ideas foretold of graphical computing, point-and-click interfaces, digital libraries, e-commerce
Universal Decimal Classification
The Universal Decimal Classification is a bibliographic and library classification representing the systematic arrangement of all branches of human knowledge organized as a coherent system in which knowledge fields are related and inter-linked. The UDC is an analytico-synthetic and faceted classification system featuring detailed vocabulary and syntax that enables powerful content indexing and information retrieval in large collections. Since 1991, the UDC has been owned and managed by the UDC Consortium, a non-profit international association of publishers with headquarters in The Hague. Unlike other library classification schemes that have started their life as national systems, the UDC was conceived and maintained as an international scheme, its translation in world languages started at the beginning of the 20th century and has since been published in various printed editions in over 40 languages. UDC Summary, an abridged Web version of the scheme is available in over 50 languages; the classification has been modified and extended over the years to cope with increasing output in all areas of human knowledge, is still under continuous review to take account of new developments.
Albeit designed as an indexing and retrieval system, due to its logical structure and scalability, UDC has become one of the most used knowledge organization systems in libraries, where it is used for either shelf arrangement, content indexing or both. UDC codes can describe any type of object to any desired level of detail; these can include textual documents and other media such as films and sound recordings, maps as well as realia such as museum objects. The UDC was developed by the Belgian bibliographers Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine at the end of the 19th century. In 1895, they created the Universal Bibliographic Repertory, intended to become a comprehensive classified index to all published information; the idea that the RBU should take the form of a card catalogue came from the young American zoologist Herbert Haviland Field, at the time himself setting up a bibliographical agency in Zurich, the Concilium Bibliographicum. A means of arranging the entries would be needed, Otlet, having heard of the Dewey Decimal Classification, wrote to Melvil Dewey and obtained permission to translate it into French.
The idea outgrew the plan of mere translation, a number of radical innovations were made, adapting the purely enumerative classification into one which allows for synthesis. In its first edition in French "Manuel du Répertoire bibliographique universel", the UDC included many features that were revolutionary in the context of knowledge classifications: tables of applicable concepts—called common auxiliary tables; the Universal Bibliographic Repertory. In the period before World War I it grew to more than 11 million records; the catalogue and its content organized by UDC can still be seen in Mundaneum in Belgium. UDC is used in around 150,000 libraries in 130 countries and in many bibliographical services which require detailed content indexing. In a number of countries it is the main classification system for information exchange and is used in all types of libraries: public, school and special libraries. UDC is used in national bibliographies of around 30 countries. Examples of large databases indexed by UDC include: NEBIS — 2.6 million records COBIB.
SI — 3.5 million records Hungarian National Union Catalogue — 2.9 million records VINITI RAS database with 28 million records Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts with 600 journal titles PORBASE with 1.5 million recordsUDC has traditionally been used for the indexing of scientific articles, an important source of information of scientific output in the period predating electronic publishing. Collections of research articles in many countries covering decades of scientific output contain UDC codes. Examples of journal articles indexed by UDC: UDC code 663.12:57.06 in the article "Yeast Systematics: from Phenotype to Genotype" in the journal Food Technology and Biotechnology UDC code 37.037:796.56, provided in the article "The game method as means of interface of technical-tactical and psychological preparation in sports orienteering" in the Russian journal "Pedagogico-psychological and medico-biological problems of the physical culture and sport". UDC code 621.715:621.924:539.3 in the article Residual Stress in Shot-Peened Sheets of AIMg4.5Mn Alloy - in the journal Materials and technology.
The design of UDC lends itself to machine readability, the system has been used both with early automatic mechanical sorting devices, modern library OPACs. Since 1993, a standard version of UDC has been maintained and distributed in a database format: UDC Master Referenc