Elections in Sweden
Elections to determine the makeup of the legislative bodies on the three levels of administrative division in the Kingdom of Sweden are held once every four years. At the highest level, these elections determine the allocation of seats in the Riksdag, the national legislative body of Sweden. Elections to the 20 county councils and 290 municipal assemblies – all using the same electoral system – are held concurrently with the legislative elections on the second Sunday in September. Sweden holds elections to the European Parliament, which unlike Swedish domestic elections are held in June every five years, although they are held on a Sunday and use an identical electoral system; the last Swedish general election was held on 9 September 2018. The last Swedish election to the European Parliament was held on 25 May 2014. Elections to Sweden's county councils occur with the general elections on the second Sunday of September. Elections to the municipal assemblies occur on the second Sunday of September.
Elections to the European Parliament occur every five years in June throughout the entire European Union. To vote in a Swedish general election, one must be:a Swedish citizen, at least 18 years of age on election day, have at some point been a registered resident of Sweden To vote in Swedish local elections, one must: be a registered resident of the county or municipality in question and be at least 18 years of age on election day fall into one of the following groups:Swedish citizens Citizens of Iceland, Norway, or any country in the European Union Citizens of any other country who have permanent residency in Sweden and have lived in Sweden for three consecutive yearsIn order to vote in elections to the European Parliament, one must be 18 years old, fall into one of the following groups: Swedish citizens who are or have been residents of Sweden Citizens of any other country in the European Union who are residents of Sweden. Unlike in many countries where voters chose from a list of candidates or parties, each party in Sweden has separate ballot papers.
The ballot papers must be identical in size and material, have different colors depending on the type of election: yellow for Riksdag elections, blue for county council elections and white for municipal elections and elections to the European Parliament. Sweden uses open lists and utilizes apparentment between lists of the same party and constituency to form a cartel, a group of lists that are allied for purposes of seat allocation. A single preference vote may be indicated as well. Swedish voters can choose between three different types of ballot papers; the party ballot paper has the name of a political party printed on the front and is blank on the back. This ballot is used when a voter wishes to vote for a particular party, but does not wish to give preference to a particular candidate; the name ballot paper has a party name followed by a list of candidates. A voter using this ballot can choose to cast a personal vote by entering a mark next to a particular candidate, in addition to voting for their political party.
Alternatively, a voter can write a party name on it. If a party hasn't registered its candidates with the election authority, it is possible for a voter to manually write the name of an arbitrary candidate. In reality, this option is exclusively available when voting for unestablished parties. However, it has caused individuals to be elected into the city council to represent parties they don't support as a result of a single voter's vote; the municipalities and the national election authority have the responsibility to organise the elections. On the election day, voting takes place in a municipal building such as a school, it is possible to do early voting in a municipal building, available in day time, such as a library. Early voting can be performed anywhere in Sweden, not just in the home municipality. Swedish election policy of always displaying the ballot papers for voters to select in public, making it impossible for many voters to vote secretly, has been criticised as undemocratic. Many use subterfuge and select bunches of additional ballots which they do not intend to use.
For the general elections, the State pays for the printing and distribution of ballot papers for any party which has received at least one percent of the vote nationally in either of the previous two elections. For local elections, any party, represented in the legislative body in question is entitled to free printing of ballot papers. In Riksdag elections, constituencies are coterminous with one of the Swedish counties, though the Counties of Stockholm, Skåne, Västra Götaland are divided into smaller electoral constituencies due to their larger populations; the number of available seats in each constituency is based on its number of voters, parties are apportioned seats in each constituency based on their votes in that constituency. In County Council elections, individual muni
Gothenburg Municipality is a municipality in Västra Götaland County in western Sweden. Its seat is located in the city of Gothenburg; the major part of the Gothenburg urban area is situated within the municipality, but there are some other localities as well as rural areas. When the first Swedish local government acts were implemented in 1863 the City of Gothenburg and chartered in 1621, became a city municipality with an elected city council, its territory has since been added through amalgamations in 1868, 1906, 1922, 1931, 1945, 1948, 1967 and 1974. The local government reform of 1971 made the city a unitary municipality, like all others in the country; the municipality prefers, however, to style itself Göteborgs stad, whenever possible. In March 2018 it was reported that the municipality and municipality-owned companies had 236 employees working with public relations, more than Stockholm, to a cost of 400 000 SEK daily or 151 million SEK annually. Billdal Brännö Donsö Gothenburg Hjuvik Nolvik Olofstorp Styrsö Säve Torslanda Vrångö The municipality has a municipal assembly, consisting of 81 members, elected for four years.
There are ten political parties represented in the council elected in 2018: Following the 2018 municipal elections, neither traditional coalition of parties was able to obtain a majority in the municipal assembly. The newly-formed Democrats party, whose primary campaign promise is to stop the construction of the West Link, obtained 14 seats in the assembly, making it the second-largest party; the Green Party and the Left Party announced on 6 November that they would draft their own municipal budget together, along with Feminist Initiative - thus abandoning their traditional cooperation with the Social Democrats. This has been recognized as the three parties forming a local political alliance, referred to as the Red-green-pink coalition; the municipal executive committee has 13 members, representing the six parties from the two major political coalitions who have seats in the assembly. The chairwoman of the municipal assembly is Åse-Lill Törnquist and the chairman of the municipal executive committee is Axel Josefson from the Moderate Party.
Sören Mannheimer, 1985-1988 Göran Johansson, 1988–1991 Johnny Magnusson, 1991–1994 Göran Johansson, 1994–2009 Anneli Hulthén, 2009–2016 Ann-Sofie Hermansson, 2016–2018 Axel Josefson, 2018– In 1990 the municipality was subdivided into 21 stadsdelsnämnder, sometimes translated to boroughs, which they are not. In 2009 the two district boards of Frölunda and Högsbo were joined together, it has been decided that from the start of 2011 many more will be joined together leaving 10 new district boards. The boards carry responsibility for primary school, social and cultural services within their respective areas. In the election of 1998 three boroughs held local referendums on forming their own municipalities, but their petitions were rejected by the government of Sweden. Boroughs: Twin towns: Bergen, Norway Turku, Finland Aarhus Municipality, Denmark Partner cities: Shanghai, China Port Elizabeth, South Africa Lyon, FranceThe cooperation with the South African city of Port Elizabeth is a partnership fostering development of common fields of interest such as solid waste management, public libraries and tourism.
Sister cities: Chicago, United States Kraków, Poland Saint Petersburg, Russia Tallinn, Estonia Rostock, Germany Regional: Oslo, Norway Gothenburg Gothenburg Law Court goteborg.se - Official site for city of Gothenburg goteborg.se/english - Official web page for short English description of the content in city of Gothenburg site international.goteborg.se - Official international site for city of Gothenburg
Malmö Municipality, or City of Malmö, is a municipality in Scania, the southernmost Swedish province. When the first Swedish local government acts were implemented in 1863, the Old City of Malmö was made one of the country's 88 city municipalities and the first city council was elected; the municipal territory has been augmented through mergers in 1911, 1915, 1931, 1935, 1952, 1967 and in 1971. In 1971, the city was converted into a municipality of unitary type, like all others in Sweden. Malmö Municipality, styles itself Malmö stad in all cases when it is possible; this is a decision taken by the municipal assembly. It has no effect on the legal status of the municipality. There are four smaller localities in the municipality; the localities are listed in the table according to the size of the population in 2010. The municipal seat is in bold characters. Note that a small part of Malmö is situated in Burlöv Municipality. After a reform on 1 July 2013, Malmö Municipality is divided into five city districts.
They manage public kindergartens and geriatric care within their geographical areas, provide funds for local cultural and recreational activities. There are 136 neighbourhoods. Before the reform on July 2013, Malmö Municipality was divided into ten city districts after the 1996 City District Reform; the municipal legislative body of the municipality is the 61-member municipal assembly, elected by proportional representation for a four-year term. The assembly appoints the municipality's main governing bodies, the 11-member executive committee and the 8 governing commissioners; the executive committee and the commissioners are headed by a municipal commissioner or "mayor". The mayor is Katrin Stjernfeldt Jammeh of the Social Democratic Party. There are seven political parties represented in the council elected in 2014: Social Democratic Party, Moderate Party, Sweden Democrats, Green Party, Left Party, Liberal People's Party and Feminist Initiative; as of 2011, Malmö has town twinning treaties of co-operation signed with 13 cities.
Of these, cooperation is closest with Newcastle, the province of Chieti and with Vaasa. The complete list of cities is the following: Metropolitan Malmö Malmö stad - official website Malmostadwebbvideo - official YouTube channel
Swedish-speaking population of Finland
The Swedish-speaking population of Finland is a linguistic minority in Finland. They maintain a strong identity and are seen either as a separate ethnic group, while still being Finns, or as a distinct nationality, they speak Finland Swedish, which encompasses both a standard language and distinct dialects that are mutually intelligible with the dialects spoken in Sweden and, to a lesser extent, other Scandinavian languages. According to Statistics Finland, Swedish is the mother tongue of about 270,000 people in mainland Finland and of about 25,000 people in Åland, a self-governing archipelago of islands off the west coast of Finland, where Swedish speakers constitute a majority. Swedish-speakers comprise 5.4 % of about 4.9 % without Åland. The proportion has been diminishing since the early 19th century, when Swedish was the mother tongue of 15% of the population and considered a prestige language. According to a statistical analysis made by Fjalar Finnäs, the population of the minority group is today stable and may be increasing in total numbers since more parents from bilingual families tend to register their children as Swedish speakers.
It is estimated that 70% of bilingual families—that is, ones with one parent Finnish-speaking and the other Swedish-speaking—register their children as Swedish-speaking. The Swedish term finlandssvensk, used by the group itself, does not have an established English translation; the Society of Swedish Authors in Finland and the main political institutions for the Swedish-speaking minority such as the Swedish People's Party and Swedish Assembly of Finland use the expression Swedish-speaking population of Finland, but Swedish-speaking NGOs use the term Finland-Swedes. The Research Institute for the Languages of Finland proposes Swedish-speaking Finns, Swedish Finns, or Finland-Swedes, the first of, the sole form used on the institute's website; some debators insist for the use of the more traditional English-language form, Finland-Swedes, as they view the labelling of them as Swedish-speaking Finns as a way of depriving them their ethnic affiliation, reducing it to a matter of language and de-emphasising the "Swedish part" of Finland-Swedish identity, i.e. their relations to Sweden.
Among Finnish Americans the term Swede-Finn became dominant before the independence of Finland in 1917, the term has remained common to the present, despite immigrants tending to use different terms such as Finland-Swede. The expressions Swedish-speaking Finns, Swedes of Finland, Finland Swedes, Finnish Swedes, Swedish Finns are all used in academic literature; the origin of the Swedish-speaking population in the territory that today constitutes Finland was a subject of fierce debate in the early 20th century as a part of the Finland's language strife. Some Finland-Swede scholars, such as Ralf Saxén, Knut Hugo Pipping and Tor Karsten, used place names in trying to prove that the Swedish settlement in Finland dates back to prehistoric times, their views were opposed by Heikki Ojansuu in the 1920s. In 1966, the historian Hämäläinen addressed the strong correlation between the scholar's mother-tongue and the views on the Scandinavian settlement history of Finland. "Whereas Finnish-speaking scholars tended to deny or minimize the presence of Swedish-speakers before the documented Swedish expeditions starting from the 12th century, Swedish-speaking scholars have found archeological and philological evidence for a continuous and Swedish or Germanic presence in Finland from pre-historic times."
Since the late 20th century, several Swedish-speaking philologists and historians from Finland have criticized the theories of Germanic/Scandinavian continuity in Finland. Current research has established that the Swedish-speaking population and Swedish place names in Finland date to the Swedish colonisation of Uusimaa and Ostrobothnia coastal regions of Finland in the 12th and 13th centuries; the first Swedish arrivals in Finland have been linked to the putative First Swedish Crusade which, if it took place, served to expand Christianity and annex Finnish territories to the kingdom of Sweden. The growth of population in Sweden, together with lack of land, resulted in Swedish settlements in Southern and Western coastal areas of Finland; the Second Swedish Crusade against the Tavastians in the 13th century extended the Swedish settlements to Uusimaa. During the 14th century, the population expansion from Sweden proper took the form of organised mass migration: the new settlers came in large numbers in large ships from various parts of Sweden's Eastern coast, from Småland to Hälsingland.
Their departure from Sweden proper to Finland was encouraged and organized by the Swedish authorities. The coast of Ostrobothnia received large-scale Swedish settlements during the 13th and 15th centuries, in parallel with events that resulted in Swedish expansion to Norrland and Estonia's coastal area; the proportion of Swedish speakers in Finland has declined since the 18th century, when 20% spoke Swedish. When the Grand Duchy of Finland was formed and Karelia was reunited with Finland, the share of Swedish speakers was 15% of the population. During the 19th century a national awakening oc
Party-list proportional representation
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation in elections in which multiple candidates are elected through allocations to an electoral list. They can be used as part of mixed additional member systems. In these systems, parties make lists of candidates to be elected, seats get distributed to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives. Voters may vote directly for the party, as in Albania, Argentina and Israel. Voters in Luxembourg's multi-seat constituencies can choose between voting for a complete list of candidates of a single party or voting for individual candidates from one or several lists; the order in which a party's list candidates get elected may be pre-determined by some method internal to the party or the candidates or it may be determined by the voters at large or by districts. Many variations on seat allocation within party-list proportional representation exist; the two most common are: The highest average method, including the D'Hondt method used in Albania, Austria, Croatia, Estonia, Israel, Poland and many other countries.
The largest remainder methods, including the Hamilton method. List proportional representation may be combined in various hybrids, e.g. using the additional member system. List of main apportionment methods: Macanese "d'Hondt method" Webster/Sainte-Laguë method, LR-Hare LR-Droop D'Hondt method Huntington-Hill method LR-Imperiali While the allocation formula is important important is the district magnitude; the higher the district magnitude, the more proportional an electoral system becomes - the most proportional being when there is no division into constituencies at all and the entire country is treated as a single constituency. More, in some countries the electoral system works on two levels: at-large for parties, in constituencies for candidates, with local party-lists seen as fractions of general, national lists. In this case, magnitude of local constituencies is irrelevant, seat apportionment being calculated at national level. In France, party lists in proportional elections must include as many candidates as there are seats to be allocated, whereas in other countries "incomplete" lists are allowed.
Proportional representation Comparison of the Hare and Droop quotas Outline of democracy List MP Ley de Lemas Sectoral representation in the House of Representatives of the Philippines Advantages and disadvantages of List PR - from the ACE Project Open and Free Lists - from the ACE Project Handbook of Electoral System Choice Apportionment, or How to Round Seat Numbers Glossary of Electoral Formulas