Nendeln is a village of Liechtenstein, located in the municipality of Eschen. Prior to the establishment of the village, the Roman Empire had a presence here. Villas from that time period have been excavated at Nendeln; the village is located in north-central Liechtenstein, on the main road Schaan-Schaanwald that links the country with Buchs and Feldkirch. Closer villages to Nendeln are Schaanwald, Mauren and Planken; as rail transport, Nendeln counts a railway station on the Feldkirch-Buchs line. Media related to Nendeln at Wikimedia Commons
Liechtenstein the Principality of Liechtenstein, is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Alpine Central Europe. The principality is a constitutional monarchy headed by the Prince of Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is bordered by Switzerland to Austria to the east and north, it is Europe's fourth-smallest country, with an area of just over 160 square kilometres and a population of 37,877. Divided into 11 municipalities, its capital is Vaduz, its largest municipality is Schaan, it is the smallest country to border two countries. Economically, Liechtenstein has one of the highest gross domestic products per person in the world when adjusted for purchasing power parity, it was once known as a billionaire tax haven, but is no longer on any blacklists of uncooperative tax haven countries. An Alpine country, Liechtenstein is mountainous, making it a winter sport destination; the country has a strong financial sector centered in Vaduz. 20,000 people commute to work in Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is a member of the United Nations, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, although not a member of the European Union, it participates in both the Schengen Area and the European Economic Area.
It has a customs union and a monetary union with Switzerland. The oldest traces of human existence in what is now Liechtenstein date back to the Middle Paleolithic era. Neolithic farming settlements were founded in the valleys around 5300 BCE; the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures flourished during the late Iron Age, from around 450 BCE—possibly under some influence of both the Greek and Etruscan civilisations. One of the most important tribal groups in the Alpine region were the Helvetii. In 58 BCE, at the Battle of Bibracte, Julius Caesar defeated the Alpine tribes, therefore bringing the region under close control of the Roman Republic. By 15 BCE, Tiberius—destined to be the second Roman emperor—with his brother, conquered the entirety of the Alpine area. Liechtenstein was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia; the area was maintained by the Roman military, who maintained large legionary camps at Brigantium, near Lake Constance, at Magia. A Roman road which ran through the territory was created and maintained by these groups.
In 259/60 Brigantium was destroyed by the Alemanni, a Germanic people who settled in the area in around 450 CE. In the Early Middle Ages, the Alemanni settled the eastern Swiss plateau by the 5th century and the valleys of the Alps by the end of the 8th century, with Liechtenstein located at the eastern edge of Alemannia. In the 6th century, the entire region became part of the Frankish Empire following Clovis I's victory over the Alemanni at Tolbiac in 504; the area that became Liechtenstein remained under Frankish hegemony, until the empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843 CE, following the death of Charlemagne. The territory of present-day Liechtenstein was under the possession of East Francia, it would be reunified with Middle Francia under the Holy Roman Empire, around 1000 CE. Until about 1100, the predominant language of the area was Romansch, but thereafter German began to gain ground in the territory. In 1300, an Alemannic population—the Walsers, who originated in Valais—entered the region and settled.
The mountain village of Triesenberg still preserves features of Walser dialect into the present century. By 1200, dominions across the Alpine plateau were controlled by the Houses of Savoy, Zähringer and Kyburg. Other regions were accorded the Imperial immediacy that granted the empire direct control over the mountain passes; when the Kyburg dynasty fell in 1264, the Habsburgs under King Rudolph I extended their territory to the eastern Alpine plateau that included the territory of Liechtenstein. This region was enfeoffed to the Counts of Hohenems until the sale to the Liechtenstein dynasty in 1699. In 1396 Vaduz gained imperial immediacy; the family, from which the principality takes its name came from Liechtenstein Castle in Lower Austria which they had possessed from at least 1140 until the 13th century. The Liechtensteins acquired land, predominantly in Moravia, Lower Austria and Styria; as these territories were all held in feudal tenure from more senior feudal lords various branches of the Habsburgs, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet a primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial diet, the Reichstag.
Though several Liechtenstein princes served several Habsburg rulers as close advisers, without any territory held directly from the Imperial throne, they held little power in the Holy Roman Empire. For this reason, the family sought to acquire lands that would be classed as unmittelbar or held without any intermediate feudal tenure, directly from the Holy Roman Emperor. During the early 17th century Karl I of Liechtenstein was made a Fürst by the Holy Roman Emperor Matthias after siding with him in a political battle. Hans-Adam I was allowed to purchase the minuscule Herrschaft of Schellenberg and county of Vaduz from the Hohenems. Tiny Schellenberg and Vaduz had the political status required: no feudal lord other than their comital sovereign and the suzerain Emperor. On 23 January 1719, after the lands had been purchased, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed that Vaduz and Schellenberg were united and elevated the newly formed terri
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Mauren is a municipality in Liechtenstein, situated in the north of the country. It has a population of 4,300; the Curta mechanical calculator was produced in Mauren. It was first mentioned as "Muron" in documents from 1178. There is historian Peter Kaiser located in Mauren. Peter Kaiser was a historian and statesman, known as a proponent of the rights of the common people or serfs in his home country Fritz Kaiser a wealth management entrepreneur and philanthropist Dominique Hasler a Liechtensteiner politician, Minister of Home Affairs and Environment since 2017, she grew up in Mauren Jürgen Berginz is a bobsledder who competed for Liechtenstein at the 2010 Winter Olympics Media related to Mauren at Wikimedia Commons Official website Liechtenstein Portal
Schaanwald is a village of Liechtenstein, located in the municipality of Mauren. Prior to the establishment of the village, the Roman Empire had a presence here. Villas from that time period have been excavated at Schaanwald; the village is located in north-central Liechtenstein, close to Austrian borders of Feldkirch, on the main road from Schaan that links the country with Buchs and Feldkirch. Nearest places are Mauren and Nendeln; as rail transport, Schaanwald counts a train station on the Feldkirch-Buchs line. At the border of the town it is located a customs with Austria. Melitta Marxer Media related to Schaanwald at Wikimedia Commons
Eschen is a municipality in the north of Liechtenstein. It has a population of 4,375, covers an area of 10.3 square kilometres. It is the fourth-largest town in Liechtenstein by population; the municipality includes the village of Nendeln, which has a train station on the Feldkirch-Buchs line. Gerard Batliner an attorney-at-law and was Head of Government of Liechtenstein 1962–1970 Marlies Amann-Marxer a politician from Liechtenstein, former Minister of Infrastructure and Sport until 2017.
Politics of Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein is a principality governed under a constitutional monarchy. It has a form of mixed constitution in which political power is shared by the monarch and a democratically elected parliament. There is a two-party system and a form of representative democracy in which the prime minister and head of government is responsible to parliament; however the Prince of Liechtenstein exercises considerable political powers. The executive power is exercised by the Cabinet of Liechtenstein. Legislative power is vested in the Landtag; the party system is dominated by the conservative Progressive Citizens' Party and the liberal-conservative Patriotic Union. The Judiciary is independent of the legislature. On 15 August 2002, in his National Day Address, Prince Hans-Adam II announced that after months of intensive negotiations, a compromise in the debate on constitutional reform had been reached. On 13 September, Prime Minister Otmar Hasler confirmed to Parliament that his government was drafting a bill for Parliament based on the compromise reached between the Prince and the Citizens' Forum.
The draft bill, which would increase the executive powers of the monarch, went before Parliament for a first reading in November. Once approved by Parliament, the bill was presented to voters in a referendum, approved by 64% of those voting on 16 March 2003; the monarch is hereditary. Following legislative elections, the head of government is appointed by the prince and proposed and voted on by the parliament, thus the government is composed of the members of the majority party. It is, however customary that the leader of the largest minority party in the Diet is appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch. According to the constitution of Liechtenstein, the government is a collegiate body and consists of the head of government and four governmental councilors. Amendment to the constitution or new law have to be adopted by Parliament, signed by both the Prince and the head of government, published in the Principality's Law Gazette. Prince Hans Adam II is the current head of state, his constitutional powers include the power to veto any legislation, to be used at his discretion, as well as the dissolution of the parliament.
He represents. He signs international treaties either in delegates this function to a plenipotentiary; some treaties under international law only become valid. On the basis of the names put forward by Parliament, the Prince nominates the government and high court judges, the judges of the Supreme Court, the presidents and their deputies of the Constitutional Court and of the Administrative Court of Appeal; the Prince's other authorities include exercising the right to mitigate and commute punishments that have been imposed with legal force and the abolition — i.e. the dismissal — of investigations that have been initiated. All judgments are issued in the name of the Prince; the Government of Liechtenstein is based on the principle of collegiality. The government consists of the head of four Councilors; the members of the government are appointed by the Prince. Only men or women born in Liechtenstein, who are eligible to be elected to Parliament, may be elected to the government committee; the two electoral areas of the country, the highlands and the lowlands, are entitled to at least two members of the government, their respective deputies must come from the same area.
The Prince's involvement in legislation consists in a right to take initiatives in the form of government bills and in the right to veto parliamentary proposals. The Prince has the power to enact princely decrees. Emergency princely decrees are possible when the welfare of the country is at stake. A countersignature by the head of government is required; the Prince has the right to convene and adjourn parliament and, for serious reasons, to adjourn it for 3 months or to dissolve it. The Landtag of Liechtenstein has 25 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation in two multi-seat constituencies; until 1989, 15 members represented the population of the two constituencies. Since 1989 the lowland constituency has been entitled to have 10 members and the highland area 15; the Landtag's main task is to discuss and adopt resolutions on constitutional proposals and draft government bills. It has the additional duties of giving its assent to important international treaties; the Landtag observes its rights and duties in the course of sessions of the whole Landtag and through the parliamentary commissions that it elects.
All members of the Landtag exercise their mandates in addition to their normal professions or occupations. The President of the Landtag and his deputy are both elected at the opening meeting for the current year; the president convenes the individual meetings during the session, leads them, represent the Landtag externally. During the parliamentary recess — from January to February/March — a "state committee" assumes Parliament's duties, such a committee must be elected in the case of any adjournment or dissolution of Parliament. A "state committee" consists of the president of four other members; the duties and working procedures of Parl