A county court is a court based in or with a jurisdiction covering one or more counties, which are administrative divisions within a country, not to be confused with the medieval system of county courts held by the high sheriff of each county. Since 2014, England and Wales have had what is described as "a single civil court" named the County Court, with unlimited financial jurisdiction; however it should be understood that there are County Court buildings and courtrooms throughout England and Wales, not one single location. It is "a single civil court" in the sense of a single centrally organised and administered court system. Before 2014 there were numerous separate county court systems, each with jurisdiction across England and Wales for enforcement of its orders, but each with a defined "county court district" from which it took claims. County court districts did not have the same boundaries as counties: the name was used because the county courts had evolved from courts which did in fact correspond to a county's territory.
Today the court sits in many County Court centres corresponding to the old individual county courts. County Court matters can be lodged at a court in person, by post or via the Internet in some cases through the County Court Bulk Centre. Cases are heard at the court having jurisdiction over the area where the claimant lives. Most matters are decided by a district circuit judge sitting alone. Civil matters in England do not have juries. Judges in the County Court are either former barristers or former solicitors, whereas in the High Court they are more to have been a barrister. Civil claims with an amount in controversy under £10,000 are dealt with in the County Court under the small claims track. Claims between £5,000 and £25,000 that are capable of being tried within one day are allocated to the "fast track" and claims over £25,000 to the "multi track." These'tracks' are labels for the use of the court system - the actual cases will be heard in the County Court or the High Court depending on their value.
For personal injury and some landlord-tenant dispute cases the thresholds for each track have different values. Appeals are to a higher judge, the High Court of Justice or to the Court of Appeal, as the case may be. In debt cases, the aim of a claimant taking County Court action against a defendant is to secure a County Court judgment; this is a legal order to pay the full amount of the debt. Judgments can be enforced at the request of the claimant in a number of ways, including requesting the Court Bailiffs to seize goods, the proceeds of any sale being used to pay the debt, or an Attachment of Earnings Order, where the defendant's employer is ordered to make deductions from the gross wages to pay the claimant. County Court judgments are recorded in the Register of Judgments and Fines and in the defendant's credit records held by credit reference agencies; this information is used in consumer credit scores, making it difficult or more expensive for the defendant to obtain credit. In order to avoid the record being kept for years in the register, the debt must be settled within thirty days after the date the County Court judgment was served.
If the debt was not paid within the statutory period, the entry will remain for six full years. County court is the name given to the intermediate court in one Australian state, namely the County Court of Victoria, they hear indictable criminal offences except for treason and manslaughter. Their civil jurisdiction is intermediate over civil disputes where the amount claimed is greater than a few tens of thousands of dollars but less than a few hundreds of thousands of dollars; the limits vary between states. In some states the same level of court is called a district court. Below them are the magistrates courts. Above them are the state supreme courts; some states adopt the two-tier appellate system, with the magistrates courts below and the state supreme courts above. In Northern Ireland there are seven county courts, following the same model as those of England and Wales before unification in 2014; these are the main civil courts. While higher-value cases are heard in the High Court, the county courts hear a wide range of civil actions, consumer claims, appeals from magistrates' courts.
The county courts are called family care centres when hearing proceedings brought under the Children Order 1995 and appeals from the family proceedings courts. Many United States states have a county court system, which may be purely administrative focused on registration of properties and deeds or most may have jurisdiction over civil cases such as lawsuits and criminal courts and jails where trials from misdemeanors to felony cases are centered about a common jail system managed by the county Sheriffs departments. For example, in Texas, county courts handle Class A and B misdemeanors, share jurisdiction with justice of the peace and district courts on some mid-size civil cases, have appellate jurisdiction from municipal and justice of the peace court cases. With the growth of the largest cities, many large urban centers have subsumed whole or most of c
The Riksdag is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with 349 members, elected proportionally and serving, from 1994 onwards, on fixed four-year terms; the constitutional functions of the Riksdag are enumerated in the Instrument of Government, its internal workings are specified in greater detail in the Riksdag Act. The seat of the Riksdag is at Parliament House, on the island of Helgeandsholmen in the central parts of Stockholm; the Riksdag has its institutional roots in the feudal Riksdag of the Estates, by tradition thought to have first assembled in Arboga in 1435, in 1866 following reforms of the 1809 Instrument of Government that body was transformed into a bicameral legislature with an upper chamber and a lower chamber. The most recent general election was held on 9 September 2018; the Swedish word riksdag, in definite form riksdagen, is a general term for "parliament" or "assembly", but it is only used for Sweden's legislature and certain related institutions.
In addition to Sweden's parliament, it is used for the Parliament of Finland and the Estonian Riigikogu, as well as the historical German Reichstag and the Danish Rigsdagen. In Swedish use, riksdagen is uncapitalized. Riksdag derives from the genitive of rike, referring to royal power, dag, meaning diet or conference; the Oxford English Dictionary traces English use of the term "Riksdag" in reference to the Swedish assembly back to 1855. The roots of the modern Riksdag can be found in a 1435 meeting of the Swedish nobility in the city of Arboga; this informal organization was modified in 1527 by the first modern Swedish king Gustav I Vasa to include representatives from all the four social estates: the nobility, the clergy, the burghers, the yeomanry. This form of Ständestaat representation lasted until 1865, when representation by estate was abolished and the modern bicameral parliament established. However, it did not become a parliament in the modern sense until parliamentary principles were established in the political system in Sweden, in 1917.
On 22 June 1866, the Riksdag decided to reconstitute itself as a bicameral legislature, consisting of Första kammaren or the First Chamber, with 155 members and Andra kammaren or the Second Chamber with 233 members. The First Chamber was indirectly elected by county and city councillors, while the Second Chamber was directly elected by universal suffrage; this reform was a result of great malcontent with the old Estates, following the changes brought by the beginnings of the industrial revolution, was no longer able to provide representation for large segments of the population. By an amendment to the 1809 Instrument of Government, the general election of 1970 was the first to a unicameral assembly with 350 seats; the following general election to the unicameral Riksdag in 1973 only gave the Government the support of 175 members, while the opposition could mobilize an equal force of 175 members. In a number of cases a tied vote ensued, the final decision had to be determined by lot. To avoid any reccurrence of this unstable situation, the number of seats in the Riksdag was reduced to 349, from 1976 onwards.
The Riksdag performs the normal functions of a legislature in a parliamentary democracy. It amends the constitution and appoints a government. In most parliamentary democracies, the head of state commissions a politician to form a government. Under the new Instrument of Government enacted in 1974, that task was removed from the Monarch of Sweden and given to the Speaker of the Riksdag. To make changes to the Constitution under the new Instrument of Government, amendments must be approved twice, in two successive electoral periods with a regular general election held in between. There are 15 parliamentary committees in the Riksdag; as of February 2013, 44.7 percent of the members of the Riksdag are women. This is the world's fourth highest proportion of females in a national legislature—behind only the Parliaments of Rwanda and Cuba – hence the second-highest in the developed world and among parliamentary democracies. Following the 2014 elections, in which the share of Liberal female members of parliament plunged and the Sweden Democrats more than doubled their seats, the figure dropped to 43,5%.
Only the Left Party has a majority of female MPs. Members of the Riksdag are full-time legislators with a salary of 66 900 SEK per month. According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Members of the Riksdag have an average work week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports; the presidium consists of three deputy speakers. They are elected for a 4-year term. After holding talks with leaders of the various party groups in the Riksdag, the speaker of the Riksdag nominates a Prime Minister; the nomination is put to a vote. The nomination is rejected only if an absolute majority of the members vote "no"; this means the Riksdag can consent to a Prime Min
According to many definitions, a disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, intellectual, physical, sensory, or some combination of these. Other definitions describe disability as the societal disadvantage arising from such impairments. Disability affects a person's life activities and may be present from birth or occur during a person's lifetime. Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body structure. Disability is thus not just a health problem, it is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. Disability is a contested concept, with different meanings in different communities, it may be used to refer to physical or mental attributes that some institutions medicine, view as needing to be fixed. It may refer to limitations imposed on people by the constraints of an ableist society. Or the term may serve to refer to the identity of disabled people.
Physiological functional capacity is a related term that describes an individual's performance level. It gauges one's ability to perform the physical tasks of daily life and the ease with which these tasks are performed. PFC declines with advancing age to result in frailty, cognitive disorders or physical disorders, all of which may lead to labeling individuals as disabled; the discussion over disability's definition arose out of disability activism in the United States and the United Kingdom in the 1970s, which challenged how the medical concept of disability dominated perception and discourse about disabilities. Debates about proper terminology and their implied politics continue in disability communities and the academic field of disability studies. In some countries, the law requires that disabilities are documented by a healthcare provider in order to assess qualifications for disability benefits. For the purposes of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations provide a list of conditions that should be concluded to be disabilities: deafness, blindness, an intellectual disability or missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair, cancer, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia.
Contemporary understandings of disability derive from concepts that arose during the West's scientific Enlightenment. During the Middle Ages and other conditions were thought to be caused by demons, they were thought to be part of the natural order during and in the fallout of the Plague, which wrought impairments throughout the general population. In the early modern period there was a shift to seeking biological causes for physical and mental differences, as well as heightened interest in demarcating categories: for example, Ambroise Pare, in the sixteenth century, wrote of "monsters", "prodigies", "the maimed"; the European Enlightenment's emphases on knowledge derived from reason and on the value of natural science to human progress helped spawn the birth of institutions and associated knowledge systems that observed and categorized human beings. Contemporary concepts of disability are rooted in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century developments. Foremost among these was the development of clinical medical discourse, which made the human body visible as a thing to be manipulated and transformed.
These worked in tandem with scientific discourses that sought to classify and categorize and, in so doing, became methods of normalization. The concept of the "norm" developed in this time period, is signaled in the work of the Belgian statistician, sociologist and astronomer Adolphe Quetelet, who wrote in the 1830s of l'homme moyen – the average man. Quetelet postulated that one could take the sum of all people's attributes in a given population and find their average, that this figure should serve as a norm toward which all should aspire; this idea of a statistical norm threads through the rapid take up of statistics gathering by Britain, United States, the Western European states during this time period, it is tied to the rise of eugenics. Disability, as well as other concepts including: abnormal, non-normal, normalcy came from this; the circulation of these concepts is evident in the popularity of the freak show, where showmen profited from exhibiting people who deviated from those norms.
With the rise of eugenics in the latter part of the nineteenth century, such deviations were viewed as dangerous to the health of entire populations. With disability viewed as part of a person's biological make-up and thus their genetic inheritance, scientists turned their attention to notions of weeding such "deviations" out of the gene pool. Various metrics for assessing a person's genetic fitness, which were used to deport, sterilize, or institutionalize those deemed unfit. At the end of the Second World War, with the example of Nazi eugenics, eugenics faded from public discourse, d
Environmental health is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health. Environmental health is focused on the natural and built environments for the benefit of human health; the major subdisciplines of environmental health are: environmental science. Other terms referring to or concerning environmental health are environmental public health, public health protection/ environmental health protection. Environmental health has been defined in a 1999 document by the World Health Organization as: Those aspects of the human health and disease that are determined by factors in the environment is called environmental health, it refers to the theory and practice of assessing and controlling factors in the environment that can affect health. Environmental health as used by the WHO Regional Office for Europe, includes both the direct pathological effects of chemicals and some biological agents, the effects on health and well being of the broad physical, psychological and cultural environment, which includes housing, urban development, land use and transport.
As of 2016 the WHO website on environmental health states "Environmental health addresses all the physical and biological factors external to a person, all the related factors impacting behaviours. It encompasses the assessment and control of those environmental factors that can affect health, it is targeted towards creating health-supportive environments. This definition excludes behaviour not related to environment, as well as behaviour related to the social and cultural environment, as well as genetics."The WHO has defined environmental health services as "those services which implement environmental health policies through monitoring and control activities. They carry out that role by promoting the improvement of environmental parameters and by encouraging the use of environmentally friendly and healthy technologies and behaviors, they have a leading role in developing and suggesting new policy areas."The term environmental medicine may be seen as a medical specialty, or branch of the broader field of environmental health.
Terminology is not established, in many European countries they are used interchangeably. Five basic disciplines contribute to the field of environmental health: environmental epidemiology, exposure science, environmental engineering, environmental law; each of these disciplines contributes different information to describe problems and solutions in environmental health, but there is some overlap among them. Environmental epidemiology studies the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Observational studies, which observe exposures that people have experienced, are common in environmental epidemiology because humans cannot ethically be exposed to agents that are known or suspected to cause disease. While the inability to use experimental study designs is a limitation of environmental epidemiology, this discipline directly observes effects on human health rather than estimating effects from animal studies. Toxicology studies how environmental exposures lead to specific health outcomes in animals, as a means to understand possible health outcomes in humans.
Toxicology has the advantage of being able to conduct randomized controlled trials and other experimental studies because they can use animal subjects. However there are many differences in animal and human biology, there can be a lot of uncertainty when interpreting the results of animal studies for their implications for human health. Exposure science studies human exposure to environmental contaminants by both identifying and quantifying exposures. Exposure science can be used to support environmental epidemiology by better describing environmental exposures that may lead to a particular health outcome,identify common exposures whose health outcomes may be better understood through a toxicology study, or can be used in a risk assessment to determine whether current levels of exposure might exceed recommended levels. Exposure science has the advantage of being able to accurately quantify exposures to specific chemicals, but it does not generate any information about health outcomes like environmental epidemiology or toxicology.
Environmental engineering applies scientific and engineering principles for protection of human populations from the effects of adverse environmental factors. Environmental law includes the network of treaties, regulations and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment. Information from epidemiology and exposure science can be combined to conduct a risk assessment for specific chemicals, mixtures of chemicals or other risk factors to determine whether an exposure poses significant risk to human health; this can in turn be used to develop and implement environmental health policy that, for example, regulates chemical emissions, or imposes standards for proper sanitation. Actions of engineering and law can be combined to provide risk management to minimize and otherwise manage the impact of exposure to protect human health to achieve the objectives of environmental health policy. Environmental health addresses all human-health-related aspects of the natural environment and the built environment.
Parishes of the Church of Sweden
The Parishes of the Church of Sweden are subdivisions within the Church of Sweden that were called socken but nowadays are called församling. Similar units were used for cadastral purposes until the 20th century. After the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century the church became a state church and as such was charged with administrative tasks like as keeping the civic registry. Parishes were used as cadastral units, sometimes with different borders. Religious and civil matters became separated in two entities within the same district, the religious congregation and the civil parish or rural municipality; the civil parish handled municipal tasks, but the congregation still retained a significant share of influence, including responsibility for schools. The civil parishes were merged to larger municipalities, in most cases in 1952; some civil parishes remained as separate municipalities until the mergers of 1967–1974 and in a few cases after that. The cadastral parishes remained until a reform between 1976 and 1995, where they were replaced by the municipalities.
On July 1, 1991, the Swedish Tax Agency took over the remaining duties related to the population register from the parishes. The Church of Sweden was separated from the Swedish state on 1 January 2000, but its parishes are still used in official statistics; the parishes have seen major geographical changes since that date, so records are kept for both parishes as of 2000 and parishes as of today. However, this ended on 1 January 2016. List of dioceses and parishes of the Church of Sweden
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from municipal wastewater, containing household sewage plus some industrial wastewater. Physical and biological processes are used to remove contaminants and produce treated wastewater, safe enough for release into the environment. A by-product of sewage treatment is a semi-solid slurry, called sewage sludge; the sludge has to undergo further treatment before being suitable for disposal or application to land. Sewage treatment may be referred to as wastewater treatment. However, the latter is a broader term which can refer to industrial wastewater. For most cities, the sewer system will carry a proportion of industrial effluent to the sewage treatment plant which has received pre-treatment at the factories themselves to reduce the pollutant load. If the sewer system is a combined sewer it will carry urban runoff to the sewage treatment plant. Sewage water can travel towards treatment plants via piping and in a flow aided by gravity and pumps.
The first part of filtration of sewage includes a bar screen to filter solids and large objects which are collected in dumpsters and disposed of in landfills. Fat and grease is removed before the primary treatment of sewage; the term "sewage treatment plant" is nowadays replaced with the term wastewater treatment plant or wastewater treatment station. Sewage can be treated close to where the sewage is created, which may be called a "decentralized" system or an "on-site" system. Alternatively, sewage can be collected and transported by a network of pipes and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant; this is called a "centralized" system. Sewage is generated by residential, institutional and industrial establishments, it includes household waste liquid from toilets, showers and sinks draining into sewers. In many areas, sewage includes liquid waste from industry and commerce; the separation and draining of household waste into greywater and blackwater is becoming more common in the developed world, with treated greywater being permitted to be used for watering plants or recycled for flushing toilets.
Sewage may include urban runoff. Sewerage systems capable of handling storm water are known as combined sewer systems; this design was common when urban sewerage systems were first developed, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Combined sewers require more expensive treatment facilities than sanitary sewers. Heavy volumes of storm runoff may overwhelm the sewage treatment system, causing a spill or overflow. Sanitary sewers are much smaller than combined sewers, they are not designed to transport stormwater. Backups of raw sewage can occur if excessive infiltration/inflow is allowed into a sanitary sewer system. Communities that have urbanized in the mid-20th century or generally have built separate systems for sewage and stormwater, because precipitation causes varying flows, reducing sewage treatment plant efficiency; as rainfall travels over roofs and the ground, it may pick up various contaminants including soil particles and other sediment, heavy metals, organic compounds, animal waste, oil and grease.
Some jurisdictions require stormwater to receive some level of treatment before being discharged directly into waterways. Examples of treatment processes used for stormwater include retention basins, buried vaults with various kinds of media filters, vortex separators. In regulated developed countries, industrial effluent receives at least pretreatment if not full treatment at the factories themselves to reduce the pollutant load, before discharge to the sewer; this process is called pretreatment. The same does not apply to many developing countries where industrial effluent is more to enter the sewer if it exists, or the receiving water body, without pretreatment. Industrial wastewater may contain pollutants which cannot be removed by conventional sewage treatment. Variable flow of industrial waste associated with production cycles may upset the population dynamics of biological treatment units, such as the activated sludge process. Sewage collection and treatment in the United States is subject to local and federal regulations and standards.
Treating wastewater has the aim to produce an effluent that will do as little harm as possible when discharged to the surrounding environment, thereby preventing pollution compared to releasing untreated wastewater into the environment. Sewage treatment involves three stages, called primary and tertiary treatment. Primary treatment consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the bottom while oil and lighter solids float to the surface; the settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary treatment. Some sewage treatment plants that are connected to a combined sewer system have a bypass arrangement after the primary treatment unit; this means that during heavy rainfall events, the secondary and tertiary treatment systems can be bypassed to protect them from hydraulic overloading, the mixture of sewage and stormwater only receives primary treatment. Secondary treatment removes suspended biological matter.
Secondary treatment is performed by indigenous, water-borne micro-organisms in a managed habitat. Seconda
Party-list proportional representation
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation in elections in which multiple candidates are elected through allocations to an electoral list. They can be used as part of mixed additional member systems. In these systems, parties make lists of candidates to be elected, seats get distributed to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives. Voters may vote directly for the party, as in Albania, Argentina and Israel. Voters in Luxembourg's multi-seat constituencies can choose between voting for a complete list of candidates of a single party or voting for individual candidates from one or several lists; the order in which a party's list candidates get elected may be pre-determined by some method internal to the party or the candidates or it may be determined by the voters at large or by districts. Many variations on seat allocation within party-list proportional representation exist; the two most common are: The highest average method, including the D'Hondt method used in Albania, Austria, Croatia, Estonia, Israel, Poland and many other countries.
The largest remainder methods, including the Hamilton method. List proportional representation may be combined in various hybrids, e.g. using the additional member system. List of main apportionment methods: Macanese "d'Hondt method" Webster/Sainte-Laguë method, LR-Hare LR-Droop D'Hondt method Huntington-Hill method LR-Imperiali While the allocation formula is important important is the district magnitude; the higher the district magnitude, the more proportional an electoral system becomes - the most proportional being when there is no division into constituencies at all and the entire country is treated as a single constituency. More, in some countries the electoral system works on two levels: at-large for parties, in constituencies for candidates, with local party-lists seen as fractions of general, national lists. In this case, magnitude of local constituencies is irrelevant, seat apportionment being calculated at national level. In France, party lists in proportional elections must include as many candidates as there are seats to be allocated, whereas in other countries "incomplete" lists are allowed.
Proportional representation Comparison of the Hare and Droop quotas Outline of democracy List MP Ley de Lemas Sectoral representation in the House of Representatives of the Philippines Advantages and disadvantages of List PR - from the ACE Project Open and Free Lists - from the ACE Project Handbook of Electoral System Choice Apportionment, or How to Round Seat Numbers Glossary of Electoral Formulas