Municipalities of Switzerland

Municipalities are the lowest level of administrative division in Switzerland. Each municipality is part of one of the Swiss cantons. In most cantons municipalities are part of districts or other sub-cantonal administrative divisions. There are 2,212 municipalities as of January 2019, their populations range between several hundred thousand, a few dozen people, their territory between 0.32 km² and 439 km². The beginnings of the modern municipality system date back to the Helvetic Republic. Under the Old Swiss Confederacy, citizenship was granted by each village to only residents; these citizens enjoyed access to community property and in some cases additional protection under the law. Additionally, the urban towns and the rural villages had differing laws; the creation of a uniform Swiss citizenship, which applied for citizens of the old towns and their tenants and servants, led to conflict. The wealthier villagers and urban citizens held rights to forests, common land and other municipal property which they did not want to share with the "new citizens", who were poor.

The compromise solution, written into the municipal laws of the Helvetic Republic, is still valid today. Two politically separate but geographically similar organizations were created; the first, the so-called municipality, was a political community formed by election and its voting body consists of all resident citizens. However, the community land and property remained with the former local citizens who were gathered together into the Bürgergemeinde/bourgeoisie. During the Mediation era, during the Restoration era, many of the gains toward uniform citizenship were lost. Many political municipalities were abolished and limits were placed on the exercise of political rights for everyone except the members of the Bürgergemeinde. In the Regeneration era, the liberal revolutions of the common people helped to restore some rights again in a few cantons. In other cantons, the Bürgergemeinden were able to maintain power as political communities. In the city of Zurich it was not until the Municipal Act of 1866 that the political municipality came back into existence.

The relationship between the political municipality and the Bürgergemeinde was dominated by the latter's ownership of community property. The administration and profit from the property were held by the Bürgergemeinden, leaving the political municipality dependent on the Bürgergemeinde for money and use of the property, it was not until the political municipality acquired rights over property that served the public and taxes, that they obtained full independence. For example, in the city of Bern, it was not until after the property division of 1852 that the political municipality had the right to levy taxes, it was not until the Federal Constitution of 1874 that all Swiss citizens were granted equal political rights on local and Federal levels. This revised constitution removed all the political voting and electoral body rights from the Bürgergemeinde. In the cities, the percentage of members in the Bürgergemeinde in the population was reduced as a result of increasing emigration to the cities.

This led to the Bürgergemeinde losing its former importance to a large extent. However, the Bürgergemeinde has remained, it includes all individuals who are citizens of the Bürgergemeinde by having inherited the Bürgerrecht, regardless of where they were born or where they may live. Instead of the place of birth, Swiss legal documents, e.g. passports, contain the Bürgerort. The Bürgergemeinde often holds and administers the common property in the village for the members of the community; each canton determines the responsibilities of its municipalities. These may include providing local government services such as education and social services, public transportation, tax collection; the degree of centralization varies from one canton to another. The federal constitution protects the autonomy of municipalities within the framework set out by cantonal law. Municipalities are governed by an executive council headed by a president or mayor. Legislative authority is exercised by a town meeting of all citizens, or by a municipal parliament, depending on the size of the municipality, on cantonal and municipal law.

In some cantons, foreigners who have lived for a certain time in Switzerland are allowed to participate in municipal politics. As at the cantonal and federal level, citizens enjoy political rights, including direct democratic ones, in their municipality. Municipalities are financed through direct taxes, with rates varying more or less within a framework set by the canton; as among the cantons, there is a tax transfer among the municipalities to balance various levels of tax income. Switzerland has a high number of small municipalities, with a population of 1,000 or less in rural areas; because of the increasing difficulty in providing professional government services and in finding volunteers for political offices in small municipalities, the cantons tend to encourage voluntary mergers of municipalities. This led to the number of municipalities dropping by 384 between the end of 2010 and the beginning of 2019; some municipalities designate themselves as "city" or as "village". These designations result from tradition or local preference – for example, several small munic

Correa glabra

Correa glabra is a tall shrub, endemic to Australia. It grows up to 2.7 metres in height. The elliptic leaves are 5 to 17 mm wide; these have a strong lemon scent. Flowers are produced in April and May in the species' native range, but may appear sporadically throughout the year The species was first formally described in 1838 by botanist John Lindley in Three Expeditions into the interior of Eastern Australia. There are three recognised subspecies as follows: Correa glabra Lindl. Var. glabra Correa glabra var. leucoclada Paul G. Wilson Correa glabra var. turnbullii Paul G. Wilson - Narrow-bell Correa Correa glabra may be used as a low screening shrub or as a container plant, will attract birds to a garden, it will grow in a variety of soil types in sunny or shaded situations and withstands frost. It can be maintained to a compact shape by pinching back new growth. A number of cultivars have been recorded, including: Corea glabra var. glabra'Coliban River' — a compact, dense form selected from a wild population near the Coliban River in Kyneton, Victoria.

It grows to 1.2 metres in width. C. glabra'Apricot' C. glabra'Barossa Gold' C. glabra'Gold Leaf' C. glabra'Ian Fardon' C. glabra var. glabra'Inglewood Gold' — a form with gold flowers selected from a wild population near Inglewood, Victoria around 1980. C. glabra'Studley Park' C. glabra'Tambar Springs' "Correa glabra Lindl". Atlas of Living Australia


Metinvest Group is an Ukrainia vertically integrated group of steel and mining companies that manages every link of the value chain, from mining and processing iron ore and coal to making and selling semi-finished and finished steel products. It was established on 6 June 2006 by the SCM Holdings It controls 50% of the iron ore market, 46% of the baking coal market and 40% of the metal products market in domestic market. By a number of indicators, Metinvest is the largest private company of Ukraine, it occupies the 13th place among the largest companies in Central and Eastern Europe - Deloitte TOP-500 by results of 2015. Metinvest is the largest in Ukraine and one of the largest CIS producers of iron ore raw materials and steel. Metinvest is in the top 50 largest steel companies in the world according to the World Steel Association. Metinvest's crude steel production capacity is 15 Mtonnes per year. See history of Metinvest; the major shareholders of Metinvest Group are SCM Holdings, controlled by Rinat Akhmetov, Smart Holding Group and Clarandale Limited.

Starting from 2013 Yuriy Ryzhenkov has been Metinvest's General Director and Chief Executive Officer, Chairman of Executive Committee. In 2019, Metinvest Group has announced it has bought up to 24.99% stake in Donetsksteel's coking coal producers for about $190 million. Metinvest buys 24.99% stake in Donetsksteel's coking coal producers for $190 mln. They are located on the border of Dnipropetrovsk and Donetsk regions, close to Metinvest enterprises; the assets are registered in accordance with Ukrainian law and none is located in the non-controlled territories of Ukraine. Metinvest comprises located in Ukraine, the USA: Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works, Ukraine Central Iron Ore Enrichment Works, Ukraine Ingulets Iron Ore Enrichment Works, Ukraine Krasnodon Coal, Ukraine United Coal Company, United States Komsomolskoye mine administration, Ukraine Azovstal iron and steel works, Ukraine Illich Steel and Iron Works, Ukraine Yenakiyeve Iron and Steel Works, Ukraine Khartsyzsk pipe, Ukraine Promet Steel AD, Bulgaria Ferriera Valsider, Italy Metinvest Trametal, Italy Spartan UK, UK Avdiivka Coke and Chemicals Plant SMA "INCOR & CO", Ukraine Metinvest Shipping, LLC Metinvest-SMC, LLC * - For comparability of production numbers of hot metal and crude steel at Ilyich Steel in 2010 was accounted for the entire year.

** - The total volume of semi-finished products excludes those rerolled at Group's plants. These volumes are eliminated as intercompany sales for purposes of Metinvest's consolidated results. List of steel producers System Capital Management Metinvest