Municipality of Bloke
The Municipality of Bloke is a municipality in Slovenia. A municipality in its own right, it was incorporated into the Municipality of Cerknica in 1955 and it was included in the Municipality of Loška Dolina in 1995, when it split from Cerknica, it was re-established as an independent municipality in 1998. The Municipality of Bloke is named after the karst Bloke Plateau, over which the majority of its 45 settlements are scattered; the name Bloke was first attested in written sources in 1230 as Oblach. These early transcriptions indicate that the name was *Obloke derived from the prepositional phrase *ob lǫky or *ob lǫkaxъ'next to the flood-meadow'. Less theories connect the name to the meanings'next to rough terrain' or'arc, arch'. Media related to Municipality of Bloke at Wikimedia Commons Official site of the municipality Municipality of Bloke. Maps and information. Geopedia.si
Slovenia the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, it has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, of NATO; the capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Slovenia has a mountainous terrain with a continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia; the country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, significant karst underground watercourses.
Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Slovenia has been the crossroads of Slavic and Romance languages and cultures. Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority; the South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a secularized country, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have influenced its culture and identity; the economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has been influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009; the main economic field is services, followed by construction. The current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Union. Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages; the etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is derived from the word slovo denoting "people who speak," i. e. people who understand each other.
This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud; the modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee held on 19 February 1944. They named the state as Federal Slovenia, a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia, it retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world, it shows that wooden wheels appeared simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situl
Municipalities of Slovenia
Slovenia is divided into 212 municipalities, of which 11 have urban status. Municipalities are further divided into local districts. Slovene is an official language of all the municipalities. Hungarian is a second official language of three municipalities in Prekmurje: Dobrovnik/Dobronak, Hodoš/Hodos, Lendava/Lendva. Italian is a second official language of four municipalities in the Slovene Littoral: Ankaran/Ancarano, Izola/Isola, Koper/Capodistria, Piran/Pirano. In the EU statistics, the municipalities of Slovenia are classified as "local administrative unit 2", below 58 administrative units, which are LAU 1; the Slovene names of the municipalities have the word Občina'municipality' followed by a nominative form the seat of the municipality. In 2014, Slovenia was divided into 212 municipalities. ISO 3166-2:SI NUTS:SI Review of municipalities and appurtenant spatial units and house numbers, 1 January 2011. Published by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have abolished all passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders. The area functions as a single jurisdiction for international travel purposes, with a common visa policy; the area is named after the 1985 Schengen Agreement. 22 of the 28 EU member states participate in the Schengen Area. Of the six EU members that are not part of the Schengen Area, four—Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania—are obliged to join the area, while the other two—Ireland and the United Kingdom—maintain opt-outs; the four European Free Trade Association member states, Liechtenstein and Switzerland, are not members of the EU, but have signed agreements in association with the Schengen Agreement. Three European microstates—Monaco, San Marino, the Vatican City—are de facto part of the Schengen Area; the Schengen Area has a population of over 400 million people and an area of 4,312,099 square kilometres. About 1.7 million people commute to work across a European border each day, in some regions these people constitute up to a third of the workforce.
Each year, there are 1.3 billion crossings of Schengen borders in total. 57 million crossings are due to transport of goods with a value of € 2.8 trillion each year. The decrease in the cost of trade due to Schengen varies from 0.42% to 1.59% depending on geography, trade partners, other factors. Countries outside of the Schengen area benefit. States in the Schengen Area have strengthened border controls with non-Schengen countries; the Schengen Agreement was signed on 14 June 1985 by five of the ten EEC member states in the town of Schengen, Luxembourg. The Schengen Area was established separately from the European Economic Community, when consensus could not be reached among all EC member states on the abolition of border controls; the Agreement was supplemented in 1990 by the Schengen Convention, which proposed the abolition of internal border controls and a common visa policy. The Agreements and the rules adopted under them were separate from the EC structures, led to the creation of the Schengen Area on 26 March 1995.
As more EU member states signed the Schengen Agreement, consensus was reached on absorbing it into the procedures of the EU. The Agreement and its related conventions were incorporated into the mainstream of European Union law by the Amsterdam Treaty in 1997, which came into effect in 1999. A consequence of the Agreement being part of European law is that any amendment or regulation is made within its processes, in which the non-EU members are not participants; the UK and Ireland have maintained a Common Travel Area since 1923, but the UK could not accept abolishing border controls and was, granted a full opt-out from the area. While not signing the Schengen Treaty, Ireland has always looked more favourably on joining but has not done so to maintain the CTA and its open border with Northern Ireland; the Nordic members required Norway and Iceland to be included, accepted, so a consensus could be reached. The Schengen Area consists of 26 states, including four. Two of the non-EU members and Norway, are part of the Nordic Passport Union and are classified as'states associated with the Schengen activities of the EU'.
Switzerland was allowed to participate in the same manner in 2008. Liechtenstein joined the Schengen Area on 19 December 2011. De facto, the Schengen Area includes three European micro-states – Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City – that maintain open or semi-open borders with other Schengen member countries. Two EU members – Ireland and the United Kingdom – negotiated opt-outs from Schengen and continue to operate the Common Travel Area systematic border controls with other EU member states; the remaining four EU member states – Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania – are obliged to join the Schengen Area. However, before implementing the Schengen rules, each state must have its preparedness assessed in four areas: air borders, police cooperation, personal data protection; this evaluation process involves a questionnaire and visits by EU experts to selected institutions and workplaces in the country under assessment. The only land borders with border controls between EU/EEA members, are those of Bulgaria and Romania, the one at Gibraltar and those at the Channel Tunnel.
States which are not members of the Schengen Area but still have open borders with the area: Notes Although Cyprus, which joined the EU on 1 May 2004, is bound to join the Schengen Area, implementation has been delayed because of the Cyprus dispute. According to former Cypriot Minister of Foreign Affairs Giorgos Lillikas, "strict and full control based on Schengen will create a huge tribulation on a daily basis for the Turkish Cypriots" of Northern Cyprus, it is unclear if this control is possible before the resolution of the dispute; the British Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, a British Overseas Territory, outside the EU, will need "other handling and mechanisms" when/if the UK leaves the EU. Akrotiri and Dhekelia has no border control to Cyprus, but has its own border control at its air base; as of 2018 no date has been fixed for implementation of the Schengen rules by Cyprus. Cyprus has less potential benefit from an implementation of Schengen, for it has no land border with another EU member.
While Bulgaria and Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, are legally bound t
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Spielfeld is a former municipality in the district of Leibnitz in Austrian state of Styria. Since the 2015 Styria municipal structural reform, it is part of the municipality Straß in Steiermark, it was an Austria-Slovenia border crossing checkpoint until 21 December 2007, when all immigration and customs checks ended after Slovenia joined the Schengen Area. The Slovene town opposite Spielfeld is Šentilj. In 2015, a new Austrian border barrier was erected at Spielfeld
Zgornja Velka is a dispersed settlement in the Slovene Hills southeast of Sladki Vrh in the Municipality of Šentilj in northeastern Slovenia. The parish church, built on a hill in the southern part of the settlement, is dedicated to Our Lady of the Snows and belongs to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Maribor, it was built in the late 17th century and rebuilt as a pilgrimage church in 1791. Zgornja Velka on Geopedia