Township refers to various kinds of settlements in different countries. While a township may be associated with an urban area, there are many exceptions to this rule. In Australia, Canada and the United States, the term refers to settlements too small or scattered to be considered urban. In Australia, the designation of "township" traditionally refers to a small town or a small community in a rural district; the term refers purely to the settlement. In Canada, two kinds of township occur in common use. In eastern Canada, a township is one form of the subdivision of a county. In Canadian French, this is a canton. Townships are referred to as "lots" in Prince Edward Island. In Canada, a municipality is a city, township, county, or regional municipality, incorporated by statute by the legislatures of the provinces and territories. In western Canada, townships exist only for the purpose of land division by the Dominion Land Survey and do not form administrative units; these townships are nominally six miles by six miles.
Townships are designated by their township range number. Township 1 is the first north of the First Base Line, the numbers increase to the north. In China, townships are found at the fourth level of the administrative hierarchy, below counties and county level cities. In India, townships are found at the fourth level of the City. In the context of Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, CIS states, the term is sometimes used to denote a small semi-urban, sometimes industrial and used to translate the terms поселок городского типа, посад, местечко. In Jersey, a township is a redundant term, as the only surviving local government level at present are the 12 parishes of the island. In local government in New Zealand, there are no longer townships. All land is part of either a "city" or a "district"; the term "municipality" has no legal status. The term "township" is, still in common usage in New Zealand, in reference to a small town or urban community located in a rural area; the expression would equate to that of "village" in England.
In the Philippines, "townships" referred to administrative divisions established during the American Civil Government in the country. Many of these political divisions were established as rancherias during the Spanish Regime; the term was replaced with "municipal district". Most municipal districts would be converted into regular municipalities by executive orders from the Philippine President. Mambukal, a hill station geographically located in Murcia, Negros Occidental, is the only constituted township in the Philippines, created under Republic Act No. 1964, approved June 22, 1957. In modern days, the term "township" in the Philippines refers to new developments with their own amenities; the modern and largest townships in the Philippines are Clark Green City with 9,450 hectares in Capas of Tarlac, Hamilo Coast with 5,900 hectares in Nasugbu of Batangas, Nuvali with 2,290 hectares in Sta. Rosa of Laguna, Lancaster New City with 2,000 hectares in Kawit Imus GenTri of Cavite, Vista City with 1,500 hectares in Las Piñas Muntinlupa of Metro Manila and Dasmariñas of Cavite, Twin Lakes with 1,149 hectares in Tagaytay City of Cavite and Alviera with 1,125 hectares in Porac of Pampanga.
Majority of the current townships are located near Metro Manila, allowing faster access to the capital region by road and/or rail transport. In South Africa, under apartheid, the term township, in everyday usage, came to mean a residential development that confined non-whites living near or working in white-only communities. Soweto is a well-known example. However, the term township has a precise legal meaning and is used on land titles in all areas, not only traditionally non-white areas. In Taiwan, townships are administered by a county, together with county-controlled cities. There are three types of townships in Taiwan: urban townships, rural townships and mountain indigenous townships. Mountain indigenous townships are those with significant populations of Taiwanese aborigines. In England, the term township is no longer in official use. In England, "township" referred to a subdivision used to administer a large parish; this use became obsolete at the end of the 19th century, when local government reform converted many townships, subdivisions of ancient parishes into the newer civil parishes in their own right.
This formally separated the connection between the ecclesiastical functions of ancient parishes and the civil administrative functions, started in the 16th century. Some councils in the north of England, have revived the term. In Scotland, the term is still used for some rural settlements. In parts of the Highlands and Islands, a township is a crofting settlement. In the Highlands the term may describe a small agrarian community. For townships in Wales, which were created by an Act of Parliament in 1539 see: Townships in Montgomeryshire. There are two types of townships in the United States. In states that ha
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Cantons of Costa Rica
Costa Rica is administratively divided into seven provinces which are subdivided into 82 cantons, these are further subdivided into districts. Cantons are the only administrative division in Costa Rica that possess local government in the form of municipalities; each municipality has its own mayor and several representatives, all of them chosen via municipal elections every four years. The original 14 cantons were established in 1848, the number has risen by the division of existing cantons. Law no. 4366 of 19 August 1969, which outlines the creation of administrative divisions of Costa Rica, states that new cantons may only be created if they have at least one percent of the republic's total population, 4,301,712 as of the last census. The last new canton, Río Cuarto, was created on March 30, 2017; the largest canton by population is the capital San José with a population of 288,054. The smallest canton by population is Turrubares with 5,512 residents; the largest canton by land area is San Carlos, which spans 3,347.98 km2, while the smallest is Flores at 6.96 km2.
Each canton is controlled by a government unit called Municipalidad. The term reflects the fact that the cantons in Costa Rica have the same function as municipios in many other Spanish-speaking countries; this administrative unit consists of two bodies: a municipal executive and an executive body which only consists of a mayor, a title, introduced in 1998. The mayor's main duties are to liaise with the municipal council, district councils and the entire administrative apparatus of the canton, to approve and implement the decisions taken by the municipal council; the number of members of the municipal council varies from one canton to another, they are elected by local elections held every four years. The head of the council is titled the municipal president; the council's main task is to manage the canton at the local level, is responsible for planning basic policies and establishing budgets. More the responsibilities include urban and agricultural planning and organizing cultural affairs, health care and industry.
Each municipal president appoints a number of working commissions that deal with issues specific to the municipality. Largest Cantons of Costa Rica by population Provincial Capital National Capital and Provincial Capital Provinces of Costa Rica Districts of Costa Rica
El Salvador the Republic of El Salvador, is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America. It is bordered on the northeast by Honduras, on the northwest by Guatemala, on the south by the Pacific Ocean. El Salvador's capital and largest city is San Salvador; as of 2016, the country had a population of 6.34 million. El Salvador was for centuries inhabited by several Mesoamerican nations the Cuzcatlecs, as well as the Lenca and Maya. In the early 16th century, the Spanish Empire conquered the territory, incorporating it into the Viceroyalty of New Spain ruled from Mexico City; however the Viceroyalty of Mexico had little or no influence in the daily affairs of the Central American isthmus, which would be colonized in 1524. In 1609 the area became the Captaincy General of Guatemala, from which El Salvador was part of until its independence from Spain, which took place in 1821, as part of the First Mexican Empire further seceded, as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, in 1823.
When the Republic dissolved in 1841, El Salvador became a sovereign nation formed a short-lived union with Honduras and Nicaragua called the Greater Republic of Central America, which lasted from 1895 to 1898. From the late 19th to the mid-20th century, El Salvador endured chronic political and economic instability characterized by coups, a succession of authoritarian rulers. Persistent socioeconomic inequality and civil unrest culminated in the devastating Salvadoran Civil War, fought between the military-led government and a coalition of left-wing guerrilla groups; the conflict ended with the Chapultepec Peace Accords. This negotiated settlement established a multiparty constitutional republic, which remains in place to this day. El Salvador's economy has been dominated by agriculture, beginning with the indigo plant, the most important crop during the colonial period, followed thereafter by coffee, which by the early 20th century accounted for 90 percent of export earnings. El Salvador has since reduced its dependence on coffee and embarked on diversifying the economy by opening up trade and financial links and expanding the manufacturing sector.
The colón, the official currency of El Salvador since 1892, was replaced by the U. S. dollar in 2001. As of 2010, El Salvador ranks 12th among Latin American countries in terms of the Human Development Index and fourth in Central America due in part to ongoing rapid industrialisation. However, the country continues to struggle with high rates of poverty and crime. Conquistador Pedro de Alvarado named the new province for Jesus Christ – El Salvador; the full name was "Provincia De Nuestro Señor Jesus Cristo, El Salvador Del Mundo", subsequently abbreviated to "El Salvador". Tomayate is a paleontological site located on the banks of the river of the same name in the municipality of Apopa; the site has produced abundant Salvadoran megafauna fossils belonging to the Pleistocene epoch. The paleontological site was discovered accidentally in 2000, in the following year, an excavation by the Museum of Natural History of El Salvador revealed not only several remnants of Cuvieronius, but several other species of vertebrates.
In the Tomayate site, they have recovered at least 19 species of vertebrates, including giant tortoises, Glyptodon, extinct horses, paleo-llamas and a large number of skeletal remains of proboscis genus Cuvieronius. The Tomayate site stands out from most Central American Pleistocene deposits, being more ancient and much richer, which provides valuable information of the Great American Interchange, in which the Central American isthmus landbridge played the title primordial role. At the same time, it is considered the richest vertebrate paleontological site in Central America and one of the largest accumulations of proboscideans in the Americas. Sophisticated civilization in El Salvador dates to its settlement by the indigenous Lenca people; the Lenca were succeeded by the Olmecs, who also disappeared, leaving their monumental architecture in the form of the pyramids still extant in western El Salvador. The Maya arrived and settled in place of the Olmecs, but their numbers were diminished when the Ilopango supervolcano eruption caused a massive Mayan exodus out of what is now El Salvador.
Centuries they themselves were replaced by the Pipil people, Nahua speaking groups who migrated from Mexico in the centuries before the European conquest and occupied the central and western regions. The Pipil were the last indigenous people to arrive in El Salvador, they called their territory Kuskatan, a Pipil word meaning The Place of Precious Jewels, backformed into Classical Nahuatl Cōzcatlān, Hispanicized as Cuzcatlán. The people of El Salvador today are referred to as Salvadoran, while the term Cuzcatleco is used to identify someone of Salvadoran heritage. In pre-Columbian times, the country was inhabited by various other indigenous peoples, including the Lenca, a Chilanga Lencan-speaking group who settled in the eastern highlands. Cuzcatlan was the larger domain until the Spanish conquest. Since El Salvador resided on the eastern edge of the Maya Civilization, the origins of many of El Salvador's ruins are controversial. However, it is agreed that Mayas occupied the areas around Lago de Guija and Cihuatán.
Other ruins such as Tazumal, Joya de Cerén and San Andrés may have been
Municipalities of Brazil
The municipalities of Brazil are administrative divisions of the Brazilian states. At present, Brazil has 5,570 municipalities, making the average municipality population 34,361; the average state in Brazil has 214 municipalities. Roraima is the least subdivided state, with 15 municipalities, while Minas Gerais is the most subdivided state, with 853; the Federal District cannot be divided into municipalities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, the Federal District assumes the same constitutional and legal powers and obligations of the states and municipalities, instead, it is divided by administrative regions. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution treats the municipalities as parts of the Federation and not dependent subdivisions of the states; each municipality has an autonomous local government, comprising a mayor and a legislative body called municipal chamber. Both the local government and the legislative body are directly elected by the population every four years; these elections take place at the same time all over the country.
Each municipality has the constitutional power to approve its own laws, as well as collecting taxes and receiving funds from the state and federal governments. However, municipal governments have no judicial power, courts are only organised at the state or federal level. A subdivision of the state judiciary, or comarca, can either correspond to an individual municipality or encompass several municipalities; the seat of the municipal administration is a nominated city, with no specification in the law about the minimum population, area or facilities. The city always has the same name as the municipality. Municipalities can be subdivided, only for administrative purposes, into districts. Other populated sites with no legal effect or regulation. All municipalities are subdivided into neighbourhoods, although most municipalities do not define their neighbourhood limits. Municipalities can be split or merged to form new municipalities within the borders of the state, if the population of the involved municipalities expresses a desire to do so in a plebiscite.
However, these must abide by the Brazilian Constitution, forming exclaves or seceding from the state or union is expressly forbidden. Municipalities of Acre Municipalities of Alagoas Municipalities of Amapá Municipalities of Amazonas Municipalities of Bahia Municipalities of Ceará Municipalities of Espírito Santo Municipalities of Goiás Municipalities of Maranhão Municipalities of Mato Grosso Municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul Municipalities of Minas Gerais Municipalities of Pará Municipalities of Paraíba Municipalities of Paraná Municipalities of Pernambuco Municipalities of Piauí Municipalities of Rio de Janeiro Municipalities of Rio Grande do Norte Municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul Municipalities of Rondônia Municipalities of Roraima Municipalities of Santa Catarina Municipalities of São Paulo Municipalities of Sergipe Municipalities of Tocantins Lists of cities List of largest cities in Brazil List of municipalities of Brazil Administrative region Map on the World Gazetteer at Archive.today Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
Municipalities of Nicaragua
The 15 departments and 2 autonomous regions of Nicaragua are divided into 153 municipalities. The formation and dissolution of municipalities is governed by the Law of Municipalities and approved by the National Assembly on July 2. 1988. The municipalities are responsible for planning and urban development, collection of municipal taxes, maintenance of public utilities and other services, such as parks and public cemeteries. Whilst municipal governments may not be responsible for large highways, small roads and tracks come under their control. Additionally, municipal governments may issue permits for the operation of urban and intermunicipal bus services. Other functions of municipal governments include the establishment of libraries, municipal bands, the promotion of traditional and folklore festivals and all kinds of activities that promotes education, culture and tourism in the municipality. Notes: "Year" refers to the date the municipality was created. In some cases, the year refers to the date of the foundation of the municipality seat.
This is the case of colonial cities
Hispanophone and Hispanosphere are terms used to refer to Spanish-language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world, respectively. The terms derive from the Latin political name of the Iberian Hispania. In addition to the general definition of Hispanophone, some groups in the Hispanic world make a distinction between Castilian-speaking and Spanish-speaking, with the former term denoting the speakers of the Spanish language—also known as Castilian—and the latter the speakers of the Spanish or Hispanic languages. Hispanophones are estimated at between 480 and 577 million globally, making Spanish the second most spoken language in terms of native speakers. Around 360 million live in 45 million in Spain. There are more than 34 million Spanish speakers in the United States. There are smaller Hispanophone groups in Canada, northern Morocco, Equatorial Guinea, Western Sahara, the Philippines and Brazil as well as in many other places around the world other countries of European Union, where it is one of 24 official languages, Australia.
In a cultural, rather than linguistic sense, the notion of "Hispanophone" goes further than the above definition. The Hispanic culture is the legacy of the Spanish Empire, so the term can refer to people whose cultural background is associated with Spain, regardless of ethnic or geographical differences; the whole sense of identity of the Hispanic population and the Hispanophones is sometimes referred by the term Hispanidad. During the Spanish period between 1492 and 1898, many people from Spain migrated to the new lands they had conquered; the Spaniards took with them their language and culture, integrated within the society they had settled, creating a large empire that stretched all over the world and producing several multiracial populations. Their influences are found in the following continents and countries that were colonized by the Spaniards; the modern-day people that live in the region of ancient Hispania are the Portuguese, Spanish and Gibraltarian people. The modern country of Spain was formed by the accretion of several independent Iberian kingdoms through dynastic inheritance and the will of the local elites.
These kingdoms had political borders. Today, there is no single Castilian–Spanish identity for the whole country. Spain is a de facto plurinational state. Many Spanish citizens feel no conflict in recognising their multiple ethnic identities at the same time. Spain is a culturally heterogeneous country, home to a wide range of cultures, each one with its own customs and traditions; some such cultures have their own language. Since the beginning of the transition to democracy in Spain and the creation of the Spanish autonomous communities, after Francoist Spain, there have been many movements towards more autonomy in certain territories of the country, some with the aim of achieving full independence and others with the goal of improving the system of devolution and the state of the autonomies; the existence of multiple distinct cultures in Spain allows an analogy to be drawn to the United Kingdom. Using the term Spanish for someone of Spanish descent would be expected to be equivalent to using Briton to describe someone descending from some part of the United Kingdom.
Cultures within the United Kingdom, such as English, Irish and Welsh, would correspond in this analogy to cultures within Spain such as Castilian, Catalan and Basque among others. In contrast with Spain, because of centuries of gradual and mutual consolidation across the Iberian Peninsula, such distinctions tend to be blurred, it is a subtle, yet important, distinction. In Spain, as in the United Kingdom, the economically dominant territories—Castile and England—spread their language for mutual communication. However, the political dominance in the United Kingdom tends to be sharper compared to Spain, where most of medieval realms do not correspond with the actual boundaries of the autonomous communities, the crown was unified into a sole monarch. For instance, Spanish people in modern times never refer to King Felipe VI of Spain as "the King of Castile," whereas the British sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, is sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Queen of England."
Spanish is the official language in a great part of the Americas. U. S. Hispanics are citizens of the United States whose ancestry or national origin is of any of the nations composing the Hispanosphere. A Hispanic person's status is independent from whether or not he or she speaks the Spanish language, for not all Hispanic Americans speak Spanish. A Hispanic person may be of any race; as of 2013 Hispanics accounted for 17.1% of the population, around 53.2 million people. This was an increase of 29 % since 2004; the Hispanic growth rate over the July 1, 2003 to July 1, 2004 period was 3.6% — higher than any other ancestral group in the United States — and more than three times the rate of the nation's total population. The projected Hispanic population of the United States for July 1, 2050, is 105.6 million people. According to this projection, Hispanics will constitute 25% of the nation's total population by the year 2050. A continuous Hispanic presence in the territory of the United States has existed since the 16th century, earlier than any other group after the Amerindians.
Spaniards pioneered the present-day United States. The first confirmed Eur