Municipium was the Latin term for a town or city. Etymologically the municipium was a social contract between municipes, the "duty holders," or citizens of the town; the duties, or munera, were a communal obligation assumed by the municipes in exchange for the privileges and protections of citizenship. Every citizen was a municeps; the distinction of municipia was not made in the Roman kingdom. Under the Roman Republic the practical considerations of incorporating communities into the city-state of Rome forced the Romans to devise the concept of municipium, a distinct state under the jurisdiction of Rome, it was necessary to distinguish various types of municipia and other settlements, such as the colony. In the early Roman Empire these distinctions began to disappear. In the final stage of development, all citizens of all cities and towns throughout the empire were citizens of Rome; the municipium simply meant municipality, the lowest level of local government. The munera and the citizenship and its rights and protections were specific to the community.

No matter where a person lived, at home or abroad, or what his status or class, he was a citizen of the locality in which he was born. The distinguishing characteristic of the municipium was self-governance. Like any ancient city-state, the municipium was created by an official act of synoecism, or founding; this act removed the sovereignty and independence from the signatory local communities, replacing them with the jurisdiction of a common government. This government was called the res publica, "public affair" or in the Greek world the koinon, "common affair." The term municipium began to be used with reference to the city-states of Italy brought into the city-state of Rome but not incorporated into the city. The city of Romulus synoecized the nearby settlements of Latium, transferring their populations to the seven hills, where they resided in distinct neighborhoods, and yet, Sabines continued to live in the Sabine Hills and Alba Longa continued though synoecized. The exact sequence of events is not known, whether the populace was given a choice or the synoecized sites were reoccupied.

As it is unlikely that all the Sabines were invited to Rome, where facilities to feed and house them did not yet exist, it seems clear that population transfer was only offered to some. The rest continued on as independent localities under the ultimate governance of Rome. Under the Roman Republic the impracticality of transferring numerous large city-states to Rome was manifest; the answer to the problem was the municipium. The town would be synoecized; the local government to its munera would be added munera due to the city of Rome. The partial synoecism took the form of a charter granting incorporation into the city of Rome and defining the rights and responsibilities of the citizens; the first municipium was Tusculum. The citizens of municipia of the first order held full Roman citizenship and their rights included the right to vote, the ultimate right in Rome, a sure sign of full rights; the second order of municipia comprised important tribal centres. Residents of these did not become full Roman citizens.

They were given the duties of full citizens in terms of liability to taxes and military service, but not all of the rights: most they had no right to vote. Executive power in municipium was held by four annually elected officials, composed of two duumvirs and two aediles. Advisory powers were held by appointed members of the local equivalent to the senate. In years, these became hereditary. Volubilis in the province of Mauretania was promoted to a municipium by the Emperor Claudius as a reward for its help in a revolt in AD 40–41 The Emperor Vespasian granted'Latin Rights' to the provinces of Hispania in AD 73 or 74 One Marcus Servilius Draco Albucianus, from Tripolitania petitioned Rome to grant the status of municipium on his town

Perumkunnil Junction

Perumkunnil Junction is a small village in Pathanamthitta district, Travancore region, India. It is on the route between Pathanamthitta; the majority of its inhabitants are from Christian backgrounds. It is well connected to various places such as Chengannur, Aranmula, Pathanamthitta by different roads. Pandalam, Pathanamthitta, Aranmula, Elavumthitta, Thiruvalla, Mezhuveli Mezhuveli Vazhanasala Corporation Bank G. I. S UP School Holy Innocent Orthodox church, Mezhuveli St. George Jacobite Church Syrian Malankara Catholic Church Kidangannoor Market Aringottu Kavu Pallimukkathamma Devi Temple

The Blu Ribbon Revolution

The Blu Ribbon Revolution: Co-creating a World Beyond Poverty is a book by the Winner of the 2012 Dubai Cares Award and community activist Viswanathan Manikan. The book looks into the aspect of Corporate Social Responsibility as a tool for measured efforts towards poverty alleviation while aligning business objectives. In the book Manikan strikes a contrast between excessive wealth vis-à-vis stark poverty and inadequate resource distribution across globally deprived regions. Insights into major developmental and relief efforts across governments, multi-lateral organizations, non-governmental organization, individuals are accentuated, but the main highlight of the book is CSR and its far reaching and sustainable practices that have brought about measurable changes and improved conditions across economic zones. The Blu Ribbon Revolution starts off by addressing key issues of poverty in least developed countries. Manikan further discusses the causes of poverty with historical ramifications and progressively highlights alleviations efforts.

The book divided in four phases concludes with the importance of CSR, case studies and provides an implementable CSR business framework. While the luxury market booms Manikan states the richest nations with wealth above US$100,000 per adult in 2010, were found in North America, Western Europe, the rich Asian-Pacific and Middle East countries. In contrast to these statistics were figures that state that 50 percent of the population in LDCs lives on less than $1 a day; the book puts forth the appalling conditions, issues of malnutrition, rates of infant mortality, diseases and social factors and poverty traps in the regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle Eastern and North Africa MENA, Latin America and the Caribbean and South Asia. The UN Human Development Index, Purchasing power parity and Gini coefficient in these regions are some of the factors that have been taken into consideration. Manikan discusses. Though HDI were lower in these regions poverty in itself has varied repercussions; the author mentions the Report of the State of Food Insecurity in the World that estimated India alone with more undernourished people than all of sub-Saharan Africa combined.

The origins of poverty have been classified as historical, social and political each with its own impact. Colonialism, slavery and conquest have led to long term impacts globally but most of all in African and Asian nations. In terms of Environmental causes, nature plays a vital role as harvests from forests and farms are a primary source of rural income and a fallback when other sources of employment falter; however the author highlights environmental imbalance can be disastrous as the nature of poverty is rural. UN Food and Agriculture Organization has pointed out that, in the world's poorest countries, more than 75 percent of the population lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for work and income. Any environmental adversity in such a case can be have long term consequences; the Multidimensional nature of poverty can be assessed by the fact that Manikan states that 80 percent of the world's population lives in countries where income differentials have widened. The UNDP's 2007 Human Development Report highlights this in the book with an estimate that the poorest 40 percent of the world's population account for only 5 percent of global income.

On the other hand, the richest 20 percent account for 75 percent of world income. Considering economic factors such as half the world's workforce toiling in unstable, insecure jobs, Manikan states children girls, suffer major health and education setbacks, he states it would be well worth to ponder the fact that statistics state around 24,000 children die every day from preventable causes – many from diseases like measles and tetanus. Political factors such as unrest can to lead to poverty issues such as displacement; the author mentions that Southern and Western Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are home to the largest populations of refugees. By the end of 2010 more than 43 million people were displaced by conflict or persecution, both within and outside the borders of their own countries as per UN HCR, he discusses the role of women in politics. As per the statistics quoted in 2008 women held at least 40 percent of the seats in five parliaments: Rwanda leads the way at 48.8 percent, followed by Sweden, Cuba and Argentina.

The author covers views of economists and historians on creating measures for poverty and the complexities that follow. The author talks about Alleviation avenues by first mentioning noted economist and poverty activist Jeffery Sachs and his theory of clinical economics; the role of national governments and their adherence to World Bank and International Monetary Fund proposed Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper framework as per Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative have been discussed in-depth in chosen nations. Poverty alleviation programmes are classified into selfemployment programmes, wage employment programmes, food security programmes, social security programmes, urban poverty alleviation programmes. Central to the theme of poverty reduction have been the UN Millennium Development Goals; the framework of eight goals, eighteen targets, forty-eight indicators have been studied along with efforts by United Nations member bodies and international organizations. The author talks about the growth of international NGO community falling within the br