The Nigar Awards are presented in an annual award show to recognize outstanding achievement in Pakistani cinema. The honors are awarded by Nigar Magazine; the annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists. The first Nigar Awards ceremony was held in 1957, to honor the accomplishments of Pakistani cinema for the year 1956. In 2002, following the 46th Annual Nigar Awards, Nigar Magazine announced its discontinuation of the awards due to the collapse of the Pakistani cinema industry. After a 15-year hiatus, with the revival of Pakistani cinema, the 47th Nigar Awards were announced to be held on 16 March 2017 in Karachi; the Nigar Awards were introduced in 1957 by Ilyas Rashidi known as Baba-e-Filmi Sahafat in Pakistan. The award was an extension of the Nigar Magazine, founded by Rashidi in 1948 and was Pakistan’s first weekly newspaper dedicated to Pakistani cinema. Ilyas Rashidi acquired experience in entertainment journalism through his association with Umer Azad and his daily newspaper Anjum, which had shifted its offices from Delhi to Karachi in 1947.
Ilyas had been inspired by Filmfare magazine and thus purchased a children's magazine Monthly Nigar from his friend Ibne Hassan Nigar, re-branded it as a weekly film magazine from Karachi. The first award distribution ceremony was held on 17 July 1957 at Evernew Studios in Lahore. Ilyas Rashidi had chosen the design of a lady statuette and the Nigar Awards continued with this award from 1957 to 1977. During the Islamic dictatorial rule of President General Zia-ul-Haq and his regime, the statue design was changed into a textual design. In 2017, the 47th Nigar Awards will revert to the original award design. Instead of the usual practice of envelope opening, the award committee prints the names of the winners on the back of the invitation cards that are sent to all invitees; this removes the charm of suspenseful moments for the attendees. Despite all this, the award committee has strict rules of only considering the candidacy of those films and television shows that are nominated for the awards and their copies are provided by the filmmakers or distributors to the Awards Committee of Nigar Awards.
The Nigar Awards are known for their impartial assessment and unbiased attitude as compared with other high-level awards in Pakistan for the public entertainment media. Another prominent factor of the awards is that, over time, various categories from both television and film industry that have been included to cover such subjects as Urdu and Pashto and Sindhi films; the Nigar Awards are divided into Urdu, Pashto and Sindhi sections, which each section having several categories: Best Film Best Director Best Script Best Screenplay Best Actor Best Actress Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actress Best Music Best Lyrics Best Camera Best Female Singer Best Male Singer Best Editing Best Art Director Best Sound Best Comedian Special Awards Ilyas Rashidi Lifetime Achievement Gold Medal
Government of Pakistan
The Government of Pakistan is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established by the parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Effecting the Westminster system for governing the state, the government is composed of the executive and judicial branches, in which all powers are vested by the Constitution in the Parliament, the Prime Minister and the Supreme Court; the powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts and amendments of the Parliament, including the creation of executive institutions and courts inferior to the Supreme Court. By constitutional powers, the President passes bills; the President acts as the ceremonial figurehead while the people-elected Prime Minister acts as the chief executive and is responsible for running the federal government. There is a bicameral Parliament with the National Assembly as a lower house and the Senate as an upper house.
The most influential officials in the Government of Pakistan are considered to be the federal secretaries, who are the highest ranking bureaucrats in the country and run cabinet-level ministries and divisions. The judicial branch systematically contains an apex Supreme Court, Federal Shariat Court, high courts of five provinces, anti-terrorism, the green courts; the full name of the country is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. No other name appears in the Constitution, this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, in legal cases; the "Pakistan Government" or "Government of Pakistan" are used in official documents representing the federal government collectively. The terms "Federal" and "National" in government institutions or program names indicate affiliation with the federal government; as the seat of government is in Islamabad, "Islamabad" is used as a metonym for the federal government. The Constitution of Pakistan established and constituted the federal government of four provinces of federation of nation-state, known as State of Pakistan.
The Constitution reads as: The Federal Government is Subject to the Constitution. The executive authority of the Federation shall be exercised in the name of the President by the Federal Government, consisting of the Prime Minister and the Ministers, which shall act through the Prime Minister, who shall be the chief executive of the Federation. In the performance of his functions under the Constitution, the Prime Minister may act either directly or through the Ministers; the basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of Pakistan are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the Exit Control List, the Pakistan Penal Code, the Frontier Crimes Regulations. By the Article 246th and Article 247th to the constitution, the Islamic Jirga system has become an institution for local governance; the 1950s reforms in the government administration, the constitutional law and jurisprudence in Pakistan have been influenced by the United States Of America' legal system. Since the 1970s, the traditional jirga-based law has influenced the country's judicial development.
The legislative branch is known as the parliament, a term for legislature inherited from the United Kingdom. The parliament has two houses. 272 are elected directly by the people, while 70 seats are reserved for women and religious minorities. The Senate is the upper house and has 104 senators elected indirectly by members of provincial assemblies for six-year terms; the Parliament enjoys parliamentary supremacy. All the Cabinet ministers as well as the Prime Minister must be members of Parliament, according to the constitution; the Prime Minister and the Cabinet Ministers are jointly accountable to the Parliament. If there is a policy failure or lapse on the part of the government, all the members of the cabinet are jointly responsible. If a vote of no confidence is passed against the government the government collapses and a new one must be formed. By general definition, the executive branch of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy.
The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The separation of powers system is designed to distribute authority away from the executive branch – an attempt to preserve individual liberty in response to tyrannical leadership throughout history; the Prime Minister of Pakistan, is the executive head of government of Pakistan, constitutionally designated as the Chief Executive. Popularly elected by direct elections in the parliament, the Prime minister is responsible for appointing a cabinet as well as running the government operations; the Prime Minister makes key appointments on various important positions. The chairmen and other members of the federal commissions and public institutions Ambassadors and High Commissioners to other countriesThe Cabinet can have a maximum of 11 percent of the total strength of the Parliament; each Cabinet member must be a member of Parliament. The Cabinet Ministers chair the Cabinet and are further assi
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
Radio Pakistan is a Pakistani radio broadcast network. It started with an announcement of independence of Pakistan from British India on 14 August 1947, it took the place of All India Radio in Pakistan. Since 20 December 1972, it is under Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation headquartered in Islamabad. Radio Pakistan was known as the Pakistan Broadcasting Service at the time of its inception on 14 August 1947, it had the honour of publicly announcing Pakistan's independence from Britain on 13 August 1947 at 11:59 pm. Mustafa Ali Hamdani made the announcement from Lahore in Urdu language and English language, while Abdullah Jan Maghmoom made the announcement from Peshawar in Pashto; the announcement was heard as follows: The English translation of this announcement is as follows: Greetings Pakistan Broadcasting Service. We are speaking from Lahore; the night between the thirteenth and fourteenth of August, year forty-seven. It is twelve o'clock. Dawn of Freedom. Radio Pakistan broadcasts are in 34 languages: Urdu, Sindhi, Seraiki, Pashto, Kohistani, Kashmiri, Burushaski, Shina, Hazargi, English, Dari, Hindi, Tamil, Nepali, Turkish and Bengali.
According to one of the pioneers of Radio Pakistan, Agha Nasir, three radio stations at Dhaka and Peshawar existed at the time of independence of Pakistan on 14 August 1947. There was no radio station in the capital of Pakistan, Karachi in 1947. On a high priority basis, a major program of expansion saw new stations opened at Karachi and Rawalpindi in 1948, a new broadcasting house at Karachi in 1950; this was followed by new stations at Hyderabad, Quetta, a second station at Rawalpindi and a Receiving Centre at Peshawar. In 1970, training facilities were opened in Islamabad and a station opened at Multan. A 1973 law, signed by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto regulated Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation as "to publish, circulate and regulate news and information in any part of the world in any manner that may be deemed fit", its one core mission states: "education and information to be brought to public awareness the whole range of significant activity.". It was converted into Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation on 20 December 1972 as a statutory body governed by the Board of Directors and Director General.
The Radio Pakistan World Service was established on 21 April 1973. The service reached the remotest parts of Pakistan with stations at Gilgit and Skardu in the far north and Turbat in the far southwest. From 1981 to 1982 stations and transmitters were established at Dera Ismail Khan and Faisalabad. Radio Pakistan opened a new broadcasting house in Khairpur on 7 May 1986, followed by relay stations in 1989 at Sibi and on 21 March 1991 in Abbottabad; the remoter parts of the country began to receive coverage with new stations opened in the 1990s at Chitral and Zhob. In 1997, the Federal Minister of Information inaugurated the computerisation of the PBC news processing system and availability of the news bulletins on the Internet in text and audio form. FM 101 Channel of PBC was launched on 1 October 1998 having stations at Islamabad and Karachi and now this channel have nine stations throughout Pakistan and is the biggest FM Radio network of Pakistan. In October 1998, Radio Pakistan started FM transmission and over the period 2002–2005, new FM stations were opened at Islamabad, Mianwali, Kohat and Mithi.
In the last two and a half years, three new networks have been launched by PBC. On 28 August 2008, PBC launched National Broadcasting Service the first dedicated Current Affairs Channel, it is a combination of 5 AM transmitters permanently linked together to broadcast a single national program beamed across Pakistan. Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi are the main stations generating the national programming, it is a 17 hours programming on major national and international issues, target audience and literary and cultural programs. PBC launched a new Community FM channel after February 2009 Station Directors Conference; the network is called FM-93 Network with 22 stations across Pakistan. Gilgit, Mirpur, Chitral, Kohat, Dera Ismail Khan, Mianwali, Lahore, Larkana, Bhit Shah, Mithi and Gwadar transmit the FM 93 network. On 14 November, PBC launched its first English Music Channel in Islamabad called Planet 94; the network operates on FM 94. The second and third stations of the English channel are soon to start their transmissions from Lahore and Karachi.
News and Current Affairs Channel was launched by Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation in November 2000 and was converted into National Broadcasting Service in 2008. It broadcasts 13 hours of programmes from 8:00 AM to 9:00 PM daily from Islamabad and 8 hours daily from the Provincial Headquarters. Frequencies: Islamabad – 1152 Khz Lahore – 1332 Khz Karachi – 639 Khz Quetta – 756 Khz Peshawar 1170 Khz 3999.75 Mhz on Satellite Pak Sat1R FM-101 is a commercial radio station first aired in 1998. FM 93 Central Production Unit Radio Pakistan
All India Radio
All India Radio known since 1956 as Ākāsha Vāṇī is the national public radio broadcaster of India and is a division of Prasar Bharati. It was established in 1930, it is the sister service of an Indian television broadcaster. Headquartered in the Akashvani Bhavan building in New Delhi, it houses the Drama Section, the FM Section, the National Service, is home to the Indian television station Doordarshan Kendra. All India Radio is the largest radio network in the world, one of the largest broadcasting organizations in the world in terms of the number of languages broadcast and the spectrum of socio-economic and cultural diversity it serves. AIR’s home service comprises 420 stations located across the country, reaching nearly 92% of the country’s area and 99.19% of the total population. AIR originates programming in 179 dialects. Ākāśavāni is a Sanskrit word meaning'celestial announcement' or'voice from the sky/heaven'. In Hinduism and Buddhism, Akashvanis are featured in stories as a medium of communication from heaven to mankind.'Akashvani' was first used in the context of radio by M. V. Gopalaswami in 1936 after setting up India's first private radio station in his residence, "Vittal Vihar".
Akashvani was adopted as All India Radio's on-air name in 1957. Broadcasting began in June 1923 during the British Raj with programs by the Bombay Presidency Radio Club and other radio clubs. According to an agreement on 23 July 1927, the private Indian Broadcasting Company Ltd was authorized to operate two radio stations: the Bombay station which began on 23 July 1927, the Calcutta station which followed on 26 August 1927; the company went into liquidation on 1 March 1930. The government took over the broadcasting facilities and began the Indian State Broadcasting Service on 1 April 1930 on an experimental basis for two years, permanently in May 1932 it went on to become All India Radio on 8 June 1936. On 1 October 1939, the External Service began with a broadcast in Pushtu, it was intended to counter radio propaganda from Germany directed at Afghanistan and Arab nations. 1939 saw the opening of the Dhaka station of Eastern India, in what is now Bangladesh. This station nurtured the pioneers of Bengali intellectuals.
The foremost among them, Natyaguru Nurul Momen, became the trail-blazer of the talk-show in 1939. He wrote and directed the first modern radio-play for this station in 1942; when India became independent in 1947, the AIR network had only six stations. The three radio stations at Lahore and Dhaka remained in what became Pakistan after the division; the total number of radio sets in India at that time was about 275,000. On 3 October 1957, the Vividh Bharati Service was launched. Television broadcasting began in Delhi in 1959 as part of AIR, but was split off from the radio network as Doordarshan on 1 April 1976. FM broadcasting began on 23 July 1977 in Chennai, expanded during the 1990s. Deccan Radio, the first radio station in Hyderabad State, went live on air on 3 February 1935, it was launched by Mir Osman Ali Khan the 7th Nizam of Hyderabad with a transmitting power of 200 Watts. On 1 April 1950, Deccan Radio was taken over by the Indian Government, in 1956 it was merged with All India Radio. Since it has been known as AIR-Hyderabad.
AIR has many services in a number of each serving different regions across India. Vividh Bharati is one of the best-known services of All India Radio, its name translates as "Diverse Indian". It is known as the Commercial Broadcasting Service or CBS. Commercially, it is popular in Mumbai and other large cities. Vividh Bharati offers a wide range of programs including news, film music, short plays and comedy, it operates on different medium wave-band frequencies in each city. Some programs broadcast on Vividh Bharati are: Hawa-mahal: Radio plays based on novels and plays Santogen ki mehfil: Comedy Primary Channel National Channel The headquarters of the Regional Deputy Directors General are located in Delhi and Chandigarh and Bhopal, Kolkata and Ahmedabad, Chennai and Bangalore. All frequencies are in kHz; the external services of All India Radio are broadcast in 27 languages to countries outside India via high-power shortwave band broadcasts. Medium wave is used to reach neighbouring countries. In addition to broadcasts targeted at specific countries by language, there is a General Overseas Service broadcasting in English with 8¼ hours of programming each day aimed at a general international audience.
The external broadcasts were begun on 1 October 1939 by the British government to counter the propaganda of the Nazis directed at the Afghan people. The first broadcasts were in Pushto, beamed to the North-West Frontier Province. Broadcasts soon began in other languages including: Dari, Arabic, Burmese, Chinese and French; the external services broadcast in 16 foreign and 11 Indian languages, with a total program output of 70¼ hours per day on medium and shortwave frequencies. Two high powered FM stations of All India Radio are being installed in Amritsar and Fazilka in the Punjab to supplement the programs broadcast from transmitters operating from Jalandhar, New Delhi and Mumbai and to improve the broadcast services during unfavourable weather conditions in the border regions of Punjab. Today, the External Services
Karachi is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh. It is the most populous city in Pakistan, sixth-most-populous city proper in the world. Ranked as a beta world city, the city is Pakistan's premier industrial and financial centre and is considered as the cultural, philanthropic and political hub of the country. Karachi is Pakistan's most cosmopolitan city. Situated on the Arabian Sea, Karachi serves as a transport hub, is home to Pakistan's two largest seaports, the Port of Karachi and Port Bin Qasim, as well as the Pakistan's busiest airport, Jinnah International Airport. Though the Karachi region has been inhabited for millennia, the city was founded as the fortified village of Kolachi in 1729; the settlement drastically increased in importance with the arrival of British East India Company in the mid 19th century, who not only embarked on major works to transform the city into a major seaport, but connected it with their extensive railway network. By the time of the Partition of British India, the city was the largest in Sindh with an estimated population of 400,000.
Following the independence of Pakistan, the city's population increased with the arrival of millions of Muslim refugees from India. The city experienced rapid economic growth following independence, attracting migrants from throughout Pakistan and South Asia. Karachi is one of Pakistan's most secular and liberal cities, it is the most linguistically and religiously diverse city in Pakistan. Karachi’s population was enumerated at 14.9 million in the 2017 census, though the figure was disputed by various factions as a severe underestimate, with some sources estimating a population of up to 30 million. Karachi is one of the world's fastest growing cities, has communities representing every ethnic group in Pakistan. Karachi is home to over 2 million Bangladeshi immigrants, 1 million Afghan refugees, up to 400,000 Rohingyas from Myanmar. Karachi is now Pakistan's premier financial centre; the city has a formal economy estimated to be worth $113 billion as of 2014, the largest in Pakistan. Karachi collects over a third of Pakistan's tax revenue, generates 20% of Pakistan's GDP.
30% of Pakistani industrial output is from Karachi, while Karachi's ports handle 95% of Pakistan's foreign trade. 90% of the multinational corporations operating in Pakistan are headquartered in Karachi. Karachi is considered to be Pakistan’s fashion capital, has hosted the annual Karachi Fashion Week since 2009. Karachi was reputedly founded in 1729 as the settlement of Kolachi; the new settlement is said to have been named in honour of Mai Kolachi, whose son is said to have slain a man-eating crocodile in the village after his elder brothers had been killed by it. The city's inhabitants are referred to by the demonym Karachiite in English, Karāchīwālā in Urdu. Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic sites discovered by a team from Karachi University on the Mulri Hills constitute one of the most important archaeological discoveries made in Sindh during the last 50 years; the earliest inhabitants of the Karachi region are believed to have been hunter-gatherers, with ancient flint tools discovered at several sites.
A sea port called. The Karachi region is believed to have been known to the ancient Greeks; the region may be the site of Krokola, where Alexander the Great once camped to prepare a fleet for Babylonia, as well as Morontobara which may be Karachi's Manora neighbourhood. In 711 CE, Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Indus Valley; the Karachi region is believed to have been known to the Arabs as Debal, from where Muhammad Bin Qasim launched his forces into South Asia in 712 C. E. Under Mirza Ghazi Beg, the Mughal administrator of Sindh, the development of coastal Sindh and the Indus delta was encouraged. Under his rule, fortifications in the region acted as a bulwark against Portuguese incursions into Sindh; the Ottoman admiral, Seydi Ali Reis, mentioned Debal and Manora Island in his book Mir'ât ül Memâlik in 1554. Karachi was founded in 1729 as the settlement of Kolachi under the rule of the ethnically Baloch Talpur Mirs of Sindh; the founders of the settlement are said to arrived from the nearby town of Karak Bandar after the harbour there silted in 1728 after heavy rains.
The settlement was fortified, defended with cannons imported by Sindhi sailors from Muscat, Oman. The name Karachee was used for the first time in a Dutch document from 1742, in which a merchant ship de Ridderkerk is shipwrecked near the original settlement; the city continued to be ruled by the Talpur Mirs until it was occupied by forces under the command of John Keane in February 1839. The British East India Company captured Karachi on 3 February 1839 after HMS Wellesley opened fire and destroyed the local mud fort at Manora; the town was annexed to British India in 1843. A large part Sindh region was captured by Major General Charles James Napier after the victory in the Battle of Miani, the city was declared capital of the newly formed Sindh province; the city was recognized for its strategic importance, prompting the British to establish the Port of Karachi in 1854. Karachi became a transportation hub for British India owing to newly built port and rail infrastructure, as well as the increase in agricultural exports from the opening of productive tracts of newly irrigated land in Punjab and interior Sindh.
The British developed the Karachi Cantonment as a military garrison in order to aid the British war effort in the First Anglo-Afghan War. During the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, the 21st Native Infantry