A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. The term is used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves are salt tolerant trees, called halophytes, and are adapted to life in coastal conditions. They contain a complex filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion. They are adapted to the low oxygen conditions of waterlogged mud, the saline conditions tolerated by various mangrove species range from brackish water, through pure seawater, to water concentrated by evaporation to over twice the salinity of ocean seawater. The term mangrove comes to English from Spanish, and is likely to originate from Guarani and it was earlier mangrow, but this word was corrupted via folk etymology influence of the word grove. Mangrove swamps are found in tropical and subtropical tidal areas, areas where mangal occurs include estuaries and marine shorelines. The intertidal existence to which trees are adapted represents the major limitation to the number of species able to thrive in their habitat.
High tide brings in water, and when the tide recedes. The return of tide can flush out these soils, bringing back to salinity levels comparable to that of seawater. At low tide, organisms are exposed to increases in temperature and desiccation. About 110 species are considered mangroves, in the sense of being a tree grows in such a saline swamp, though only a few are from the mangrove plant genus. However, a mangrove swamp typically features only a small number of tree species. It is not uncommon for a mangrove forest in the Caribbean to feature three or four tree species. For comparison, the tropical rainforest biome contains thousands of tree species, though the trees themselves are few in species, the ecosystem that these trees create provides a home for a great variety of other organisms. Mangrove plants require a number of adaptations to overcome the problems of anoxia, high salinity. Each species has its own solutions to problems, this may be the primary reason why, on some shorelines. Small environmental variations within a mangal may lead to greatly differing methods for coping with the environment, once established, mangrove roots provide an oyster habitat and slow water flow, thereby enhancing sediment deposition in areas where it is already occurring
Fort Munro, known as Tuman Leghari, is a hill station, located at a height of 6,470 feet above sea level in Dera Ghazi Khan. It attracts many people for short stays during the hot summer and it is around 85 kilometres from Dera Ghazi Khan city, Punjab and about 185 kilometres from Multan in Sulaiman Mountain range. The people of Fort Munro are nomads, especially of the Leghari tribe, Fort Munro lies on the Quetta Road at 85 km from Dera Ghazi Khan. It is the hill station in southern Punjab in the Sulaiman Mountain range. Its altitude is 1800 meters and attracts people for short stays during the summer. Fort Munro can be reached either from Loralai Balochistan or from Multan, from Punjab, the mountain range starts near Rakhni, which is a border-post between Balochistan and Punjab. The town was founded by Robert Groves Sandeman in the part of the 19th century. Fort Munro is part of the Sulaiman Mountain range, the range is located in central Pakistan, extending southward about 280 miles from the Gumal Pass to just north of Jacobabad, separating the khyber pakhtunkhwa and Punjab from Balochistan.
The ranges eastern face dips steeply to the Indus River and edible pines abound in the north and olives in the centre, but vegetation is scarce in the south. The Ghat, Chuhar Khel Dhana, and Sakhi Sarwar are the principal passes in the north, in the south, west of Dera Ghazi Khan, lies the hill station of Fort Munro. It attracts a number of every year, particularly those who wish to escape from hot plains of southern Punjab to enjoy mild. Additionally, state-of-the-art landscaping initiatives and the cultivation of cut flowers would promote development in the region, the Forest Department would afforest 300 acres in the hill station’s vicinity. The Irrigation Department is believed to have forwarded a proposal regarding the construction of six small dams in Fort Munro’s vicinity. The development project, which is expected to kick off soon, Fort Munro is a cool resort in summers for the people living in south Punjab. Many ill people come here for refreshment or convalescence, List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Pakistan List of forts in Pakistan List of museums in Pakistan Fort Munros Photos by Qadeer Ahmad Janjua
Kerala historically known as Keralam, is an Indian state in South India on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions, spread over 38,863 km2, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is the official language of the state. The region has been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE, the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks by the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, after independence and Cochin joined the Republic of India and Travancore-Cochin was given the status of a state in 1949. In 1956, Kerala state was formed by merging Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin, Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity.
The culture is a synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India, the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, cashew, the states coastline extends for 595 kilometres, and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the states income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English, Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions. The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology, One popular theory derives Kerala from Kera and alam is land, thus land of coconuts, this happens to be a nickname for the state due to abundance of coconut trees and its use by the locals. The word Kerala is first recorded in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, the inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra, or son of Chera.
This contradicts the theory that Kera is from coconut tree, at that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil and Kera are variants of the same word. The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for lake, the earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. It is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics, the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil cherive-alam or chera alam, the Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra. According to Hindu mythology, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the warrior sage Parasurama. Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached, according to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari.
The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation, so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, out of respect and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land
The region occupies 19. 31% of Indias land area. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean in the south. The geography of the region is diverse, with two ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. The Godavari River, Krishna River, Kaveri and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada and Kochi are the largest urban areas. Majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages, Tamil and Malayalam. During its history, a number of kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history. Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Pandyas, Satavahanas, Rashtrakutas, european countries entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations. HDI in the states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states.
Literacy rates in the states are higher than the national average with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing. The fertility rate in South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India, South India known as Peninsular India has been known by several other names. Carnatic derived from Karnād or Karunād meaning high country has associated with South India. Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with Neolithic cultures in South India date back to 8000 BCE, artefacts such as ground stone axes, and minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region, the region was in the middle of a trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu linking the Mediterranean and East Asia. Trade with Phoenicians, Greeks, Syrians, the region was part of the ancient Silk Road connecting the Asian continent in the East and the West. C. to 14th century A. D. The Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A. D.
was the last Indian dynasty that ruled over the region. The Europeans arrived in the 15th century and by the middle of the 18th century, the French, the British Empire took control of the region from the British East India Company in 1857. During the British colonial rule, the region was divided into the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad state, Travancore, Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states. After the independence of India in 1947, the region was organised into four states, Madras State, Mysore State, Hyderabad State and Travancore-Cochin
A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country. A representative of his government, he officially has diplomatic functions which are seen as a form of indirect rule. Residents could be posted with shadowy governments, even after the Congress of Vienna restored the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1815, the British posted a mere Resident to Florence. Some official representatives of European colonial powers, while in theory diplomats, a trusted Resident could even become the de facto prime minister to a native ruler. In other respects they acted as an ambassador of their own government, instead of being a representative to a single ruler, a Resident could be posted to more than one native state, or to a grouping of states which the European power decided for its convenience. This could create a geographical unit, as in Residency X in some parts of the British Indian Empire. Similar positions could carry alternative titles, such as Political Agent and Resident Commissioner, a Residents real role varied enormously, depending upon the underlying relationship between the two parties and even upon the personalities of the Resident and the ruler.
In French protectorates, such as those of Morocco and Tunisia, the Residents of the governments of the United Kingdom and the dominions to a variety of protectorates include, In the Sultanate of Zanzibar, the second homeland of the Omani dynasty, since 1913. From 1913 to 1961 the Residents were the Sultans vizier, there were Consuls and Consuls-general until 1963. In present-day Kenya, in the Sultanate of Witu, after the British took over the protectorate from the German Empire, which had itself posted a Resident. In British Cameroon, since 1916, in 1949 restyled Special Resident for Edward John Gibbons, in kwaZulu, which since 1843 was under a British protectorate, after it became the Zulu Native Reserve or Zululand Province on 1 September 1879, two British Residents. In the Dutch East Indies, Dutch residents and lower ranks such as assistant residents were posted alongside a number of the native princes in present Indonesia. For example, on Sumatra, there were Dutch Residents at Palembang, at Medan in Deli sultanate, another was posted with the Sultan of and on Ternate, france maintained Residents, the French word being Résident.
However the Jacobine tradition of state authority didnt agree well with indirect rule. Many were part of a white colonial hierarchy, rather than truly posted with a ruler or chieftain. A single post of Resident was created in Côte dIvoire, the Resident-Superior of Cambodia answered to the Governor-General of Indochina, however. In the German colonies, the title was Resident, the post was called Residentur. e, such function could be performed under another title, such as Commissioner or High Commissioner. John Bridger Philby August 1924 – March 1939 Henry Cox March 1939 –17 June 1946 Alec Seath Kirkbride Also after World War II, in the colony of Western Australia regional administration was conducted under instruction of the Governor in Council by Government Residents
Kallada Boat Race
The Kallada Jalotsavam is a popular Vallam Kali held on the Kallada River at Munroe Thuruthu on 28 days after Onam in Indian state of Kerala. The boat race is conducted along the portion of Kallada River. Famous achievers in various fields are honoured during the event, the boat race can be conveniently viewed from Munroe Island. Munroe Island holds an important place in the tourist map of Kerala, the country boat sightseeing across Munroe Island conducted by the Kollam district tourist promotion council is the best of its kind in the country. Munroe Island can be reached from Kollam railway station by road.12 km from Kundara $24 km from karunagapally at north, Kollam is 71 km away by road from the Trivandrun airport. The competitions will be preceded by a colourful sail-past and mass drill by the competing in the race. The boat race is an event which happens 28 days after Onam
Kottarakkara, transliterated as Kottarakara, is a town and municipality in Kollam District, in Kerala state, India. The town is close to Kollam Port, which has a history linked to the early medieval period as well as a reputation as an important commercial, industrial. Kottarakkara lies 27 kilometres to the east of Kollam city centre and 18 kilometres to the west of Punalur city on National Highway 208/220 and it lies 35 kilometres north-east of Paravur. Kottarakkara, known in the ancient days of the kings as the Elayadathu Swarupam, was a principality ruled by a branch of the Travancore Royal Family, other historical places of interest include the Ganapathi Temple, Edakkidom Thettikkunil Maha Devi Temple and the more-than-700-year-old Mar Thomas Church. Kottarakkara, a word made up of the words Kottaram, meaning palace. The area which had several palaces was thus named Kottarakkara, Kottarakkara is a small principality close to Kollam. It is now a modern town with all essential facilities. As a taluk headquarters, it has six panchayats, NH208 meets the MC road at Kottarakkara.
Kottarakkara is linked with Kollam, both by road and rail, at a distance of 27 km and it is 72 km to the north of Thiruvananthapuram and 80 km to the south of Kottayam. Kottarakara Assembly Constituency is part of the Mavelikkara, shiva in the form of a fierce hunter is deified here. Another shrine next to it is a Durga temple, where the deity installed is known as Pazenadu Bhagavathy, Devi The idol of was carved out from the root of the jack tree by Perumthachan. It is well connected to the city of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram by KSRTC Fast Passenger, super fast, deluxe. There are six pairs of services now and heard that many more services would be inducted in this route since the Punalur-Schengotta ghat section has been closed for Broad Gauge conversion. Once the conversion is over, this serve as the shortest route from Kollam to Chennai. Further, a new line from Chengannur to Thiruvananthapuram via Kottarakkara, Kottarakkara will become a junction once the new line materializes. The nearest airport is Trivandrum International Airport in Thiruvananthapuram, a new green field airport has been proposed at Aranmula,45 kilometres from Kottarakkara.
Salim Yusuf - Physician, world-renowned cardiologist and epidemiologist and he is one of the most cited scientists ever in the world. Bobby Kottarakkara, Malayalam actor K. B, Kollam District official website National Informatics Centre
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
Coir, or coconut fibre, is a natural fibre extracted from the husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats and mattresses. Coir is the material found between the hard, internal shell and the outer coat of a coconut. Other uses of brown coir are in upholstery padding, white coir, harvested from unripe coconuts, is used for making finer brushes, string and fishing nets. The English word coir comes from the Malayalam and Tamil word kayar and cordage have been made from coconut fibre since ancient times. Indian navigators who sailed the seas to Malaya, China, arab writers of the 11th century AD referred to the extensive use of coir for ship ropes and rigging. A coir industry in the UK was recorded before the half of the 19th century. Coir fibres are found between the hard, internal shell and the coat of a coconut. The individual fibre cells are narrow and hollow, with walls made of cellulose. They are pale when immature, but become hardened and yellowed as a layer of lignin is deposited on their walls, each cell is about 1 mm long and 10 to 20 µm in diameter.
Fibres are typically 10 to 30 centimetres long, the two varieties of coir are brown and white. Brown coir harvested from fully ripened coconuts is thick and has high abrasion resistance and it is typically used in mats and sacking. Mature brown coir fibres contain more lignin and less cellulose than fibres such as flax and cotton, so are stronger, white coir fibres harvested from coconuts before they are ripe are white or light brown in color and are smoother and finer, but weaker. They are generally spun to make yarn used in mats or rope, the coir fibre is relatively waterproof, and is one of the few natural fibres resistant to damage by saltwater. Fresh water is used to process brown coir, while seawater and it must not be confused with coir pith, or formerly cocopeat, which is the powdery material resulting from the processing of the coir fibre. Coir fibre is locally named coprah in some countries, adding to the confusion, green coconuts, harvested after about six to 12 months on the palm, contain pliable white fibres.
Brown fibre is obtained by harvesting fully mature coconuts when the nutritious layer surrounding the seed is ready to be processed into copra, the fibrous layer of the fruit is separated from the hard shell by driving the fruit down onto a spike to split it. A well-seasoned husker can manually separate 2,000 coconuts per day, machines are now available which crush the whole fruit to give the loose fibres. These machines can process up to 2,000 coconuts per hour, the fibrous husks are soaked in pits or in nets in a slow-moving body of water to swell and soften the fibres
Paravur, or South Paravoor, is a town and a municipality in the Kollam district of the Indian state of Kerala. The lakes and sea coast of Paravur attract visitors and foreigners with the attraction the interconnection of Paravur Kayal. Paravur lies 21 kilometres from Kollam by road and can be reached within 15 minutes by train from Kollam Junction, Paravur Municipality consists of Kottapuram, Thekkumbhagam, Perumpuzha, Pozhikara, Kurumandal, Attinpuram & Kochalummoodu. Paravur Municipality is a Grade-II Municipality of Kerala, Paravur is located at 8.78 N76 E. It has an elevation of 10 metres. Paravur,21 kilometers from the Kollam, is a skirt of land stretching in between the backwaters and the sea. The famous Varkala beach is a mere 12 kilometres drive from here, there is an elevation of 6 metres above sea level, extending to 16 metres on the inland. As of 2011 India census, Paravur has a population of 43,739, males constitute 47% of the population and females 53%. Paravur has an literacy rate of 79%, higher than the national average of 59. 5%, male literacy is 81%.
In Paravur, 10% of the population are under 6 years of age, total number of households are 9,155. Pozhikara was the headquarters of Paravur. Remnants of the old fort and Anchalappees still remain, a mint of the erstwhile Travancore Kingdom for printing and punching their currencies was once situated at Paravur. Paravur panchayat was formed in 1936 as one of the four panchayats sanctioned by Sir C. P. Ramaswamy Iyer, the others were Boothapandi and Perumbavoor. The so formed Paravur panchayat included nine territories-Thekkumbhagam, Kongal, Kurumandal, Kalakkode, sree Ramavarma koyi thampuram from Kilimanoor Palace was the first executive officer of the panchayat. The first election for Paravur panchayat was held in 1942 and Sri Achuthan Pillai became the first elected panchayat president, Paravur became a Municipality on May 1,1988. For the first seven years it was ruled by special officers, in 1995 after the first Municipal election, Smt. Bhanumati became the first Municipal Chairperson, in April 2016, over 100 people were killed in a fireworks explosion at a local temple in the town.
There are so many important roads in Paravur, connecting Kollam city and neighbouring towns like Varkala, Parippally, Poothakkulam
Islands of Kollam
City of Kollam or Quilon is known as Prince of Arabian Sea, situated on the banks of Arabian Sea and Ashtamudi Lake. A major portion of Kollam Municipal Corporation area is occupied by Ashtamudi Lake and it is the most visited backwater and lake of Kerala, with a unique wetland ecosystem, a palm-shaped large water body, next only to the Vembanad estuary ecosystem of the state. Ashtamudi means eight coned in the language of Malayalam. This name is indicative of the topography, a lake with multiple branches. The lake is called the gateway to the backwaters of Kerala. This lake is famous for House Boat and Backwater Resorts. All the Islands in Kollam are situated in Ashtamudi Lake, there are so many Islands in Ashtamudi Lake. Munroe Island and Chavara Thekkumbhagom are the most important among these islands, Islands are the eye-catching factors as well as the beauty of Lake Ashtamudi. Most of these islands are potential tourism spots in the state, even Indian Railways planning to develop one of the islands in Kollam for a tourism project.
There are big as well as small islands which are inhabited and uninhabited by human beings, the important islands in Kollam are