South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Desmond Mpilo Tutu is a South African Anglican cleric and theologian known for his work as an anti-apartheid and human rights activist. He was the Bishop of Johannesburg from 1985 to 1986 and the Archbishop of Cape Town from 1986 to 1996, in both cases being the first black African to hold the position. Theologically, he sought to fuse ideas from black theology with African theology. Tutu was born of mixed Xhosa and Motswana heritage to a poor family in Klerksdorp, British Imperial South Africa. Entering adulthood, he trained as a teacher and married Nomalizo Leah Tutu, with whom he had several children. In 1960, he was ordained as an Anglican priest and in 1962 moved to the United Kingdom to study theology at King's College London. In 1966 he returned to southern Africa, teaching at the Federal Theological Seminary and the University of Botswana and Swaziland. In 1972, he became the Theological Education Fund's director for Africa, a position based in London but necessitating regular tours of the African continent.
Back in southern Africa in 1975, he served first as dean of St Mary's Cathedral in Johannesburg and as Bishop of Lesotho, taking an active role in opposition to South Africa's apartheid system of racial segregation and white-minority rule. From 1978 to 1985 he was general-secretary of the South African Council of Churches, emerging as one of South Africa's most prominent anti-apartheid activists. Although warning the National Party government that anger at apartheid would lead to racial violence, as an activist he stressed non-violent protest and foreign economic pressure to bring about universal suffrage. In 1985 he became Bishop of Johannesburg and in 1986 the Archbishop of Cape Town, the most senior position in southern Africa's Anglican hierarchy. In this position he emphasised a consensus-building model of leadership and oversaw the introduction of women priests. In 1986, he became president of the All Africa Conference of Churches, resulting in further tours of the continent. After President F. W. de Klerk released the anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela from prison in 1990 and the pair led negotiations to dissolve apartheid and introduce multi-racial democracy, Tutu assisted as a mediator between rival black factions.
After the 1994 general election resulted in a coalition government headed by Mandela, the latter selected Tutu to chair the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses committed by both pro and anti-apartheid groups. Since apartheid's fall, Tutu has campaigned for gay rights and spoken out on a wide range of subjects, among them the Israel-Palestine conflict, his opposition to the Iraq War, his criticism of South African Presidents Thabo Mbeki and Jacob Zuma. In 2010, he retired from public life. Tutu polarised opinion. White conservatives who supported apartheid despised him, while many white liberals regarded him as too radical, he was popular among South Africa's black majority, was internationally praised for his anti-apartheid activism, receiving a range of awards, including the Nobel Peace Prize. He has compiled several books of his speeches and sermons. Desmond Mpilo Tutu was born on 7 October 1931 in a city in northwest South Africa, his mother, Allen Dorothea Mavoertsek Mathlare, was born to a Motswana family in Boksburg.
His father, Zachariah Zelilo Tutu, was from the amaFengu branch of Xhosa and had grown up in Gcuwa, Eastern Cape. At home, the couple both spoke the Xhosa language. Zachariah trained as a primary school teacher at Lovedale college before taking a post in Boksburg, where he married his wife. In the late 1920s, he took a job in Klerksdorp. Established in 1907, it was known as the "native location" although was renamed Makoetend; the native location housed a diverse community. Zachariah worked as the principal of a Methodist primary school and the family lived in the schoolmaster's house, a small mud-brick building in the yard of the Methodist mission; the Tutus were poor. Tutu had an older sister, Sylvia Funeka, who called him "Mpilo", a name given to him by his paternal grandmother; the rest of the family called him "Boy". He was his parent's second son. Another daughter, Gloria Lindiwe, would be born after him. Tutu was sickly from birth. Tutu had a close relationship with his father, although was angered at the latter's heavy drinking, during which he would sometimes beat his wife.
The family were Methodists and Tutu was baptised into the Methodist Church in June 1932. They subsequently changed denominations, first to the African Methodist Episcopal Church and to the Anglican Church. In 1936, the family moved to Tshing, where Zachariah was employed as the principal of a Methodist school. There, Tutu started his primary education and played football with the other children becoming the server at St Francis Anglican Church, he developed a love of reading enjoying comic books and European fairy tales. Here, he learned Afrikaans, the main language of the area, it was in Tshing that his parents had a third son, who died in infancy
Muldersdrift, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa, is a picturesque rural area situated 27 km north-west of the CBD between Johannesburg and the Magaliesberg mountain range. The area falls under the West Rand District Municipality, is part of Mogale City. Located in the Kromdraai Valley and on the Crocodile River, Muldersdrift forms part of the Crocodile Ramble, a scenic tourist route regarded as the most popular of all the craft routes around South Africa. Muldersdrift is the gateway to the West Rand, forms part of Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site. Muldersdrift is found on a ford offering a safe crossing point of the Crocodile River; the river crossing point was on an old wagon route that lead from Pretoria in the north-east to Potchefstroom in the south-west. The area was said to have been settled in 1840s as farmland and the area acquired its name in 1866 after the Mulder family when they camped close to the river when they were unable to across the drift due to flooding; the spot would soon become an outspan site for horse and oxen on the wagon route and would attract a postmaster long before the discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand.
With its wealth of tourism establishments and more than 40 wedding venues and conference centres, Muldersdrift is known for its fine accommodation, restaurants and health resorts. It is referred to as the “wedding capital” of Gauteng. Home to numerous small farms and nurseries, the area has acquired a reputation for being an arts and cultural hub with a number of home craft industries with a number of potters, artists and astronomers based in the area; the Wonder Cave near Muldersdrift is one of the show caves of the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site. It is one of the world's richest hominid fossil sites. Muldersdrift is home to Gilroy’s Brewery. Situated in Muldersdrift is Gauteng’s newest casino; the Silverstar Casino and Entertainment Centre contains a variety of restaurants, retail shops, conference facilities, a spa, a 34-room hotel. Opened in October 2013, the 75,000 square metres Cradlestone Mall is named after its proximity to the Cradle of Humankind. Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden Cradle of Humankind Lanseria International Airport Magaliesburg Hartbeespoort Dam Maropeng Sterkfontein Caves Wonder Cave Krugersdorp Game Reserve Lesedi Cultural Village Gauteng Tourism - Muldersdrift Valley of Ancestors Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site Cradlestone Mall Silverstar Casino Leafy Greens
Bekkersdal is a township situated 7 km east of Westonaria and 14 km south of Randfontein in the Gauteng province. It was established to house Africans who worked in town and at the surrounding gold mines. In 1983 the township was granted municipal status; the township was the site of violent protests ahead of the general elections on 7 May 2014
Gauteng, which means "place of gold", is one of the nine provinces of South Africa. Situated in the Highveld, Gauteng is the smallest province in South Africa, accounting for only 1.5% of the land area. It is urbanised, containing the country's largest city, its administrative capital and other large areas such as Midrand and Vanderbijlpark; as of 2018, Gauteng is the most populous province in South Africa with a population of 14,700,000 people according to estimates. The name Gauteng is derived from gauta meaning "gold" with the locative suffix - eng. "Gauta" itself is derived from the Dutch word for gold, goud. There was a thriving gold industry in the province following the 1886 discovery of gold in Johannesburg. In Sesotho, the name Gauteng was used for Johannesburg and surrounding areas long before it was adopted in 1994 as the official name of a province. Gauteng was formed from part of the old Transvaal Province after South Africa's first multiracial elections on 27 April 1994, it was named Pretoria–Witwatersrand–Vereeniging and was renamed "Gauteng" in December 1994..
The term "PWV", describing the region existed long before the establishment of the province. The history of the area, now Gauteng can be traced back to the early 1800s when settlers originating from the Cape Colony defeated chief Mzilikazi and started establishing villages in the area; the city of Pretoria was founded in 1855 as capital of the South African Republic. After the discovery of gold in 1886, the region proceeded to become the single largest gold producer in the world and the city of Johannesburg was founded; the older city Pretoria was not subject to development. Pretoria grew at a slower rate and was regarded due to its role in the Second Boer War; the Cullinan Diamond, the largest diamond mined was mined near Pretoria in a nearby town called Cullinan in the year 1905. Gauteng has only been properly documented since the 1800s and as a result, not much information regarding its history predating the 1800s is available. At the Sterkfontein caves, some of the oldest fossils of hominids have been discovered, such as Mrs. Ples and Little Foot.
Many crucial events happened in present-day Gauteng with regards to the anti-apartheid struggle, such as the Sharpeville massacre of 1960, the Rivonia Trial in 1963 and 1964 and the Soweto Uprising of 1976. Today, the Apartheid Museum stands testament to these struggles in Johannesburg. Gauteng is governed by the Gauteng Provincial Legislature, a 73-person unicameral legislature elected by party-list proportional representation; the legislature elects one of its members as Premier of Gauteng to lead the executive, the Premier appoints an Executive Council of up to 10 members of the legislature to serve as heads of the various government departments. The provincial government is responsible for the topics allocated to it in the national constitution, including such fields as basic education, housing, social services and environmental protection; the most recent election of the provincial legislature was held on 7 May 2014, the African National Congress won 53.59% of the vote and a 40-seat majority in the legislature.
The official opposition is the Democratic Alliance, which won 30.78 % of 23 seats. Other parties represented are the Economic Freedom Fighters with eight seats and the Freedom Front Plus and the Inkatha Freedom Party with one seat each. Premier David Makhura of the ANC was elected on 21 May 2014, at the first meeting of the legislature after the general election; the Gauteng Division of the High Court of South Africa, which has seats in Pretoria and Johannesburg, is a superior court with general jurisdiction over the province. Johannesburg is home to the Constitutional Court, South Africa's highest court, to a branch of the Labour Court and Labour Appeal Court. Gauteng's southern border is the Vaal River, it borders on North West to the west, Limpopo to the north, Mpumalanga to the east. Gauteng is the only landlocked province of South Africa without a foreign border. Most of Gauteng is on a high-altitude grassland. Between Johannesburg and Pretoria there are low parallel ridges and undulating hills, some part of the Magaliesberg Mountains and the Witwatersrand.
The north of the province is more subtropical, due to its lower altitude and is dry savanna habitat. In the southern half of Gauteng the Witwatersrand area is an old term describing a 120km wide oblong-shaped conurbation from Randfontein in the West to Nigel, Gauteng in the East; this area is often referred to as "Witwatersrand", "the Rand" or "the Reef". It has traditionally been divided into the three areas of Central Rand and West Rand; the climate is influenced by altitude. Though the province is at a subtropical latitude, the climate is comparatively cooler in Johannesburg, at 1,700 m above sea level. Most precipitation occurs as brief afternoon thunderstorms. Winters are crisp and dry with frost occurring in the southern areas. Snow is rare; the Gauteng Province is divided into three metropolitan municipalities and two district municipalities. The district municipalities are
Krugersdorp is a mining city in the West Rand, Gauteng Province, South Africa founded in 1887 by Marthinus Pretorius. Following the discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand, a need arose for a major town in the west of the reef; the government bought part of the Paardekraal farm and named the new town after the Transvaal president, Paul Kruger. Krugersdorp no longer has a separate municipal government after it was integrated into Mogale City Local Municipality along with surrounding towns, it is now the seat of government for Mogale City. Krugersdorp is the site of a December 1880 gathering at which more than 6,000 men vowed to fight for the Transvaal's independence. Founded in 1887 by Marthinus Pretorius after the discovery of gold on his farm, thereafter the mining industry played an important role in the development of the city. Two important events in the history of South Africa: the Transvaal War of Independence and the discovery of the Witwatersrand Goldfields took place in Krugersdorp; these events had far-reaching economic consequences for the country's development.
By the time the town was founded, the existence of the gold reef along the Witwatersrand had become common knowledge, thousands seeking their fortunes pitched their tents and pegged claims. In 1888, Krugersdorp was proclaimed a separate gold field. During the Second Boer War, the British built a concentration camp in the valley, now occupied by the Centenary Dam; this camp was overlooked by the "D" Shaft of the Luipardsvlei Estate Gold Mining Company, shut down in 1929 when mining shifted to deeper ore bodies that offered the prospect of larger tonnages. As of 2014 this shaft is being brought back into production. Part of the heritage of the area will feature in a museum to be built post-closure. An essential part of the museum's content will be the Boer War legacy. In 1952, the West Rand Consolidated Mine was the first in the world to extract uranium as a byproduct of the gold refining process. Gold, iron and lime are all mined in the area. Krugersdorp has a modern business center and shopping malls alongside many smaller shops and necessary amenities.
There are game reserves and a nearby bird sanctuary. Krugersdorp is served by the Jack Taylor Airfield, accessible from Pretoria via the R28/N14 highway, more by the N1 highway, Lanseria International Airport on the R511, used for travel to Pretoria, OR Tambo International Airport, South Africa's main international airport located in Johannesburg; the nearby 1,400 hectares Krugersdorp Game Reserve in the dense bush of the veld holds a large quantity of game and is one of the town's major tourist attractions. In close proximity are various provincial heritage sites including the Cradle of Humankind and its Sterkfontein Caves and the Wonder Cave. Krugersdorp is home to the South African Branch of Jehovah's Witnesses. In 2010, the town's Coronation Park area received international exposure for the depiction of Afrikaner poverty by Finbarr O'Reilly. In 2014 the area was exposed again as a subject of the BBC documentary Reggie Yates' Extreme South Africa: White Slums. Krugersdorp is home to some of the best schools in Gauteng.
Alma Mater International School Krugersdorp High School Town View High School Thuto-Lefa Secondary School Hoërskool Monument Hoërskool Jan De Klerk HTS Nic Diederichs St Ursula’s School Hoërskool Noordheuwel Hoërskool Bastion Laerskool Muldersdrif Laerskool Kenmare Rant en Dal School for learners with Autism and SID Hoërskool Pro-Practicum Laerskool Millennium Laerskool Ebenhaeser Curro Krugersdorp Private School Laerskool Paardekraal Monument Primary School Laerskool Krugersdorp Noord Ahmed Timol Secondary School Azaadville Muslim School Silverfields Primary School Tina Cowley Reading Centre Krugersdorp Local Clinics Central Clinic Kagiso Clinic B Azaadville Clinic Munsieville Clinic AProvincial Hospitals Dr Yusuf Dadoo Hospital Sterkfontein Hospital Leratong HospitalPrivate Hospitals Krugersdorp Private Hospital Bell Street Day Hospital Netcare Pinehaven Hospital Medi-Cross Clinic Netcare Pinehaven Hospital The town is the host of the annual Gauteng Beach Party held at Coronation Park.
In recent years the event has featured performances by: Mzekezeke aka Dj Sbu Dj Cleo Winnie Khumalo T-bo Touch TKZee Brown DashKrugersdorp has an 18-hole golf course and many facilities for extreme sports. Afropop sensation Mafikizolo and Ntando Bangani, better known as Ntando, are successful acts that hail from Krugersdorp. Krugersdorp is home to artist and documentary photographer Bianca van Heerden Krugersdorp has popular tourist attractions such as Krugersdorp Game Reserve, Maropeng Visitor Centre, Walter Sisulu Botanical Gardens and Sterkfonten Caves. Although the city's municipality changed its name from Krugersdorp to Mogale City, the assumption that the city's name has been changed to Mogale City has been refuted by the Mogale City Municipality Yusuf Dadoo Johannes de Klerk Hanno Dirksen Jaque Fourie Mmusi Maimane Nomvula Mokonyane Desmond Tutu Lucien van der Walt Scott Spedding Andries Stephanus Du Plessis Glenn Mc Greggor Allan Heyl Krugersdorp was proclaimed a municipality in 1903.
By 1931, the municipal council had assumed a pseudo-heraldic coat of arms. The shield was divided by a horizontal line, the upper half subdivided by a vertical line, the three sections depicting the Paardekraal monument, a mining landscape, a plough; the motto was Labor omnia vincit improbus. A proper coat of arms was designed in the 1960s, it was registered with the Transvaal Provincial Administration in November 1965 and at the Bureau of Heraldry in January 1969. The arms we
Randfontein is a gold mining city in the West Rand, South Africa, 40 km in the west of Johannesburg. With the Witwatersrand gold rush in full swing, mining financier JB Robinson bought the farm Randfontein and, in 1889, floated the Randfontein Estates Gold Mining Company; the town was established in 1890 to serve the new mine and was administered by Krugersdorp until it became a municipality in 1929. Apart from having the largest stamp mill in the world, like many of the other outlying areas of Johannesburg, is a rural collection of farms and small holdings in a beautiful part of Gauteng. Randfontein’s existence dates back to the 1550s when the AmaNdebele lived as one nation at Emhlangeni under King Mhlanga between 1550-1580; the name of Emhlangeni is translated today into the Sesotho language as Mohlakeng, one of the southeastern suburbs of the town. Randfontein was established formally on 3 March 1890 and proclaimed a municipality in 1929; some important dates in Randfontein's history: 1857: Bootha and Jonker families arrive in the area.
1874: Gold discovered in Blaauwbank stream near Magaliesburg by Henry Lewis an Australian prospector. 1886: Discovery of gold on the Rand by Harrison and Walker. 1886: JB Robinson arrives on the Reef. 1889: Randfontein Estates Gold Mining Company registered. 1890: JB Robinson buys properties and farms in the Randfontein district. 1894: The first shop, opens. 1901: The first car, owned by Hector Mackay, arrives in town. 1904: Chinese miners arrive in Randfontein. 1929: Randfontein Municipality established. 1979: Randfontein celebrates 50 years as an independent municipality. 2004': Hilton Hamann writes a comprehensive history on Randfontein. His book Randfontein: A Town Like No Other is available via the local publicity association; this marked the 75th anniversary of Randfontein. Remnants of the Jameson Raid can be found in Randfontein. Various graves of those killed are scattered around the West Rand. In Randfontein, the graves of troopers William Charles Beatty-Powell, John Bernard Bletsoe, Harry Davies, John Foster, C.
E Hennessy, are hidden amongst the trees in what was known as the Randfontein Estates Gold Mine Military Cemetery. The graves are beside the railway line diagonally opposite where Uncle Harry's Roadhouse is located at the northern entrance to town from Krugersdorp. GPS: -26.150206, 27.719646 Randfontein War Memorial: This pretty memorial can be found next to the roadhouse on the corner of Randfontein and Main Reef Roads, Surprisingly the components of the memorial are all in a reasonably good condition and it is fenced off. GPS: -26.157176, 27.719646 On 11 June 2015, a hidden graveyard with about 80 to 100 graves dating back to the 1800s was discovered near the grain silos off Main Reef Road. It's not known yet. Paul Kruger and JB Robinson enjoyed a warm friendship which has led to rumours that the Kruger Millions were buried in the Homestead's grounds to stop them from falling into British hands during the Second Boer War; the Homestead is the home that Robinson lived in, now situated along Homestead Avenue next to Riebeeck Lake and owned by well-known local businessman and racing driver, Ben Morgenrood.
Over the years, many have searched here for the Kruger Millions, but either nothing has been found, or the finder has kept quiet about it. Central: Aureus, Culemborg Park, Eike Park, Greenhills, Helikon Park, Kocksoord, Orion Park, Randpoort, Robin Park, West Porges, Westergloor. Outlying and plots: Bootha Plots, Dennydale. Dwarskloof, Hillside, Middelvlei, Randridge, Rikasrus, Vleikop, Wilbotsdal. From what can be established these are some of the oldest buildings in Randfontein: 1857: Homestead of Barend Bootha on the original farm called Randfontein 1859: Jonkerhuis 1889: Mining Commissioner and Telegraph Office in Kocksoord Robinson Lake is situated between the Randfontein Golf Course and the suburb of Robin Park; the lake was a former recreational lake filled from water, pumped from the Robinson Deep gold mine. The lake has a pH of 2.6. Water has a natural uranium concentration of 0.0004 mg/l. The Department of Water and Sanitation considers a concentration of 0.07 mg/l safe to drink. Robinson Lake has a uranium concentration of 16 mg/l, more than 220 times safe levels.
This has resulted in Robinson Lake being declared a radioactive area and it is closed off to the public. The general consensus is that this has been caused by acid mine drainage, or AMD, it is however now a dangerous area and nothing is being done about the number of people accessing it. As of 2011, Randfontein has a population of 149,286, which incorporates Toekomsrus; the average elevation of the town is 1709m above sea level. The total municipal area, after recent restructuring, is 475km2. According to the Randfontein Socio-Economic Survey of 2006, Randfontein's population is divided into Black, White and Asian/Indian; the local immigrant population is made up mai