Pyramid Lake (Los Angeles County, California)
Pyramid Lake is a reservoir formed by Pyramid Dam on Piru Creek in the eastern San Emigdio Mountains, near Castaic, Southern California. It is a part of the West Branch California Aqueduct, a part of the California State Water Project, its water is fed by the system after being pumped up from the San Joaquin Valley and through the Tehachapi Mountains. In 1843, gold was discovered near what is now Pyramid Lake, in the Santa Feliciana Canyon, just south of what is now Pyramid Dam; the small find failed to trigger a rush to the mountainous countryside. Only Francisco Lopes, owner of Rancho Temescal, a Mexican land grant, a handful of ranchers attempted to settle the region; this lake was created in 1972, completed in 1973, as a holding reservoir for the California State Water Project. The lake was named after a pyramid-shaped rock carved out by engineers building U. S. Route 99. Travelers between Los Angeles and Bakersfield christened the landmark “Pyramid Rock,” which still stands just adjacent to the dam.
Pyramid Lake is the deepest lake in the California Water Project system, built up along the steep canyon walls surrounding Piru Creek. The 180,000 acre⋅ft reservoir lies on the border between the Angeles National Forest and the Los Padres National Forest, in the northwestern portion of Los Angeles County, it is to the west of Interstate 5 south of Tejon Pass. The former alignment of US 99 is below the waters here, replaced by I-5. Just below the dam, Piru Creek returns to its natural state as it winds down through the Topatopa Mountains to feed into the Lake Piru reservoir and the Santa Clara River. Pumps carry water from Pyramid Lake to Castaic Lake, the terminus of the west branch of the aqueduct. Pyramid and Castaic act as the upper and lower reservoirs for a 1,495-megawatt pumped storage hydroelectric plant; the 118 m earth and rock dam was built by the California Department of Water Resources and was completed in 1973. Pyramid Lake is part of the California Aqueduct, part of the California State Water Project.
Outflow goes downstream to Castaic Lake, the terminus of this West Branch aqueduct line. Pyramid and Castaic act as lower reservoirs for the Castaic Power Plant, it is the deepest lake in the California Water Project system. Its name comes from the Pyramid Rock, created when a ridge was cut through in 1932 by the Ridge Route Alternate. Pyramid Rock still exists directly in front of the dam. Pyramid Lake offers boating, jet skiing, picnic areas, courtesy docks. Vista del Lago Visitors Center overlooks the lake. Access is from Interstate 5 exit on Vista Del Lago. Fishing is allowed from every location at Pyramid Lake. You can catch fish such as large mouth bass, small mouth bass, striped bass, blue gill and some trout; the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has developed a safe eating advisory for fish caught in Putah Creek based on levels of mercury or PCBs found in local species. List of dams and reservoirs in California List of lakes in California CA Dept. of Water Resources—DWR: Pyramid Lake Recreation website Pyramid Lake Los Alamos campground info and reservation site
Angeles National Forest
The Angeles National Forest of the U. S. Forest Service is located in the San Gabriel Mountains and Sierra Pelona Mountains within Los Angeles County in southern California; the ANF manages a majority of the San Gabriel Mountains National Monument. The national forest was established in 1908, incorporating the first San Bernardino National Forest and parts of the former Santa Barbara and San Gabriel National Forests. Angeles National Forest headquarters are located in California; the Angeles National Forest covers a total of 700,176 acres, protecting large areas of the San Gabriel Mountains and Sierra Pelona Mountains. It is located just north of the densely inhabited metropolitan area of Greater Los Angeles. While within Los Angeles County, a small part extends eastward into southwestern San Bernardino County, in the Mount San Antonio area, a tiny section extends westward into northeastern Ventura County, in the Lake Piru area; the San Gabriel Mountains National Monument, established in 2014 and managed by the U.
S. Forest Service, is within the Angeles National Forest; the John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation and Recreation Act of 2019 established the Saint Francis Dam Disaster National Memorial and Saint Francis Dam Disaster National Monument at and around the ruins of the St. Francis Dam in the Forest's San Francisquito Canyon; the Angeles National Forest contains five nationally designated wilderness areas. Two of these extend into neighboring San Bernardino National Forest: Cucamonga Wilderness — in San Bernardino NF Magic Mountain Wilderness Pleasant View Ridge Wilderness San Gabriel Wilderness Sheep Mountain Wilderness — in San Bernardino NF The San Gabriel Forest Reserve was established on December 20, 1892, the San Bernardino Forest Reserve was established on February 25, 1893, the Santa Barbara Forest Reserve was established on December 22, 1903. Together, they became National Forests on March 4, 1907, they were combined on July 1, 1908, with all of the San Bernardino forest and portions of San Gabriel forest and Santa Barbara forest composing the new Angeles National Forest.
On September 30, 1925, portions of the Angeles National Forest and the Cleveland National Forest were detached to re-establish the San Bernardino National Forest. Angeles National Forest is registered as California Historical Landmark #717, for being the first National Forest in the state; the campgrounds at Broken Blade, Twisted Arrow and Pima Loops were closed on July 26, 2013 after squirrel infected with bubonic plague was discovered. Station FireIn the Station Fire, more than 161,000 acres of the forest were burned by an arson fire that began on August 26, 2009, near Angeles Crest Highway in La Cañada and spread, fueled by dry brush that had not burned for over 150 years; the fire burned for more than a month and was the worst in Los Angeles County history, charring one-fourth of the forest, displacing wildlife, destroying 91 homes and outbuildings and the family-owned Hidden Springs Cafe. During the fire, two firefighters died after driving off the Mt. Gleason County Road looking for an alternate route to get the inmates out at Camp 16.
The Station Fire threatened the Mount Wilson Observatory atop Mt. Wilson; the site includes two telescopes, two solar towers, transmitters for 22 television stations, several FM radio stations, police and fire department emergency channels. Although the fire scorched one side of the outhouse at amateur-owned Stony Ridge Observatory, six miles northeast of Mt. Wilson, aside from minor damage from smoke and ash infiltration, the remainder of the observatory and its historic 30-inch Carroll telescope survived. 2012 firesSeveral 2012 wildfires occurred, burning hundreds of acres across the forest-covered mountain range. The Angeles National Forest manages the habitats and fauna ecosystems, watersheds; some of the rivers with watersheds within its boundaries provide valuable non-groundwater recharge water for Southern California. The existing protected and restored native vegetation absorb and slow surface runoff of rainwater to minimize severe floods and landslides in adjacent communities; the land within the forest is diverse, both in terrain.
Elevations range from 1,200 to 10,064 ft. The Pacific Crest Trail crosses the forest. Much of this National Forest is covered with dense chaparral shrub forests with oak woodlands, which changes to pine and fir-covered slopes in the higher elevations. Subsequent to the fire there was a heavy growth of poodle-dog bush triggered by the fire's effect on dormant seeds, that lasted for several years; the plant produces prolific lavender flowers. As visitors to the Forest discovered, contact with it may cause a poison-oak-like rash. Tree species for which the forest is important include bigcone Douglas-fir, Coulter pine, California walnut; the National Forest contains some 29,000 acres of old growth, with: Jeffrey pine forests and mixed conifer forests, lodgepole pine the most abundant types. This forest is home to black bears, gray foxes, bobcats and coyotes. A National Forest Adventure Pass is required for parking at many locations in the Angeles National Forest and other National Forests in Southern California, this can be obtained online or from visitor centers and local merchants.
Los Angeles County has declared. There are many other areas that do not requi
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv
Castaic Creek is a 25.0-mile-long stream in the Sierra Pelona Mountains, in northeastern Los Angeles County, California. It is a tributary of the Santa Clara River. Castaic Dam on the creek forms Castaic Lake, but most of the water comes from the West Branch of the West Branch California Aqueduct, part of the California State Water Project; the 323,700 acre foot lake is the terminus for west branch of the aqueduct. The aqueduct delivers water to the lake by a pipeline from Pyramid Lake. Besides storing drinking water, Castaic Lake is the lower reservoir in a pumped-storage hydroelectric system. During times of peak electricity demand, water is released from Pyramid Lake and run through the turbines at Castaic Power Plant. At night, when demand and electricity prices are lower, water is pumped from Castaic Lake to Pyramid Lake; the income from the electricity sold offsets a portion of the cost for pumping the water in some parts of the aqueduct, such as over the Tehachapi Mountains. Some water is released into Castaic Lagoon downstream of the dam.
The lagoon provides Groundwater recharge of the recreation. Downstream of the lagoon, water continues in Castaic Creek through the eastern Sierra Pelona Mountains to its confluence with the Santa Clara River, a few miles west of Santa Clarita; the rest is distributed to the northern Greater Los Angeles Area by pipelines. "The California Water Plan Update, October 1994". California Department of Water Resources. Archived from the original on 2009-06-05. "California Public Utilities Commission". Santa Clara River topics San Francisquito Creek St. Francis Dam List of rivers of California
Oxnard is a city in Ventura County, United States. Located along the coast of Southern California, it is the most populous city in Ventura County and the 19th most populous city in California. Incorporated in 1903, the city lies 60 miles west of downtown Los Angeles and is part of the larger Greater Los Angeles area, it is located at the western edge of the fertile Oxnard Plain, sitting adjacent to an agricultural center of strawberries and lima beans. Oxnard is a major transportation hub in Southern California, with Amtrak, Union Pacific, Metrolink and Intercalifornias stopping in Oxnard. Oxnard has a small regional airport called Oxnard Airport; the population of Oxnard is 207,906. Oxnard is the most populous city in the Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, listed as one of the wealthiest areas in America, with most of its residents making well above the average national income. Before the arrival of Europeans, the area, now Oxnard was inhabited by Chumash Native Americans.
The first European to encounter the area was Portuguese explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho, who claimed it for Spain in 1542. During the mission period, it was serviced by the Mission San Buenaventura, established in 1782. Ranching began to take hold among Californio settlers, who lost their regional influence when California became a US state in 1850. At about the same time, the area was settled by American farmers, who cultivated barley and lima beans. Henry T. Oxnard, founder of today's Moorhead, Minnesota-based American Crystal Sugar Company who operated a successful sugar beet factory with his three brothers in Chino, was enticed to build a $2 million factory on the plain inland from Port Hueneme. Shortly after the 1897 beet campaign, a new town emerged, now commemorated on the National Register of Historic Places as the Henry T. Oxnard Historic District. Oxnard intended to name the settlement after the Greek word for "sugar", but frustrated by bureaucracy, named it after himself. Given the growth of the town of Oxnard, in the spring of 1898, a railroad station was built to service the plant, which attracted a population of Chinese and Mexican laborers and enough commerce to merit the designation of a town.
The Oxnard brothers, who never lived in their namesake city, sold both the Chino and the giant red-brick Oxnard factory in 1899 for nearly $4 million. The Oxnard factory with its landmark twin smokestacks operated from August 19, 1899 until October 26, 1959. Factory operations were interrupted in the Oxnard Strike of 1903. Oxnard was incorporated as a California city on June 30, 1903, the public library was opened in 1907. Prior to and during World War II, the naval bases of Point Mugu and Port Hueneme were established in the area to take advantage of the only major navigable port on California's coast between the Port of Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay, the bases in turn encouraged the development of the defense-based aerospace and communications industries. In the mid-20th century Oxnard grew and developed the areas outside the downtown with homes, retail, a new harbor named Channel Islands Harbor. Martin V. Smith became the most influential developer in the history of Oxnard during this time.
Smith's first enterprise in 1941 was the Colonial House Restaurant and the Wagon Wheel Junction in 1947. He was involved in the development of the high-rise towers at the Topa Financial Plaza, the Channel Islands Harbor, Casa Sirena Resort, the Esplanade Shopping Mall, Fisherman's Wharf, the Carriage Square Shopping Center, the Maritime Museum, many other major hotel and retail projects. In June 2004, the Oxnard Police Department and the Ventura County Sheriff imposed a gang injunction over a 6.6-square-mile area of the central district of the city, in order to restrict gang activity. The injunction was upheld in the Ventura County Superior Court and made a permanent law in 2005. A similar injunction was imposed in September 2006 over a 4.26-square-mile area of the south side of the city. Oxnard is located on an area with fertile soil. With its beaches, wetlands and the Santa Clara River, the area contains a number of important biological communities. Native plant communities include: coastal sage scrub, California Annual Grassland, Coastal Dune Scrub species.
Native to the region is the endangered Ventura Marsh Milkvetch, the last self-sustaining population is in Oxnard in the center of a approved high-end housing development. The city of Oxnard is home to over 20 miles of scenic uncrowded coastline; the beaches in Oxnard are large and the sand is exceptionally soft. The sand dunes in Oxnard, which were once much more extensive, have been used to recreate Middle-Eastern desert dunes in many movies, the first being The Sheik with Rudolph Valentino. There are few rocks or driftwood piles at most beaches, but Oxnard is known to have dangerous rip-currents at certain beaches. Oxnard has good surfing at many of its beaches. Beaches in Oxnard include: Ormond Beach, Silver Strand Beach, Hollywood Beach, Hollywood-by-the-Sea, Mandalay Beach, Oxnard Beach Park, Oxnard Shores, 5th Street Beach, Mandalay State Beach, McGrath State Beach and Rivermouth Beach; the Santa Clara River separates Ventura. Tributaries to this river include Sespe Creek, Piru Creek, Castaic Creek.
Oxnard is on a tectonically active plate, since most of Coastal California is near the boundaries between the Pacific a
Elizabeth Lake (Los Angeles County, California)
Elizabeth Lake is a natural lake that lies directly on the San Andreas Fault in the northern Sierra Pelona Mountains, in northwestern Los Angeles County, southern California. The lake, at 984 m in elevation, is within the Angeles National Forest, it is a natural perennial lake, but may dry up during drought years. It is south of the western Antelope Valley. Elizabeth Lake is one of a series of sag ponds created by the motion of the Earth's tectonic plates along the San Andreas Fault in the area, with others including Hughes Lake and the Munz Lakes, they are part of the northern upper Santa Clara River watershed. The community of Elizabeth Lake is a census-designated place on the shores of the lake, it is administratively within the unincorporated community of Lake Hughes, shares the same zip code. In 1780, the Spanish explorer-priest Junipero Serra named the lake La Laguna de Diablo, because some who lived nearby believed that within it dwelt a pet of the devil, which came to be known as the Elizabeth Lake Monster.
Sometime after 1834, the lake was called La Laguna de Liebre for a short time. In the 1840s it became known as La Laguna de Chico Lopez, for Francisco "Chico" Lopez, who grazed cattle on its banks. In 1849, Elizabeth Wingfield was camping with her family beside the lake. Walking on a log to fill buckets for cooking and drinking, Elizabeth fell in, she was not injured, but several other vacationing families witnessed her mishap, in fun they began calling La Laguna de Chico Lopez Elizabeth's Lake. The name caught on and locals started referring to it as Elizabeth Lake becoming the official name. Elizabeth Lake once marked a dividing point between the territories of the Tataviam and Serrano tribes of Native Americans; the Tataviam may have called it Kivarum. As early as the 1780s the main inland route between southern and northern Spanish colonial Las Californias province was El Camino Viejo a Los Ángeles, it became a well established inland route, an alternative to the coastal El Camino Real trail used since the 1770s.
Locally it ascended the Sierra Pelona Mountains via San Francisquito Canyon, crossed through San Francisquito Pass, ran north to the lake, skirted it and continued northwest to Aguaje Lodoso in the Antelope Valley and westward to Cow Springs and the Cuddy Valley, down Cuddy Canyon to the San Joaquin Valley. Another inland route diverged from the El Camino Viejo at Elisabeth Lake, going north to cross the western Antelope Valley and up Cottonwood Creek canyon, to cross over the Tehachapi Mountains via Old Tejon Pass, down Tejon Creek canyon to the San Joaquin Valley. After 1843 much of that section was within the Mexican Alta California land grant of Rancho Tejon. From 1849 to before 1854 it was the main road connecting the southern part of the state to the trail along the eastern side of the San Joaquin Valley to the goldfields to the north; the Mexican land grant Rancho La Liebre was established in 1846 in Alta California, with its southeastern section in the Sierra Pelona Mountains near the lake.
In the early 1850s the vicinity of La Laguna de Chico Lopez was a frequent haunt of California grizzly bears—so numerous that cattle ranching was considered impossible. In 1854 the route to the San Joaquin Valley shifted away from the Old Tejon Pass route to the Stockton - Los Angeles Road, using the Fort Tejon Pass, the Grapevine Canyon; the Butterfield Overland Mail shortened the route to Cow Springs avoiding Mud Springs, skirting Elisabeth Lake to its north westward via the San Andreas Rift to Oakgrove Canyon north via Pine Canyon to Antelope Valley and westward again to Cow Springs. The first building at the lake was La Casa de Miguel Ortiz, an adobe built by Miguel Ortiz, a muleteer, on land given him by his employer, Edward Fitzgerald Beale. Southwest of the Ortiz Adobe was the Andrada Stage Station adobe, sited where the old Fort Tejon Road entered San Francisquito Canyon. In 2013, wildfires swept through the Lake Elizabeth area; the lake has been dry since 2013, unrelated to the fire but because of a drought.
In 1869 the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors designated the Elizabeth Lake School District to serve the area, which had the only established school between Los Angeles and Bakersfield. Land for the school was donated by Almeda Frakes from their ranch lands. Children from the Lake Hughes, Elizabeth Lake, Green Valley areas are still served by this school district; the 1869 wooden schoolhouse lasted until it was replaced by an adobe structure in the early 1930s, located on the east side of Elizabeth Lake Road, ¼ mile north of Andrada Corner at the intersection of San Francisquito and Elizabeth Lake Roads. In 1924, Judge Hughes renamed the sag pond to the west of Elizabeth Lake to Lake Hughes, created a recreational resort area around it. Elizabeth Lake, California — community on lake. Elizabeth Lake Tunnel — part of the LA Aqueduct system nearby. List of lakes in California Sierra Pelona Mountains-related topics U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Elizabeth Lake Weird California - The Monster of Elizabeth Lake Abobes of Rancho La Liebre