Muonium is an exotic atom made up of an antimuon and an electron, discovered in 1960 by Vernon W. Hughes and is given the chemical symbol Mu. During the muon's 2.2 µs lifetime, muonium can enter into compounds such as muonium chloride or sodium muonide. Due to the mass difference between the antimuon and the electron, muonium is more similar to atomic hydrogen than positronium, its Bohr radius and ionization energy are within 0.5% of hydrogen and tritium, thus it can usefully be considered as an exotic light isotope of hydrogen. Although muonium is short-lived, physical chemists study it using muon spin spectroscopy, a magnetic resonance technique analogous to nuclear magnetic resonance or electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Like ESR, μSR is useful for the analysis of chemical transformations and the structure of compounds with novel or valuable electronic properties. Muonium is studied by muon spin rotation, in which the Mu atom's spin precesses in a magnetic field applied transverse to the muon spin direction, by avoided level crossing, called level crossing resonance.

The latter employs a magnetic field applied longitudinally to the polarization direction, monitors the relaxation of muon spins caused by "flip/flop" transitions with other magnetic nuclei. Because the muon is a lepton, the atomic energy levels of muonium can be calculated with great precision from quantum electrodynamics, unlike in the case of hydrogen, where the precision is limited by uncertainties related to the internal structure of the proton. For this reason, muonium is an ideal system for studying bound-state QED and for searching for physics beyond the standard model. In the nomenclature of particle physics, an atom composed of a positively charged particle bound to an electron is named after the positive particle with "-ium" appended, in this case "muium"; the suffix "-onium" is used for bound states of a particle with its own antiparticle. The exotic atom consisting of a muon and an antimuon is known as "true muonium", it is yet to be observed, but it may have been generated in the collision of electron and positron beams.

Muonium bomb A Hyperweapon taking advantage of the Terahertz gap

Infrastructure as code

Infrastructure as code is the process of managing and provisioning computer data centers through machine-readable definition files, rather than physical hardware configuration or interactive configuration tools. The IT infrastructure managed by this comprises both physical equipment such as bare-metal servers as well as virtual machines and associated configuration resources; the definitions may be in a version control system. It can use either scripts or declarative definitions, rather than manual processes, but the term is more used to promote declarative approaches. IaC grew as a response to the difficulty posed from two pieces of technology – utility computing and second-generation web frameworks. In 2006, the launch of Amazon Web ServicesElastic Compute Cloud and the 1.0 version of Ruby on Rails just months before brought about widespread scaling problems for many enterprises, problems that were only witnessed by huge companies. With new tools emerging to handle this growing field, the idea of IaC was born.

The thought of modelling infrastructure with code, having the ability to design and deploy applications infrastructure with known software best practices appealed to software developers and IT infrastructure administrators. The ability to treat it like code and use the same tools as any other software project would allow developers to deploy applications; the value of IaC can be broken down into three measurable categories: cost and risk. Cost reduction aims at helping not only the enterprise financially, but in terms of people and effort, meaning that by removing the manual component, people are able to refocus their efforts towards other enterprise tasks. Infrastructure automation enables speed through faster execution when configuring your infrastructure and aims at providing visibility to help other teams across the enterprise work and more efficiently. Automation removes the risk associated like manual misconfiguration; these outcomes and attributes help the enterprise move towards implementing a culture of DevOps, the combined working of development and operations.

There are three approaches to IaC: declarative vs. imperative vs. intelligent. The difference between the declarative, the imperative and the intelligent approach is essentially'what' versus'how' versus'why'; the declarative approach focuses on. The declarative approach defines the desired state and the system executes what needs to happen to achieve that desired state. Imperative defines specific commands that need to be executed in the appropriate order to end with the desired conclusion; the intelligent determines the correct desired state before the system executes what needs to happen to achieve a desired state that does not impact co-dependent applications. Environment aware desired state is the next generation of IaC. There are two methods of IaC:'push' and'pull'; the main difference is the manner. In the pull method the server to be configured will pull its configuration from the controlling server. In the push method the controlling server pushes the configuration to the destination system.

There are many tools that fulfill infrastructure automation capabilities and use IaC. Broadly speaking, any framework or tool that performs changes or configures infrastructure declaratively or imperatively based on a programmatic approach can be considered IaC. Traditionally, server automation and configuration management tools were used to accomplish IaC. Now enterprises are using continuous configuration automation tools or stand-alone IaC frameworks, such as Microsoft’s PowerShell DSC or AWS CloudFormation. All continuous configuration automation tools can be thought of as an extension of traditional IaC frameworks, they leverage IaC to change and automate infrastructure, they provide visibility and flexibility in how infrastructure is managed. These additional attributes provide enterprise-level security and compliance - making companies keen on implementing these types of tools. An important aspect when considering CCA tools, if they are open source, is the community content; as Gartner states, the value of CCA tools is “as dependent on user-community-contributed content and support as it is on the commercial maturity and performance of the automation tooling.”

Vendors like Puppet and Chef, those that have been around a significant amount of time, have created their own communities. Chef has Chef Community Puppet has PuppetForge. Other vendors rely on adjacent communities and leverage other IaC frameworks such as PowerShell DSC. New vendors are emerging that are not content driven, but model driven with the intelligence in the product to deliver content; these visual, object-oriented systems work well for developers, but they are useful to production oriented DevOps and operations constituents that value models versus scripting for content. As the field continues to develop and change, the community based content will become important to how IaC tools are used, unless they are model driven and object oriented. Notable CCA tools include: Other tools include AWS CloudFormation, StackStorm and Juju. IaC


Milorganite is a brand of biosolids fertilizer produced by treating sewage sludge by the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District. The term is a portmanteau of the term Milwaukee Organic Nitrogen; the sewer system of the District collects municipal wastewater from the Milwaukee metropolitan area. After settling, wastewater is treated with microbes to break down organic matter at the Jones Island sewage treatment plant in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; the byproduct sewage sludge is produced. This is heat-dried with hot air in the range of 900–1,200 °F, which heats the sewage sludge to at least 176 °F to kill pathogens; the result is pelletized and marketed throughout the United States under the name Milorganite. The treated wastewater is discharged to Lake Michigan. Recycled fertilizer contains nitrogen and phosphorus, essential nutrients plants need for growth, its use can help offset the amount of chemical based fertilizer produced. After more than 90 years, Milorganite production and use is a long-term and large-scale example of a municipality-run nonprofit environmental program.

The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District has registered Milorganite® as a trademark. "Milorganite" is a portmanteau of the term Milwaukee Organic Nitrogen. It was the winning entry in a 1925 naming contest for a biosolids-based fertilizer held in National Fertilizer Magazine, its history began with Milwaukee's goal to clean up Lake Michigan. Rather than land filling solids left over from wastewater treatment, the sludge was used in a pioneering effort to make and sell fertilizer; as of May, 2019, 9.9 billion pounds of waste have been diverted away from landfills. The resulting production is among the largest recycling programs in the world. Milorganite's roots began in 1911, when local socialist politicians were elected on a platform calling for construction of a wastewater treatment plant to protect against water borne pathogens; as raising taxes for public health was controversial in the early 1900s, producing an organic fertilizer as a means of offsetting its operating cost was proposed.

With the help of researchers in the College of Agriculture at the University of Wisconsin, the use of waste solids in the form of activated sludge as a source of fertilizer had been developed in the early 20th century. Experiments showed that heat-dried activated sludge pellets "compared favorably with standard organic materials such as dried blood, fish scap, cottonseed meal."The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District's Jones Island Plant had the largest water treatment capacity of any in the world when constructed in 1925. It was the first plant in the United States to succeed in using the activated sludge treatment process to produce fertilizer; the Plant has been designated as a Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Milorganite made its debut in 1926 as the first pelletized fertilizer in the United States, with sales directed at golf courses, turf farms and flower growers; the brand was popularized during the 1930s and 1940s before inorganic urea became available to homeowners after WWII.

Since its inception, over four million metric tons of Milorganite have been sold. As of 2018, the plant produces in the range of 45,000 - 49,000 tons of Milorganite per year, 2.4 million bags. The sale of product does not generate sufficient funds to cover the costs of manufacture, but the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District states that the environmental benefits are a legitimate offsetting consideration: "Headquartered in Milwaukee, Milorganite products are manufactured and marketed by the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District, a regional government agency whose primary focus is providing water reclamation and flood management services for about 1.1 million customers in 28 communities in the Greater Milwaukee Area. Since 1926 MMSD has been a world leader in supplying Organic Nitrogen fertilizers for professional and residential use. While revenue generated through the sale of Milorganite products does not make up for the entire cost to produce and market, our belief in beneficial reuse and recycling makes producing our value added products the clear choice."

As it balances such conflicting goals and navigates the fluctuations and vagaries of a changing waste stream,Milorganite has been at the forefront of the sewage sludge recycling industry in the U. S. Changes in the economy and the resultant sewage to be treated have had an impact on Milorganite production; the process is the end point of the regional sewerage system, which includes "three thousand miles of household laterals and another 3,000 miles of sanitary sewers." Included is the 28.5 miles "deep tunnel project", which provides 521 million US gallons of overflow storage system. Two plants, one on Jones Island and the other in Oak Creek, process sewage using bacteria. Methane is used to minimize energy costs. Heat-dried biosolids contain slow release organic nitrogen and water-insoluble phosphorus bound with iron and aluminum and high organic matter. Milorganite can be used without restriction on gardens growing food crops intended for human consumption under United States Environmental Protection Agency rules.

The product is tested daily for weekly for waterborne pathogens. It complies with the EPA "Exceptional Quality" criteria, which establishes the strictest concentration limits in the fertilizer industry for heavy metals, allowing Milorganite to be used on food crops. Milorganite has been tested for the presence of contaminants such as waste pharmaceuticals and other forms of drug pollution. According to its material safety data shee