Muotathal is a village and a municipality in Schwyz District in the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. The eponymous valley, the Muotatal, is formed by the Muota. Muotathal is first mentioned in 1246 as Mutetal; the village is located in the valley of the river Muota, the Muotatal, with which it shares the name. The municipality is located in a series of valleys on the eastern edge of the canton, on the borders with the cantons of Uri and Glarus, it is the 10th largest municipality area-wise in Switzerland. It consists of the hamlet Ried, village sections of Schachen, Wil and the hamlet Bisisthal in the Bisistal further upstream of the Muota, it includes a number of alps including Glatt-, Tor-, Charetalp and Goldplangg. The municipality Muotathal has an area of 172.2 km2 as of 2006. Of this area, 32.8% is used for agricultural purposes, while 22% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1% is settled and the remainder is non-productive; the municipality includes the entry site of the Hölloch, which at over 200 km is the longest cave in Switzerland, the second-longest in Europe.
Muotathal has a population of 3,515. As of 2007, 5.2% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 0.3%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Macedonian being third; as of 2000 the gender distribution of the population was 52.3% male and 47.7% female. The age distribution, as of 2008, in Muotathal is. 1,017 people or 29.0% are 20 to 39, 972 people or 27.7% are 40 to 64. The senior population distribution is 251 people or 7.2% are 65 to 74. There are 148 people or 4.2% who are 70 to 79 and 50 people or 1.43% of the population who are over 80. As of 2000 there are 1,154 households, of which 246 households contain only a single individual. 154 or about 13.3% are large households, with at least five members. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP which received 67.4% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CVP, the SPS and the FDP. In Muotathal about 46.9% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education.
Muotathal has an unemployment rate of 0.67%. As of 2005, there were 303 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 119 businesses involved in this sector. 512 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 51 businesses in this sector. 414 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 82 businesses in this sector. From the 2000 census, 3,197 or 91.2% are Roman Catholic, while 47 or 1.3% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there are 14 individuals. There are 133 who are Islamic. There are less than 5 individuals who belong to another church, 34 belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 81 individuals did not answer the question; the historical population is given in the following table: Muotathal has an average of 157.8 days of rain per year and on average receives 2,040 mm of precipitation. The wettest month is June during which time Muotathal receives an average of 232 mm of precipitation. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 15.9 days.
The driest month of the year is October with an average of 126 mm of precipitation over 15.9 days. Muotathal in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The Stoosbahn is a funicular railway in the Swiss canton of Schwyz. It connects the Hintere Schlattli in the municipalities of Muotatal and Schwyz with the village and mountain resort of Stoos, above Morschach. On a length of 1.7 kilometres, it overcomes a height difference of 744 metres. It opened on 15 December 2017 and replaces the older Schwyz-Stoos funicular, operating since 1933; the carriages are rotate to maintain a level floor surface for passengers. Construction cost 52 million Swiss francs; the new line has a maximum gradient of 110% and is the steepest funicular railway in Switzerland and Europe, superseding the Gelmerbahn. It has been claimed to be the steepest in the world, although the Katoomba Scenic Railway in Australia is steeper, with a maximum gradient of 122%, but uses a winch system and is therefore an incline lift and not a funicular railway. Official website
Ingenbohl is a municipality in Schwyz District in the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. Ingenbohl is first mentioned in 1387 as uff Ingenbol. Ingenbohl has an area, as of 2006, of 13.5 km2. Of this area, 31% is used for agricultural purposes, while 49.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 16.1% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. Ingenbohl is located along the Lake of Lucerne, it consists of the village of Ingenbohl and the hamlets of Brunnen, Schränggigen and Unterschönenbuch as well as scattered farm houses. Ingenbohl has a population of 8,856; as of 2007, 19.4% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 16.1%. Most of the population speaks German, with Serbo-Croatian being second most common and Italian being third; as of 2000 the gender distribution of the population was 45.2% male and 54.8% female. The age distribution, as of 2008, in Ingenbohl is. 2,069 people or 27.7% are 20 to 39, 2,325 people or 31.1% are 40 to 64.
The senior population distribution is 667 people or 8.9% are 65 to 74. There are 470 people or 6.3% who are 70 to 79 and 227 people or 3.03% of the population who are over 80. There is one person in Ingenbohl, over 100 years old; as of 2000 there are 2,899 households, of which 892 households contain only a single individual. 148 or about 5.1% are large households, with at least five members. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP which received 38.1% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CVP, the SPS and the FDP; the entire Swiss population is well educated. In Ingenbohl about 68.5% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Ingenbohl has an unemployment rate of 1.8%. As of 2005, there were 109 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 39 businesses involved in this sector. 452 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 61 businesses in this sector. 2,127 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 272 businesses in this sector.
From the 2000 census, 5,813 or 77.7% are Roman Catholic, while 661 or 8.8% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there are 5 individuals who belong to the Christian Catholic faith, there are 191 individuals who belong to the Orthodox Church, there are less than 5 individuals who belong to another Christian church. There are 5 individuals who are Jewish, 276 who are Islamic. There are 59 individuals who belong to another church, 300 belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 168 individuals did not answer the question; the historical population is given in the following table: Brunnen railway station, on the Gotthard railway, is served by hourly InterRegio trains, by lines S2 of the Stadtbahn Zug, which operates hourly between Zug, Arth-Goldau and Erstfeld, S3 of the S-Bahn Luzern, which operates hourly to Lucerne. Ingenbohl in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The town of Schwyz is the capital of the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. The Federal Charter of 1291 or Bundesbrief, the charter that led to the foundation of Switzerland, can be seen at the Bundesbriefmuseum; the official language of Schwyz is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. The earliest certain record of the name dates to 972, recorded in Medieval Latin as villa Suittes. There are a number of uncertain records dated in the form Swites and Switz; the name is recorded as Schwitz in the 13th century, in the 17th to 18th century as Schweitz. The name's etymology is uncertain, it was long presented as derived from the name of an eponymous founder in Swiss legend, one Suito or Switer, an explanation found in Swiss school textbooks until the first half of the 20th century. There is no consensus on the name's derivation. A Germanic etymology was suggested by Gatschet, deriving the name from an Old High German verb suedan "to burn". Brandstetter is critical of Gatschet's suggestion and prefers derivation from an Alemannic personal name in Svid- as it were presenting a scholarly defense of the Suito of the founding legend.
The etymology proposed for the Schweizerisches Idiotikon by Hubschmied derives the name from a Gallo-Roman * suētas, from the Gaulish or Latin word for "pig", via a Romance *suēdes " of pigs" yielding an Alemannic Swītes. Hubschmied distanced himself from this opinion in 1961. Sonderegger revisits Gatschet's suedan "slash-and-burn" proposal, but now claims derivation from a cognate Celtic root, *sveit-, Proto-Celtic *sveitos with a meaning of "clearing" or similar, giving Gaulish *Svētos, Gallo-Romance *Svēdus, -is, Swītes in Old High German by the 8th century; the name Schwyz was extended to the area dominated by Schwyz, to the entire Old Swiss Confederacy. Other cantons tended to resent this in the 15th century, but after 1499 the term Schwyzer was self-adopted, out of spite so to speak, since it had been employed as a term of abuse by the Swabian side during the Swabian War. Eidgenossenschaft and Schwytzerland could be used interchangeably as country names in the 16th century; the Swiss German pronunciation is homophonous for that of the country.
The spelling of y for originates as a ligature ij in 15th-century handwriting. While a few Roman era coins have been found in Schwyz, the earliest evidence of a settlement comes from the 8th century; the Alamanni cemetery at the parish church and the church itself are both from the first half of the 8th century. This first church was followed by a second ottonian church around 1000, which may have been destroyed by the 1117 Verona earthquake. In 1121 the third church building, a romanesque building, was consecrated; this was followed in the 15th Century by the much larger fourth church, destroyed, along with much of the village, by fire in 1642. The fifth church, an early baroque church was replaced because of serious structural defects by the current late baroque church, dedicated in 1774; because Schwyz was the capital of a canton, many of the government organizations administered both the town and the canton at the same time, the history of the town is tied to the history of the canton. According to the chronicle of Johann Stumpf from 1548, the old town consisted of a village square, the church and its cemetery, the town hall, the inn, the archive tower and a number of scattered wooden houses.
Around 1500, to distinguish it from the Canton of Schwyz, Schwyz town was called Kilchgassen, which meant the village around the church but not the surrounding villages. The fire of 1642, which destroyed 47 buildings in the center of the village, allowed the town to be rebuilt. A new, larger town square with major roads radiating out was built in front of the new church and the new city hall; the houses were rebuilt as urban townhouses and ring of about 30 large patrician farm houses grew up surrounding the village center. Besides the town of Schwyz, the municipality includes the settlements of Ibach and Rickenbach. To the east, the municipality includes, or borders on, the mountains of Hochstuckli, Kleiner Mythen, Grosser Mythen and Furggelenstock; the river Muota flows out of these mountains and through the municipality on its way to Lake Lucerne. The Haggenegg Pass and Holzegg Pass both cross to Alpthal, whilst the Ibergeregg Pass crosses to Oberiberg. Schwyz has an area, as of 2006, of 53.2 square kilometers.
Of this area, 46.4 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 8.7% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is a Confederate cross couped in the hoist argent. Schwyz had a population of 15,000; as of 2008, 15.6% of the population were resident foreign nationals. Over the year 2010–2011 the population reduced by 0.6%. Migration accounted for -0.9%, while births and deaths accounted for 0.0%. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Serbo-Croatian is the second most common and Italian is
A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
Canton of Schwyz
The canton of Schwyz is a canton in central Switzerland between the Alps in the south, Lake Lucerne to the west and Lake Zürich in the north, centered on and named after the town of Schwyz. It is one of the founding cantons of Switzerland. For the history of the name, see Schwyz; the Swiss Federal Charter is on display in Schwyz. Northeast of the town of Schwyz is the Einsiedeln Abbey; the earliest traces of humans in Schwyz are from the Upper Paleolithic and Early Mesolithic or about 12,500 BC. An excavation of the karst caves in the valley of the Muota river revealed numerous sites, some dating back to the Younger Dryas period; the alpine meadows at Bödmeren, Twärenen and Silberen were stone age hunter-gatherer camps. Ibex and red deer bones along with charcoal indicate that the animals were butchered and cooked in these camps. In 2009 the first stone age tool in the canton, a stone drill, was discovered. During the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age there were a number of pile dwellings and other settlements around the lakes of the canton.
The two settlements at Hurden in Freienbach are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Hurden sites are related to the western Cortaillod culture. Sites on the island of Lützelau and the shore zone at Freienbach are eastern Pfyn culture and Corded Ware culture. During the Bronze Age several bridges were built between the promontory of Endingen in Rapperswil, St. Gallen and the settlements at Hurden. Over 200,000 posts and seven bridges have been discovered, along with several settlements and ritual sites. On the Schwyz side of the lake, ten different settlements from 4300-2700 BC have been discovered. However, after 1200 BC there is little evidence for further Bronze Age settlements in the canton. Only eight Iron Age sites have been discovered in the canton from the 8th to 1st centuries BC. During the Roman era a Roman Vicus was established at Kempraten in Rapperswil around the massive bridge at Seedamm which crossed into Schwyz. A Gallo-Roman temple was built on Ufenau island around AD 200 on the site of the present chapel of Sts.
Peter and Paul. A few Roman coin hoards were discovered at Küssnacht and Rickenbach bei Schwyz and Küssnacht may have been the site of a Roman estate. In 561 Schwyz became part of the Ducatus alamannorum and remained independent under the Alemanni dukes until the second quarter of the 8th century; the Alemanni began to settle into the valleys around 680, but for centuries the Germanic speaking Alemanni and the Romansh speaking Gallo-Romans coexisted. Romansh remained the main language in Einsiedeln until the 10th century. In the 8th and 9th centuries the land was under the Counts of the Zürichgau; the low-lying land along Lake Zürich was easy to reach and was settled throughout the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages, the Muotathal area was used by seasonal herders but there were few permanent settlements. Küssnacht was first mentioned in the 9th century, but it is that there were earlier settlements; the forests around Einsiedeln were settled. A visit of the Irish monks and Columbanus in 611 is mentioned in the Gallusviten.
However, their missionary efforts were unsuccessful in Schwyz. In the late 7th century Christianity began to spread into the region; the church at Tuggen was first built around 680/700, while the Aisleless church at Schwyz was built after 700. In the following centuries, the monasteries at Säckingen, St. Gallen and Reichenau all became centers of spreading the faith. In 948, Einsiedeln Abbey was consecrated on the site of Saint Meinrad's murder in 861 in a high valley near Schwyz; when Einsiedeln Abbey was founded, it was granted many farms and isolated churches helping to spread Christianity into the high valleys. The valley of Schwyz is first mentioned in 972 under the name Suittes. A community of freemen is found settled at the foot of the Mythen; these freemen, possessing common lands, were subject only to the count of the Zürichgau, as representing the German king. The economy benefited from the transit across the Gotthard, but these profits attracted other powers, such as the Habsburgs; the inner or mountainous portion of Schwyz were controlled by the Counts of Lenzburg, until that line died out in 1173.
The Lenzburg lands were inherited by the Counts of Kyburg and Frohburg, the Lords of Rapperswil and the Habsburgs. During the 10th century Einsiedeln Abbey became more powerful; the expanding town of Schwyz encroached on lands that the abbey claimed. During the early 12th century, the Counts of Lenzburg unsuccessfully sued the abbey on behalf of Schwyz over land use and borders in the forest. Though the Counts were forced to pay a fine each time, the farmers of Schwyz continued to push into land claimed by the abbey, it soon controlled many of the surrounding lands, many of which are outside the area today covered by the canton of Schwyz. The outer or lake side parts of the canton were controlled by the Abbeys of St. Gallen, Pfäfers, Rüti and Schänis along with the Lords of Habsburg and Rapperswil. Both Pfäffikon Castle and Alt Rapperswil Castle were built by these landlords to control their landholdings. In contrast to the Swiss Plateau where the local nobility and knights ruled extensive landholdings for the regional counts, in Schwyz there were few local nobles and they were poorer and less important than the monasteries' representatives or the leaders of the local livestock collectives.
Much of the farming or grazing land in the inner portio
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree